Graiméar na Gaedhilge/Part II Chapter V
247. In Irish there are two conjugations of regular verbs. They are distinguished by the formation of the future stem. All verbs of the first conjugation form the first person singular of the future simple in -fad or -fead, whilst verbs of the second conjugation form the same part in -óchad or -eóchad.
Forms of Conjugation.
248. Every Irish verb, with the single exception of is, has three forms of conjugation: The Synthetic, the Analytic, and the Autonomous.
249. The synthetic, or pronominal form, is that in which the persons are expressed by means of terminations or inflections. All the persons, singular and plural, with the single exception of the third person singular, have synthetic forms in practically every tense. The third person singular can never have its nominative contained in the verb-ending or termination.
The following example is the present tense synthetic form of the verb mol, praise:—
|molaim, I praise.||molaimid, we praise.|
|molair, thou praisest.||moltaoi, you praise.|
|molann sé, he praises.||molaid, they praise.|
250. In the analytic form of conjugation the persons are not expressed by inflection; the form of the verb remains the same throughout the tense and the persons are expressed by the pronouns placed after the verb. The form of the verb in the third person singular of the above example is the form the verb has in the analytic form of the present tense.
The analytic form in every tense has identically the same form as the third person singular of that tense.
N.B.—The analytic form is generally employed in asking questions.
The following is the analytic form of the present tense of mol:—
|molaim, I praise.||molann sinn, we praise.|
|molann tú, thou praisest.||molann sibh, you praise.|
|molann sé, he praises.||molann siad, they praise|
The analytic form is used in all the tenses, but in some of the tenses it is rarely, if ever, found in some of the persons: for instance, it is not found in the first person singular above. As the analytic form presents no difficulty, it will not be given in the regular table of conjugations.
251. We are indebted to the Rev. Peter O'Leary, P.P., for the following explanation of the Autonomous Form of conjugation:—
"This third form—the Autonomous—has every one of the moods and tenses, but in each tense it has only one person, and that person is only implied. It is really a personality, but it is not a specific personality. It is only a general, undefined personality.
"This third form of an Irish verb has some very unique powers.... I shall illustrate one. An English verb cannot of itself make complete sense alone; this form of an Irish verb can. For instance, 'Buailtear' is a complete sentence. It means, 'A beating is being administered,' or, 'Somebody is striking.' Irish grammarians have imagined that this form of the verb is passive voice. No, it is not passive voice, for it has a passive of its own; and, again, all intransitive verbs (even the verb tá) possesses this form of conjugation. The nearest equivalents in sense and use to this Irish form are the German 'mann' and the French 'on' with the third person singular of the verb."—Gaelic Journal.
The usual translation of the French phrase "on dit" is, "It is said." "Is said" is certainly passive voice in English, but it does not follow that "dit" is passive voice in French. The same remark holds with regard to the Irish phrase "buailtear an gadhar," which is usually translated, "The dog is struck." Buailtear is not passive voice; it is active voice, autonomous form, and gadhar is its object in the accusative case. The literal translation of the phrase is, "Somebody strikes the dog." The passive voice of buailtear, someone strikes, is táthar buailte, someone is struck.
252. As this is the first grammar that has adopted the term "Autonomous form of the Verb," we think it advisable to state that the form of the verb which we give as the Autonomous form is given in other Irish grammars as the passive voice. A fuller treatment of the Autonomous Verb will be found at the end of the book, where we endeavour to show that in modern Irish, at least, this form of the verb is active voice. The name by which this form of the verb ought to be called is not merely a matter of terms, for on it depends the case of the following noun or pronoun: i.e., whether such noun or pronoun is the subject or object of the verb.
As all Irish scholars have not accepted the Autonomous form of the verb, since it appears that formerly, at least, the verb was not Autonomous, being inflected for the plural number, it has been suggested that both names be retained for the present. In the first edition of this grammar the term "Indefinite" was given to this form, but as the name "Autonomous," which means possessing the power of self government, is far more expressive, it has been adopted instead of "Indefinite."
As the Autonomous form has only one inflection for each tense, this inflection is given immediately after each tense in the tables of conjugation.
MOODS AND TENSES.
253. Verbs have three moods, the Imperative, the Indicative, and the Subjunctive.
Some grammars add a fourth mood, the Conditional; and some omit the Subjunctive. The Conditional form, however, is always either Indicative or Subjunctive in meaning, and is here classed as a tense under the Indicative Mood.
The Imperative has only one tense, the Present. Its use corresponds to that of the Imperative in English.
The Indicative Mood has five tenses, the Present, the Imperfect, the Past, the Future, and the Conditional.
The Present Tense corresponds to the English Present, and like it usually denotes habitual action.
The so-called Consuetudinal or Habitual Present—i.e., the third person singular ending in -ann—in no way differs from the other parts of the Present in regard to time. The verb bí, however, has a distinct Present, bím, denoting habitual action. In English the Present—e.g., I write—generally denotes habitual action. Present action is usually signified by a compound tense, I am writing. So in Irish the Present, sgríobhaim, denotes habitual action, and present action is denoted by the compound tense, táim ag sgríobhadh. However, as in English, the Present Tense of certain verbs, especially those relating to the senses or the mind, denote present as well as habitual action—e.g., cluinim, I hear; creidim, I believe.
The Imperfect Tense is also called the Habitual or Consuetudinal Past. It denotes habitual action in past time; as, do sgríobhainn, I used to write.
The Past Tense is also called the Perfect and the Preterite. It corresponds to the Past Tense in English; as, do sgríobhas, I wrote.
Continuous action in past time is denoted by a compound tense, as in English—e.g., do bhíos ag sgríobhas, I was writing.
The Future Tense corresponds to the Future in English: as sgríobhfad, I shall write.
The Conditional corresponds to the Compound Tense with "should" or "would" in English: as do sgríobhfá, thou wouldst write.
The Conditional is also called the Secondary Future, because it denotes a future act regarded in the past: as, Adubhairt sé go sgríobhfad sé. He said that he would write.
In the Subjunctive Mood there are only two Tenses, the Present and the Past. This mood is used principally to express a wish, and also after certain conjunctions. See par. 550, &c.
Active Voice, Ordinary Form.
254. Each Tense has the following forms:—
1. The action is merely stated, as—
- Buaileann Seaghán an clár,
- John strikes the table.
2. The action is represented as in progress, as—
- Tá Seaghán ag bualadh an chláir,
- John is striking the table.
3. The action as represented as about to happen—
Tá Seaghán chum
an chláir do bhualadh, John is about (is going) to strike the table.
4. The action is represented as completed, as—
- Tá Seaghán d'éis an chláir do bhualadh,
- John has just struck the table.
Active Voice, Autonomous Form.
255. Each Tense has the following forms, corresponding exactly to those given in the preceding paragraph.
1. Buailtear an clár,
- Someone strikes the table. 2. Táthar a bualadh an chláir,
- Someone is striking the table.
|an chláir do bhualadh,|
|Someone is about to strike the table.|
4. Táthar d'éis an chláir do bhualadh,
- Someone has just struck the table.
256. Passive Voice, Ordinary Form.
1. (This form is supplied by the Autonomous Active.)
2. Tá an clár dá (or ghá) bhualadh,
- The table is being struck.
|3.||Tá an clár||chum
|The table is about to be struck.|
4. Tá an clár buailte,
- The table has (just) been struck.
257. Passive Voice, Autonomous Form.
1. Táthar buailte,
- Someone is struck.
2. Táthar fé bhualadh.
- Someone is being struck.
|Someone is about to be struck|
4. Táthar buailte,
- Someone has (just) been struck
258. The Principal Parts of an Irish Verb are—
(1) The 2nd sing. of the Imperative Mood.
(2) The 1st sing. of the Future Simple.
(3) The Past Participle (also called the Verbal Adjective).
(4) The Verbal Noun.
(a) The Imperative 2nd. pers. sing. gives the stem of the verb from which most of the other tenses and persons are formed.
(b) The Future tells to what conjugation (first or second) the verb belongs, and gives the stem for the Conditional.
(c) The Past Participle shows whether t is aspirated or unaspirated in the following persons, which are formed from the past participle—i.e.:
- Present, 2nd plural.
- Imperfect, 2nd singular.
- Imperative, Present, and Imperfect.
- Gen. sing. and nom. plural.
(d) With the Verbal Noun are formed the compound tenses.
The four following types include all verbs belonging to the first conjugation:—
|Type.||Imper.||Future.||P. Participle.||Verbal Noun.||Meaning.|
|2.||reub||reubfad||reubtha||reubadh||burst or tear|
N.B.—No notice need be taken of the variation in form of verbal nouns, as they cannot be reduced to any rule, but must be learned for each verb. The ending adh or eadh is that most frequently found, but there are numerous other endings. (See pars. 315 and 316).
260. (1) and (2) are the types for all verbs of the first conjugation whose stem ends in a broad consonant; whilst (3) and (4) are the types for the verbs of the same conjugation whose stem ends in a slender consonant.
As the conjugations of types (2) and (4) are identical with those of types (1) and (3) respectively, except the aspiration of the t in the endings mentioned in par. 258 (c), we do not think it necessary to conjugate in full the four types. We shall give the forms in modern use of the verbs mol and buail, and then give a rule which regulates the aspiration of t in the Past Participle. (See par. 282).
In the following table the forms marked with an asterisk are not generally used in the analytic form. The forms in square brackets were used in early modern Irish, and are frequently met with in books. Alternative terminations are given in round brackets.
|2nd.||mol, praise thou||buail, strike thou|
|3rd.||moladh sé, let him praise||buaileadh sé|
|let us praise||buailimís (eamuis)
|2.||molaidh, praise (you)||buailidh|
|let them praise||buailidís|
The negative particle for this mood is ná.
|sing.||1.||*molaim, I praise||*buailim, I strike|
|plur.||1.||molaimíd (amuid)||buailimíd (-imid)|
|2.||molann sibhb||buaileann sibhd|
a[molaidh] b[moltaoi] c[buailidh] d[buailtí]
|Negative.||Ní mholaim,||I do not praise.|
|"||Ní bhualir,||You do not strike.|
|Interrogative.||An molann sé?||Does he praise?|
|"||An mbuailim?||Do I strike?|
|Neg. Interrog.||Nach molaid?||Do they not praise?|
|"||Nach mbuaileann sé?||Does he not strike?|
|SING.||1.||*mholainn, I used to praise||*bhuailinn|
|3.||mholadh sé||bhuaileadh sé|
|PLUR.||1.||mholaimís (-amuis)||bhuailimís (or imis)|
|2.||mholadh sibh||bhuaileadh sibh|
|Negative.||Ní mholainn,||I used not praise.|
|"||Ní bhuaileadh sé,||He used not strike.|
|Interrogative.||An moltá?||Used you praise?|
|"||An mbuailidís?||Used they strike?|
|Neg. Interrog.||Nach mholainn?||Used I not praise?|
|"||Nach mbuailinn?||Used I not strike?|
|SING.||1.||mholas, I praised||bhuaileas|
|3.||mhol sé||bhuail sé|
|Negative.||Níor mholas,||I did not praise.|
|"||Níor bhuail sé,||He did not strike.|
|Interrogative.||Ar mholais?||Did you praise?|
|"||Ar bhuaileas?||Did I strike?|
|Neg. Interrog.||Nár mhol sé?||Did he not praise?|
|"||Nár bhuaileamar?||Did we not strike?|
|SING.||1.||molfad, I shall praise||buailfead|
|2.||molfair, thou wilt praise||buailfir|
|3.||molfaidh sé, &c.||buailfidh sé|
|PLUR.||1.||molfaimíd (-amuid)||buailfimíd (imid)|
|2.||molfaidh sibha||buailfidh sibhb|
|Negative.||Ní mholfad,||I shall not praise.|
|"||Ní bhuailfidh sé,||He will not strike.|
|Interrogative.||An molfaidh sé?||Will he praise?|
|"||An mbuailfead?||Shall I strike?|
|Neg. Interrog.||Nach molfair?||Will you not praise?|
|"||Nach mbuailfid?||Will they not strike?|
|266.||Conditional or Secondary Future.|
|SING.||1.||mholfainn, I would praise||bhuailfinn|
|3.||mholfadh sé||bhuailfeadh sé|
|PLUR.||1.||mholfaimís (famuis)||bhuailfimís (fimis)|
|2.||molfadh sibh||bhuailfeadh sibh|
|Negative.||Ní mholfainn,||I would not praise.|
|"||Ní bhuailfeá,||You would not strike.|
|Interrogative.||An molfá,||Would you praise ?|
|"||An mbuailfeadh sé,||Would he strike?|
|Neg. Interrog.||Nach molfadh sé?||Would he not praise?|
|"||Nach mbuailfimís?||Would we not strike?|
|3.||molaidh sé||buailidh sé|
|PLUR.||1.||molaimid (-amuid)||buailimíd (-imid)|
|2.||molaidh sibha||buailidh sibhb|
|The negative particle is nár, which always aspirates when possible.|
|3.||moladh sé||buaileadh sé|
|PLUR.||1.||molaimís (amuis)||buailimís (-imis)|
|2.||moladh sibh||bhuaileadh sibh|
NOTES ON THE MOODS AND TENSES.
The Present Tenses.
269. The Present Tense is always formed by adding aim, air, &c., to the stem when the last vowel is broad; if the last vowel is slender add im, ir, eann, &c. The last syllable of the first person plural is often pronounced rapidly—e.g., molamuid (mulʹ-a-mwid), creidimid (kʼredʹimid); but in the South of Ireland this syllable is lengthened, molaimíd (mulʹ-a-meed), creidimíd (kʼredʹ-imeed). Verbs of more than one syllable ending in igh add míd, not imíd, in the first person plural of this tense.
270. In Ulster the ending muid of the first person plural is very often separated from the verb, and used instead of the pronoun sinn as Chonnaic muid é. We saw him; Chonnaic sé muid. He saw us. On no account should this corruption be imitated by the student.
272. The analytic form is not usually found in the first person singular of this tense, nor is the synthetic form often used in the second person plural.
The Imperfect Tense.
273. The initial consonant of this tense is usually aspirated in the active voice, when possible.
The termination adh or eadh in the 3rd sing. of this tense, as also in the Imperative and Conditional, is pronounced ach, or amh.
274. When none of the particles ní, an, nach, &c., precede the Imperfect Tense, do may be used before it. This do may be omitted except when the verb begins with a vowel or f. The compound particles, níor, ar, nár, gur, cár, &c. can never be used with the Imperfect Tense.
275. Whenever the word "would" is used in English to describe what used to take place, the Imperfect Tense, not the Conditional, is used in Irish, as—
- He would often say to me. Is minic adeireadh sé liom.
The Past Tense.
276. In the Past Tense active voice the initial consonant of the verb is aspirated. The remark which has just been made with regard to the use of do before the Imperfect Tense applies also to the Past Tense.
In the Autonomous form do does not aspirate, but prefixes h to vowels.
277. With the exception of the aspiration of the initial consonant, the third person singular of this tense is exactly the same as the second person singular of the Imperative (i.e., the stem of the verb).
278. The particle formerly used before the Past Tense was ro. It is now no longer used by itself, but it occurs in combination with other particles.
The most important of these compounds are:—
|(1)||Ar, whether (an + ro).||Ar bhuail sé? Did he strike?|
|(2)||Gur, that (go + ro).||Deir sé gur bhuaileas é. He says that I struck him.|
|(3)||Cár, where (cá + ro).||Cár cheannuighis an capall? Where did you buy the horse?|
|(4)||Munar, unless (muna + ro).||Munar bhuail sé, unless he struck.|
|(5)||Níor, not (ní + ro).||Níor chreid sé. He did not believe.|
|(6)||Nár or náchar, whether...not.||Nár chreid sé? Did he not believe?|
|(7)||dár, to whom (do, to + a + ro).||An fear dár gheallas mo leabhar. The man to whom I promised my book.|
|(8)||ler, by or with which (le + a + ro).||An maide ler buaileadh é, The stick with which they beat him (or he was beaten).|
279. The compounds of ro aspirate. These compounds are used with the Past Tense of all verbs except the following:—raibh, was; tug, gave or brought; rug, bore; faca, saw; táinig, came; fuair, found, got; deacaidh, went; deárna, made or did.
The compounds of ro are used in some places before tug and táinig.
N.B. Deachaidh and deárna are used instead of chuaidh and rinne after negative and interrogative particles. Instead of deachaidh and deárna, chuaidh and dhein (dhin) are used in Munster.
The Future Tense and Conditional.
280. All the inflections of the Future and Conditional in the first conjugation begin with the letter f, which in the spoken language is generally pronounced like "h." This "h" sound combines with the letters b, d and g (whenever the stem ends in these) changing them in sound into p, t, c, respectively.
N.B.—F is sounded in the second sing. Conditional active and in the Autonomous form.
281. The particle do, causing aspiration, may be used before the Conditional when no other particle precedes it.
Note that the terminations of the Imperative Mood, the Imperfect Tense, and the Conditional are almost the same, excepting the letter f of the latter.
Rule for the Aspiration of T of Past Participles.
282. The T of the past participle is generally aspirated except after the letters D, N, T, L, S, Th, Dh, Ch, and (in verbs of one syllable) Gh.
There is a great tendency in the spoken language not to aspirate the t in all verb inflexions after consonants: e.g., tugta, tugtar, deirtear, etc.
283. This participle cannot be used like the English participle to express action. He was praised is generally moladh é; very seldom bhí sé molta. The Irish participle has always the force of an adjective denoting the complete state, never the force of an action in progress.
284. After is the Past Participle denotes what is proper or necessary, as, Ní molta dhuit é. He is not to be praised by you. This form, called the Participle of Necessity, should probably be regarded as distinct from the ordinary past participle, as it may occur in verbs which have no past participle, e.g.:—
"Is deimhin nach bhfuil duine nach beithte dhó ar coiméad orm." "It is certain that there is no person who will not have to be on his guard against me." (Letter of Seán Ó Néill, 1561.) "Tuigthear as an sgeul, nach beithte do neach dul i n-eudóchas." It may hence be learned that it is not proper for anyone to fall into despair. Ní beithte ag a sheunadh (or simply, ní seunta). It must not be denied. Here beithte is the Participle of Necessity of the verb bí.
286. The prefix ion- or in- denotes what is proper or fit to be done: as ion-mholta, fit to be praised, deserving of praise.
The prefix so- denotes what is possible or easy to do: as so-reubtha, capable of being burst, easy to burst.
287. The prefix do- denotes what is impossible or difficult to do: as do-bhuailte, incapable of being struck, hard to strike.
288. These derivative participles seem to be formed rather from the genitive of the verbal noun than from the participle: as fagháil, finding.
|so-fhaghála, easily found.||do-fhaghála, hard to find.|
|289.||Declension of Verbal Noun.|
290. Many verbal nouns are seldom or never used in the plural. As a rule the genitive singular of the verbal noun is identical in form with the past participle; but many verbal nouns are declined like ordinary nouns: nearly all those ending in acht, áil, and amhain belong to the 3rd declension—e.g., gabháil, act of taking; gen., gabhála: rith, running; gen. reatha; leanamhain, act of following; gen. leanamhna: siubhal, act walking; gen. siubhail: fás, act of growing; gen. fáis, &c.
291. The second conjugation comprises two classes of verbs—(1) derived verbs in igh or uigh; and (2) syncopated verbs.
292. Syncopated verbs are those in which the vowel in the final syllable of the stem is omitted when any termination commencing with a vowel is added: as labhair, speak; labhraim (not labhairim), I speak. Verbs of more than one syllable whose stem ends in il, in, ir, is, ing, belong to this class.
VERBS IN IGH (-UIGH).
|Type.||Imper.||Future.||Past Participle.||V. Noun.||Meaning|
294. Except in the Future and Conditional, all verbs in igh and uigh are conjugated like buail (first conjugation), except that the t is aspirated in all terminations beginning with that letter. It is, therefore, necessary to give only the Future and Conditional in full.
|1.||baileóchad, I shall gather,||ceannóchad, I shall buy|
|3.||baileóchaidh sé,||ceannóchaidh sé.|
|1.||baileóchaimíd (-chamuid),||ceannóchaimíd (-chamuid).|
|2.||baileóchaidh sibh,||ceannóchaidh sibh.|
|1.||bhaileóchainn, I would gather,||cheannóchainn, I shall buy|
|3.||bhaileóchadh sé,||cheannóchadh sé.|
|1.||bhaileóchaimís (-amuis),||cheannóchaimís (-amuis).|
|2.||bhaileóchadh sibh,||cheannóchadh sibh.|
297. In early modern usage, when the stem ended in -uigh, preceded by d, n, t, l, or r, these consonants were usually attenuated in the Future and Conditional: as árduigh, raise, future áirdeóchad; saluigh, soil, future saileóchad; but nowadays árdóchad, salóchad, &c., are the forms used.
298. The personal endings of syncopated verbs vary somewhat according as the consonant commencing the last syllable of the stem is broad or slender.
Type (1). Stems in which the last syllable commences with a broad consonant, as fuagair (fógair), proclaim.
Type (2). Stems in which the last syllable commences with a slender consonant, as coigil, spare.
299. In early modern usage the Future is formed by lengthening the vowel sound of the last syllable of the stem from ai or i to eó. In the case of Type 1 the broad consonant which commences the final syllable of the stem must be made slender. Examples: innis, inneosad, I shall tell; díbir, díbeorair, you will banish; imir, imeoraidh sé, he will play; coigil, coigeolad, I shall spare; ff, they will proclaim; d'fhuaigeoradh sé, he would proclaim; codail, coideolad, I shall sleep; choideolainn, I would sleep.
300. In the present-day usage the Future stem is formed as if the verb ended in igh or uigh: by adding -óch in Type 1 and -eóch in Type 2.
|2.||fuagair, proclaim||coigil, spare|
|3.||fuagradh sé||coigleadh sé|
|SING.||1.||fuagraim, I proclaim||coiglim, I spare|
|3.||fuagrann séa||coigleannc sé|
|2.||fuagrann sibhb||coigleann sibhd|
|3.||d'fhuagradh sé||choigleadh sé|
|2.||d'fhuagradh sibh||choigleadh sibh|
|3.||d'fhuagair sé||choigil sé|
|a[fuagraidh] b[fuagarthaoi] c[coiglidh] d[coigiltí]|
|3.||fuagróchaidh sé||coigleóchaidh sé|
|2.||fuagróchaidh sibh||coigleóchaidh sibh|
|3.||d'fhuagróchadh sé||choigleóchadh sé|
|2.||d'fhuagróchadh sibh||choigleóchadh sibh|
|3.||fuagraidh sé||coiglidh sé|
|2.||fuagraidh sibh||coiglidh sibh|
|3.||fuagradh sé||coigleadh sé|
|2.||fuagradh sibh||coigleadh sibh|
|311.||Past Participle and Participle of Necessity.|
314. In stems of Type (2) ending in r, the Participle is usually in the form eartha, not irthe, as díbir, banish: díbeartha, banished; imir, play; imeartha, played.
The endings formed on the participle [see par. 258 c.] follow this change, e.g., Imperfect 2nd singular, dhíbearthá; Present Auton., díbearthar, &c.
315. General Rules for the formation of Verbal Noun.
(a) As a general rule verbs of the first conjugation form their verbal noun in adh, if the final consonant of the stem be broad; in eadh, if it be slender, as—
(b) When the last vowel of the stem is i preceded by a broad vowel, the i is usually dropped in the formation of the verbal noun, as—
The i is not dropped in—
(c) Verbs of the second conjugation ending in in, il or ir generally form their verbal noun by adding t, as—
|cosain, defend||cosaint (cosnamh)|
(e) Derived verbs in igh form their verbal noun by inserting u between the i and gh and then adding adh; as mínigh, explain, míniughadh.
316. There are, however, many exceptions to the above rules. The following classification of the modes of forming the verbal noun will be useful.
(a) Some verbs have their verbal noun like the stem, e.g., fás, grow; ól, drink; rith, run; snámh, swim, &c.
(b) Some verbs form their verbal noun by dropping i of the stem, e.g., cuir, put or send, cur; coisg, check, cosg; sguir, cease, sgur; guil, weep, gul, &c.
(c) Some verbs add amhain or eamhain to the stem to form their verbal noun, e.g., caill, lose, cailleamhain(t); creid, believe, creideamhain(t); fan, stay, fanamhain(t), lean, follow, leanamhain(t); sgar, separate, sgaramhain(t), &c.
In the spoken language t is usually added to the classical termination -amhain.
(d) A few add an or ean for the verbal noun, e.g., leag, knock down, leagan; léig, let or permit, léigean; tréig, abandon, tréigean; teilg, throw or cast, teilgean.
(e) A few add amh or eamh, e.g., seas, stand, seasamh; caith, spend, consume, caitheamh; deun, do or make, deunamh (or deunadh); feith, wait, feitheamh.
(f) A small number end in áil or , as gabh, take, gabháil; fagh, find, fagháil; fág, leave, fágáil; fead, whistle, feadghail.
A fairly full list of irregular verbal nouns is given in Appendix V.
317. In Old and Middle Irish the conjugation of verbs was very complex, but by degrees the varieties of conjugations became fewer, and nearly all verbs came to be conjugated in the same way. At the commencement of the modern period (i.e., about the end of the sixteenth century) about fifteen verbs in common use retained their old forms. These are now classed as irregular. Excepting occasional survivals of older forms, all the other verbs had by this time become regular; so that from the stem of the verb it was possible in nearly every instance to tell all its forms except the verbal noun.
During the modern period even the irregular verbs have, through the operation of analogy, shown a tendency to adopt the forms of the modern regular conjugations.
TÁIM, I AM.
318. The correct spelling of this verb is undoubtedly atáim, but long since it has lost its initial a, except when it occurs in the middle of a sentence, where it usually has a relative force. Some persons, by confounding this initial a, which really belongs to the verb, with the modern relative particle a, write the a separated from the tá: as a tá instead of atá.
319. bit-nip, let us be bi, be thou bitiit), let you be bio-6 fe, let him be bi-oir. let them be
Autonomous, bfce^t\. The negative particle is n^.
All the persons, except the 2nd sing., are often written as if fonnec from the spurious sfcein btx>: e.g., bix>eyo pe
320. Present Tense Absolute.
cairn, I am c-dimtt), we are
CAi|\,* thou art cxi p'^, c*5c*oi, you are
Cxi pe, h e is CAit), they are
Present Tense (Analytic Form). CA me, I am CA r inn > we ar Q
CA cu, thou art CA pifj, you are Cv\ pe, he is c4 ptAT), they are
321. Present Tense Dependent.
puilmit) puil pit>
puit f 6
- The early modern form, viz., CAOI, is still used in Monster, e.
Cionnuf CAOI ? (or Connu r c^o.'n cu ?) How arc you . 129
Negatively. Interrogatively. Neg. Interrog
I am not, &c. Am I, &c. Am I not, &c. ni fruititn An bjruilim
ni f uilip AH bpuilip nAC
ni uit, f6 An bj:uil f6 nAC
ni puiltnit) AH bjruiUniT) nAC
ni fruit f 10 An G^uil po nAb ttpuil f iO
ni fruilit) An DjruiliT) nAC opuilTO The analytic forms are like those given above ; as, n.i uil riAt), nAC t>puil cu, &C.
322. Habitual Present.
t>im (oi-oim) ttnii-o
t)if (bfoip) bionn f itt, biti
bionn f 6 (bit) f 6, bit)6Ann f 6) bro (bit)iT)) Negatively, ni bim, &c. Interrogatively, An mbim, &o, Neg. Interrog., nA6 rnbim, &c. Relative form t>ior Autonomous,
323. Imperfect Tense (7 used to be).
DO binn (-00 bit)inn) T>O bimip (onJmff) biteA ( Cit)teA) biot) pb biot) fe ( bit)6At)re) t>i-oif (bit)-oir) Autonomous, bici Negatively, ni binn
Interrogatively, An in binn ? Neg. interrog. nAC rnbinn "> 130
324. Past Tense.
oo biop (bnteAf) *oo bionuAf.
bip (bit>ir) OiobAp (bit>eAbAp)
t>i p6 bioT>Ap.,
Negative, ni f^GAf, ni tuxtAir, ni JVAIO f6, &c.
Interrogatively (Was I? etc.).
An |VAt)Aif An pMG pe An fuxtMrtiAjv, ifec.
Neg. interrog. (Was I not? c.).
326. Future Tense.
eAT3 (beit)eAD) b6imi-o, beimit)
beip, l>eip (beit)ip) b6tt) pb, beiti
), bei-6 r^ b6it>, beit)
Relati'/e Form, beAp, beAf (beit>eAp)
Ne^. Interrog., nA 131 327. Secondary Future or Conditional.
Autonomous, t>eit>j:T, t>eiti
Neg. interrog., n^
328. THE SUBJUNCTIVE.
50 pAftAT) 50 pAbmtMT)
gO JlAftAlp gO f\Alb fib
jgO JVA1b f-6 50 JVAbAlt)
The negative particle for this tense is n4: as, T\s |\Aib mAit AJAC. No thanks to you.
329. Past Tense.
50 mbfrm 50 mbfmif
50 mbiteA 50 mbio-6 fir)
50 mbio-6 f 50 mbit)i|*
The negative partiole is nAp.
i ! may (they) bo ! (for once). 141 ' ,, ,, (generally). 132
t>eit, to be.
330. Phrases containing the Verb Noun 1f pei-oif tiom (A)* tieic I can be, &c. tli pel-Dip Horn (A) tteic Uis leAC (A) tteit fli tig leAC (A) t>eit CAitpt) f6 oeic CAitp-6 me t>eic Hi putAip 50 f AID cti 1 1f cor-riiAit 50 tvAio cu f tliop ft'^ei-oin nO t>i cu i Hi coprhAil 50 |vMD rn6) C |tAiti m6 j (A) teit
Hi c6i|\ -ouic (A) Deit Du-6 C6if "66 t>eit
I cannot be, &c. You can be, &c. You cannot be, &c He must b^, &c. I must be, &L.
You must have been, &c.
I must not have been, &c.
I ought to be.
You ought not to be.
He ought to have been.
I ought not to have been. Du-6 rhAic Uom (A) tteit Ann I wish I were there. t)A rhAit itom 50 JVAID m6 I wish I had been there.
"CS, f6 te
He is to be there.
331. The forms puilim and p AttAf are used (1) After the particles ni, not ; CA, where ? AH (or A), whether? 50, that; and nAC or nA, that (con j.)... not.
This A is usually beard in the spoken language 133
(2) After the relative particle A, when it is preceded by a preposition, after the relative A when it means " what," "all that," "all which," and after the negative relative nA, who... not, which... not. CA tt-r.ua re? Where is it? Mi puii A fiop ^5^. I don't know. "C& pop A^Am TIA puit fe Ann. I know it is not there. "Oein fe 50 Optui fe flAti. He says that he is well. Sin e An ^QA\(. n^C o-puit -AS obAifi. That is the man who is not working. 'OuttAipc re -Ann. He told me he was not there.
332. We sometimes find the verb j:uil eclipsed after the negative ni, not ; as, n! Opuii re he is not
For the use of the Relative Form refer to pars. 554-560.
THE ASSERTIVE VERB 1S. 333. The position of a verb in an Irish sentence is at the very beginning; hence, when a word other than the verb is to be brought into pro- minence, the important word is to be placed in the most prominent position viz., at the begin- ning of the sentence, under cover of an unemphatic impersonal verb. There is no stress on the verb so used; it merely denotes that prominence is given to some idea in the sentence other than that contained in the verb. There is a similar expedient adopted in English: thus, "He was speaking of you," and, "It 134
is of you he was speaking." In Irish there is 8 special verb for this purpose, and of this verh there are forms to be used in principal clauses and forms to be used in dependent clauses e.g. :
1f rmfe An feAf. I am the man. ' X)eif.im gup Ab 6 SeAgAn An peAf\. I say John is the man.
334. Forma of the Assertive Verb.
(a) In Principal Sentences. Present Tense, if. Relative, if or Af . Past Tense, bA.
[Future Simple, but). Relative, buf]. Secondary Future or Conditional, bA-6. Subjunctive, Ab ; sometimes bA. Subjunc. Pres. (ivith 50) 50 mt>A, 5f.Ab; ( w ^
HA) tiA'HAb, nAjvA.
Subjunc. Past. -DA mbAt>, " if it were." 335. Present Tenso.
if me", I am ; or, it is I. if firm, we are, it is we. if cu, thou art, it is you. if fib, you are, it is you.
if e\ he is, it is he. ., . ,,
if i AT), they are, it is they. if i, she is, it is she.
335. Past Tense.
I>A me, I was. it was I.
bA to, thou wast, &c.
oob' 6, b' 6, bA ti-6, he was, &c.
oob' i, b' i, bA n-i "she was, &c.
bA finn, we were, &c.
bA fib, you were, &c. t>ob' iAT), b' 1A-D, bA ti-iAT> they were, Sco. 135
Du-6 or ftuf is never used in the spoken language, and scarcely ever in writing, except when a super- lative adjective or adverb occurs in a sentence, the verbs of which are in the Future Tense.
337. In the Present Tense the verb 1S is omitted after all particles except tTIA, if: as, 1f me An f.eA|\. I am the man ; Hi m6 An ?e&]\. I am not the man.
338. In the Past Tense t)A is usually omitted after particles when the word following t>A begins with a consonant: as, Ap mAit leAC AH AIC? Did you like the place? TUp OCAS An UJA e? Was it not a small price? I)A is not usually omitted when the following word begins with a vowel or f, but the A is elided: as, tliop b' 6 fin ATI fAgAjxc. That was not the priest. Notice that the word immediately after DA or OA-O, even when DA or bAt> is understood, is usually aspi- rated when possible.
(6) In Dependent Sentences.
339. Present Tense. Ab is used instead of if after Sup, meaning " that "; as, meAf Aim stifiAb e fin An peA^. I think that is the man. Before a consonant AD is usually omitted ; as, -oeifA fe guf. mipe An peAjv He says that I am the man. Ab is always omitted after nAC, that... not. SAOitim nAC e fin An j\i. I think that is not the king.
340. Past Tense. The word b.\ or bAt> becomes t>' in dependent sentences and is usually joined to the 136
particle which precedes it. When the following word begins with a consonant the t>' is usually omitted. TneAf\Aim 5ut\b 6 peo An ceAC. I think that this was the house; meAfAnn pe nAfv riiAit te TliAlt t>eit Annpo. He thinks that Niall did not like to be here. xXn meApAnn cti gup iliAit An pgeul 6 ? Do you think that it was a good story ?
341. Conditional. In dependent sentences bA or bAt> becomes mbA. SAoilim 50 IDDA riiAit teif -out teAC. I think he would like to go with you. T)eif\ p e nAC mbA rhAit teif. He says that he would not like. In the spoken language the tendency is to use the past tense forms in dependent sentences ; hence Irish speakers would say gup rhAit in the above sentence instead of 50 mbA riiAit, and HAJ\ rhAit instead of nAC mbA rhAit.
The Future is never used in dependent sentences in the spoken language.
Dem, BEAR or CARRY.
342. Principal Parts.
Imperative. Future. Participle. Verbal Noun.
beirt beuripAT) bei|\ce bpeit
This verb is conjugated like buAil, except in the Past, Future and Conditional.
343. Past Tense.
fugAf, fugAif , &c., like molAr (par. 264).
The prefixes -oo and jio were not used before this Past Tense in early usage and not generally in present-day usage. 137
, &c., like mot^'o (par. 265).
In early modern usage there was no p in this Tense, or in the Con- ditional. The rule was that when a short vowel in the Present became long in the Future stem 110 p was added. This rule is still observed in the Futures ending in -OCAT> or -eocvo.
beunpAinn, &c., like rhotpAirm (par. 266).
Verbal Noun bpeic, gen. bpeite or beipte. 355. This verb is of very frequent use in the idiom "beijA A|\"; lay hold on, catch, overtake', e.g., JUI^A-D optn, I was caught. tti fruit topeit Aip. Tliereisno laying hold on him (or it).
UAt)Am, GIVE or BRING. Principal Parts.
356. IMPERATIVE MOOD.
INDICATIVE MOOD. 847. Present Tense.
SING. 1. COQ-) tieifMtn
2. (t)O-) t>ei]Mf\
PLUB. 1. Coo-) rjewtnit) 2. (T)O-) 8. (T>O-)
&c. (like motAim), raay be used in both constructions.
Autonomous, Coo-)tteifvueAf\, cxxb^f i*\|\ or CUSCAJ;.
348. By the " Dependent Form " of the Verb we mean that form which is used after the following Particles, viz., ni, not; An, whether; nA6, whether... not; or who, which or that... not; 50, that; c\, where, munA, unless; T>A, if; and the relative when governed by a preposition.
349. Imperfect Tense.
(op-)r>eifunn (oo-)t>eipte4 &c., like ttuAitirm (262) (805)
Or, tugAinn, tu^tA, fec., for both absolute and
dependent constructions. Autonomous, 139
350. The Past Tense has only one form: CugAif, &c., like r;i3tAf (264). Auton CUSA-O.
In early usage this Past Tense did not take T>O or jto, as. 50 o-tujAf, "that I gave." In present-day usage this peculiarity ia sometimes adhered to and sometimes not.
331. Future Tense.
like molpvo (265) ciut>jvAit> fe
CAbAIApyo, &c., may be used in both constructions.
Autonomous, l>eufvp.At\ CAt>A|\jMp 352. Conditional.
like rholpMnn (266) &c.
inn, &c., may be used in both COD ^ructions. Autonomous,
This Mood occurs only in dependent construction.
353. Present cusxvo, cugxMp, cug^it) fe, &c., or
CAbpAT), CAt)pA1|\, &C.
354. Past cugAinn, &c., like molAinn (268).
, gen. 140
585. At)A1Tl, SAY.
Imperative. Future. . Partiriule. Verbal Noun,
356. IMPERATIVE MOOD.
357. Present Tense.
3. (^)-oeif or oeipeAtin f 6 .\bf\Ann p 6 1. 2. 3. Autonomous,
The initial A of Atjeiftim, tc., is now usually dropped. The same remark holds for the other tenses. The t> of -oei|tim, &c., is not usually aspirated by a foregoing particle. The absolute and dependent constructions are sometimes confused in spoken usage.
358. Imperfect Tense.
Autonomous, voeit\ci 141 Past Tense.
or Future Tense.
f 6 Autonomous, o&AppAp
In the spoken language the absolute and dependent forms are often confused.
In spoken language the two constructions are often confused.
f 6, &c. fe, &c.
, gen. sing, and norn. plur. 142
5At>, TAKE. 364. Principal Parts.
Imperative. Future. Participle. Verbal Noun,
This verb is regular except iu the Future and Con- litioual.
5eot>AT), geoDAip, geotJAit) f6, &c.
367. In the spoken language the Future is often made 546^4-0, &c, t and the Conditional, 546 p AMI n, as in regular verbs.
Verbal Noun. or s^O-dl, gen. sing, and nom. plural
, GET, FIND. 368. Principal Parts.
Imperative. Future. Participle. Verbal Noun.
369. IMPERATIVE MOOD.
INDICATIVE MOOD. 370 Present Tense.
In spoken usage pAJAim, &c., is used in both dependent and absolute constructions.
In the Auton. f ASCAII, fAigceAti and pAcc^tt are used.
371. Imperfect Tense.
Autonomous, Jeittt?, PA$CAO
Spoken usage, Absolute, jeiftinn or pAJAinn, &o.
372. Past Tense.
This Tense has only one form for both absolute and dependent con- structions. The prefixes -oo and |to are not used with it.
In spoken usage pt^c often becomes 144 373. Future Tense.
1. geofrAT), jeAtt-AT) ttpuigeA-o or
2. eot>Aip, &c. &Ft"$ip
8. geottAit) re ftpuigit) f6
8. geottxM-o t>pui$i-o
JjeOOxMnn or ge.Ati.Ainn ttptnginn or
&c. tipuigteA, &c.
f6 bpuigeA-o f 6
375. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD Present, ^A-O, ^$Ai|t, pA$Aii6 r6. & c . Past, f.A$Ainn, p^gcA, pAgA-o f6, &c.
^A$CA, pAijce or JMCCA.
The derivative participles of this verb are usually formed from the genitive of the verbal noun. 145
377. "Oeutl, DO, MAKE.
Imperative. Future. Participle. Verbal Noun.
oeun -neunpvo -oeuncA
378. IMPERATIVE MOOD.
2. -oeun oeun.Ai'6
8. -oeun-Aift f6 Autonomous, -oeuncAt\.
INDICATIVE MOOD. 379. Present Tense.
1. CDO-) gnirn (jnitwn) "oeunAim
2. $nif\ &c.
3. ni f6 or gnionn
1. gnimit) oeunAimi'o
2. jnitl "oeunAnn fi
3. S' 1 Relative, gniop, Autonomous, $nice^t\
In present-day usage -oeunAtm, &c., are very frequently used in the Absolute construction. 146 880. Imperfect Tense.
Autonomous, " 381. Past Tense.
In Munster dialect -oeineAf, -oeinif, -oein fe, -oeineAmAii, oeitie-dbAft, and 6e*neA'OAii are used as the Past Tense in both absolute and dependent constructions.
882. Future Tense.
ABSOLUTE AND DEPENDENT.
oeun^Ai-6 Autonomous, 383. Conditional.
SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. Present.
, &c. , &c.
Verbal Noun. t>eunx\rh (-oeunAt)) gen. -oeuncA
( Cipe^vo peicte
1. peicimip (
2. peic peicit) 8. peicexv6 f6 peicit)if
387. The imperative 2nd sing, and 2nd plural are hardly ever found; for we rarely command or ask a person to "see" anything, except in the sense of "look at " it. In Irish a distinct verb is always used in the sense of "look at, such as peuc, t>e.dfic, bfteAcnuij;, &c. The verb feuc must not be confounded with pete; it is a distinct verb, and has a complete and regular conjugation.
388. In early modern Irish JMIC was the stem used in the impera- tive and in the dependent construction throughout the entire verb. 148
INDICATIVE MOOD. Present Tense.
1. T>o-(iim (Citnm) peicitn
2. oo-Cip, &c. peici|\
3. t)o-6i fe, Ciorm fe peiceAnn f6 1. oo-titniT) feicimro
'2. -oo-Citi peicexMin fib
390. The prefix t>o-, now usually dropped, is an altered form of the old prefix AC e.g., Accim. This form survives in the spoken Ian- guage only in the Ulster form, 'cfm or cix>im, &c.
391. Imperfect Tense.
oo-Cinn, Cit>mn petcmn
In spoken language feicmn, *c., is used in both Absolute and Dependent constructions.
Ulster usage, ci-oeatiTi, CI-OCCA, J:o. 392. Past Tense.
(connAC (pACAp (peACAr
1. (connAfCAp) r
(connACAp (PACA (peACA
2. connACAip (connApcAip) pACAip peACAip 8. connAic pe (connAipc f 6) JMCA f 6
Autonomous, conn CAP pACAp or
The olJer spelling was AccontiAC and AcconnAjic, &c. The c is still preserved in the Ulster dialect: CAJIAIC me, &o., I saw.
393. Future Tense.
(T>o-)cipeAt), ci-opeA-o, peicpeAT),
(oo-)Cipi|\, cit>pip, peicpij%
(-oo-)cipinn, cit>pinn, peicpinn,
In the Future and Conditional peicpeAT), &c., and peicpinn, &c., can be used in both constructions.
395. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. Present, peiceA-o, peicip, peicit) pe, &c. Past, peicmn, peicteA, peiceA-6 p6, &c.
Participle, peicte. 150
396. Verbal Noun.
peicfinc, peipcinc, gen.
From the genitive of the verbal noun the compound
participles are formed: viz., m-jreiCfe^nA, fo-eic-
397. CtOIS or cUntl, HEAR.
These two verbs are quite regular except in the Past Tense.
In old writings the particle AC or -oo- is found prefixed to all the tenses in the absolute construction, but this particle is now dropped.
398. Past Tense.
CUAl-A f 6
ctop or cLoifinc (or more modern ctuinpnc or cLoifcin).
SING. 1. PLUS- cigimfr
2. c^ C1 5 1-0
INDICATIVE MOOD. 400. Present Tense.
1. dsirn cij;inm>
2. cigip cigti 8. cig r*
Relative (wanting). Autonomous,
The Present Tense has also the forms inflected regularly.
401. , Imperfect Tense.
Cigmn, t\5Miin, or teA^Ainn, regularly.
402. Past Tense.
The nj in this Tense is not sounded like 115 in Lonj, a, tihvp, but with a helping vowel between them e.g., 2nd pers. sing. is pro- nounced as if written cAnAgAir; but in Munster the 5 is silent except in the 3rd pers. sing. e.g., cAngAf is pronounced haw-nuss.
404. Future Tense, aocpyo,&c., inflected regularly; also spelled ciucpvo, &c.
Conditional, tiocpAinn, &c., inflected regularly. 152
403. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Present, cisexvo, C-ASXVO, or ce.A5vo, inflected regu- larly.
Past, cisinn, CAgAinn, or ce.A5.dinn, inflected regu- larly.
406. Verbal Noun, CBACC (or ciot>A6c, Participle, ce^gtA or
407. rl5, GO.
N.B. The present stem is also spelled tei-6, bat ceij is preferable, as it better represents the older form, CIAJ or ceig.
8. c^igeA* f6
409. In the Imperative 2nd sing, and 2nd plur. other verbs are now usually substituted, such as 540, tmcij, reijtij. The use of cei|5, plur. ceititsi-6, seems to be confined to these two forms; imtij has a foil, regular conjugation.
INDICATIVE MOOD. 410. Present.
1. c6i$im (ce"i-6im) 1.
2. cSijip &c. 2. 8. c6i$ r 6 ceigeAnn f 6 8.
teijmn (or t6it)irm), &c., regularly.
411. Past Tense.
3. CuAit) r& t)e.AiAi-6 1.
In Munster cuA-oAf, &c., is used in the dependent construction, as niop cuAi-6 fe, he did not go. "OeAJAf, &c., is also used in Munster.
1. fACAT), f AJAt) jiACAmAOI-O
2. jVA^xMp, fAgxMp jtdCdlt) flO,
3. f AC^it) f e, f^jxM-6 f6
or fu\$Ainn, &c., regularly.
The Future and Conditional aro sometimes spelled ji and p4cp Ainn, &o. 154
414. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Present, ccM$eAt>, c6i$i|\, c6i$j* p6, &e. Past, ceijmn, ceigce-A, ceijexvo pe, &o.
413. Verbal Noun.
t)ut, gen. -OOUA (sometimes
Participle of Necessity. T>uLCA (as, ni -oulCA t)6, he ought not to go).
Derivative Participles. ton-'ooUx, fo-t)otx3i > 'oo-'OoUv.
416. 1U, EAT.
This verb is regular except in the Future and Con- ditional.
Imper. Future. Participle Verbal Noon.
it iotwo itce iCe
417. Future Tense.
1. iopAT) (foppAt))
2. 1OpA1|\, &C.
3. ioiMi-6 p6 iof AI-O
Relative, iop^p (iopp^p). Autonomous,
1. iop^inn (iopp^inn) iopAtnAOip
2. iopcxi, &c. lop^-O pit> 8. iopA* f6 155
419. As well as the regular Past Tense, -o'lte^f, &c., there is another Past Tense, viz., -ou^t)Af, in use.
1. 2. 3. TUl-Alt) fe
Tl15im, I REACH.
420. This verb is nearly obsolete, its place being taken by the regular verbs n^oicim and
Its Past Tense is inflected like
1. 2. 8.
421. Verbal Noun.
foCc.Mn or fiACcxMn.
tligim has a special usage in the phrase p i im A teAf , " I need" (whence, fiACcAn^f, need, necessity: pi^CcA- tiAC, necessary: from the verbal noun.)
mAtlt)Aim or TTIATlt)tl15im, I KILL.
422. This verb is quite regular except in Future and Conditional.
Future, m^p6ft.vo, mAft>(5CAt), tnAipeotiAt), tnAip- UeoCAt) or muipftpeAt) (with usual terminations). Conditional, rhAf6t)Ainn, rhAf\ti6CAinn, rhxMpeot>Ainn, or rhuipttpinn, &c., &c.
or mxxr\t>u$At), to kill or killing. 156
SOME DEFECTIVE VERBS. 128. Atl, quoth, say or said. This verb is used only when the exact words of the speakar are given. (It corresponds exactly with the Latin "inquit.") It is frequently written A^FA or Af\p , as Aj\p A mife, said I. When the definite article immediately follows this latter form the f is often joined to the article, as, Apr An jreAp or AJI f AH peAp, says the man. " CIA tfi jre"m ?" Ap feipeAii. *' Who are you?" said he.
When the exact words of the speaker are not given translate " says " by -oeip, and "said by outjAipc. When the word "that" is understood after the English verb "say" 50 (or HAC if "not" follows) must be expressed in Irish.
424. "OAU, It seems or it seemed. This verb is always followed by the preposition le : as, -DAP tiom, it seems to me, methinks ; or, it seemed to me, methought. T)Ap LBAC. It seems to you. "OAp teip An ttpeAfl. It seemed to the man.
423. jreA'OAK, I know, I knew. This verb is nearly always used negatively or inter- rogatively, and although really a past tense has a present meaning as well as a past. t1! feATMtt. I do, or did, not know. Hi peAT>Ai|\ f 6. He does not know, or he did not know. SINGULAR. PLURAL.
1. peATDAp 1.
2. jreAT)]A.Air (-If) 2.
3. peAtMip p6 8.
N.B. The forms just given are those used in the jpoken language, the literary forms are: j:eyodp, cu, peA-OAip f6, pevoAtn,Att, peA-OAti-Ap, and
426. UATltA, There came to pass, it happened or
happened to be. It is also used to express the meeting of one person with another.
427. D'fotJAIR or t>A t)Ot>Am, "It all but
happened." E.g., -o'fxttMitA -OAm ctucim, It all but happened to me to fall, I had like to fall, I had well nigh fallen. The same meaning is expressed by -o'fr6bAi|\ 50
428. jretTOAIttl, I can, is regular in all its tenses, but it has no imperative mood.
- A few of these take te in past participle; as osgail, open, osgailte; ceangail, bind, ceangailte. The parts of these verbs [258 c.] which are formed from the past participle will, of course, have slender terminations, e.g., d'osgailteá, you used to open.