Home Vegetable Gardening/Chapter IV

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Home Vegetable Gardening by F. F. Rockwell
Chapter IV: SOIL ANTECEDENTS
Chapter I · II · III · IV · V · VI · VII · VIII · IX · X · XI · XII · XIII · XIV · XV · XVI · XVII · XVIII · XIX · XX

Chapter IV: SOIL ANTECEDENTS[edit]

Having selected the garden spot, the next consideration, naturally, is what shall be planted in it.

The old way was to get a few seed catalogues, pick out a list of the vegetables most enthusiastically described by the (wholly disinterested) seedsman, and then, when the time came, to put them in at one or two plantings, and sowing each kind as far as the seed would go. There is a better way--a way to make the garden produce more, to yield things when you want them, and in the proper proportions.

All these advantages, you may suppose, must mean more work. On the contrary, however, the new way makes very much less work and makes results a hundred per cent. more certain. It is not necessary even that more thought be put upon the garden, but forethought there must be. Forethought, however, is much more satisfactory than hind-thought.

In the new way of gardening there are four great helps, four things that will be of great assistance to the experienced gardener, and that are indispensable to the success of the beginner. They are the Planting Plan, the Planting Table, the Check List and the Garden Record.

Do not become discouraged at the formidable sound of that paragraph and decide that after all you do not want to fuss so much over your garden; that you are doing it for the fun of the thing anyway, and such intricate systems will not be worth bothering with. The purpose of those four garden helps is simply to make your work less and your returns more. You might just as well refuse to use a wheel hoe because the trowel was good enough for your grandmother's garden, as to refuse to take advantage of the modern garden methods described in this chapter. Without using them to some extent, or in some modified form, you can never know just what you are doing with your garden or what improvements to make next year. Of course, each of the plans or lists suggested here is only one of many possible combinations. You should be able to find, or better still to construct, similar ones better suited to your individual taste, need and opportunity. That, however, does not lessen the necessity of using some such system. It is just as necessary an aid to the maximum efficiency in gardening as are modern tools. Do not fear that you will waste time on the planting plan. Master it and use it, for only so can you make your garden time count for most in producing results. In the average small garden there is a very large percentage of waste--for two weeks, more string beans than can be eaten or given away; and then, for a month, none at all, for instance. You should determine ahead as nearly as possible how much of each vegetable your table will require and then try to grow enough of each for a continuous supply, and no more. It is just this that the planting plan enables you to do.

I shall describe, as briefly as possible, forms of the planting plan, planting table, check list and record, which I have found it convenient to use.

To make the Planting Plan take a sheet of white paper and a ruler and mark off a space the shape of your garden--which should be rectangular if possible--using a scale of one-quarter or one-eighth inch to the foot. Rows fifty feet long will be found a convenient length for the average home garden. In a garden where many varieties of things are grown it will be best to run the rows the short way of the piece. We will take a fifty-foot row for the purpose of illustration, though of course it can readily be changed in proportion where rows of that length can not conveniently be made. In a very small garden it will be better to make the row, say, twenty-five feet long, the aim being always to keep the row a unit and have as few broken ones as possible, and still not to have to plant more of any one thing than will be needed.

In assigning space for the various vegetables several things should be kept in mind in order to facilitate planting, replanting and cultivating the garden. These can most quickly be realized by a glance at the plan illustrated herewith. You will notice that crops that remain several years--rhubarb and asparagus--are kept at one end. Next come such as will remain a whole season--parsnips, carrots, onions and the like. And finally those that will be used for a succession of crops--peas, lettuce, spinach. Moreover, tall-growing crops, like pole beans, are kept to the north of lower ones. In the plan illustrated the space given to each variety is allotted according to the proportion in which they are ordinarily used. If it happens that you have a special weakness for peas, or your mother-in-law an aversion to peppers, keep these tastes and similar ones in mind when laying out your planting plan.

Do not leave the planning of your garden until you are ready to put the seeds in the ground and then do it all in a rush. Do it in January, as soon as you have received the new year's catalogues and when you have time to study over them and look up your record of the previous year.

Every hour spent on the plan will mean several hours saved in the garden.

The Planting Table is the next important system in the business of gardening, especially for the beginner. In it one can see at a glance all the details of the particular treatment each vegetable requires-- when to sow, how deep, how far apart the rows should be, etc. I remember how many trips from garden to house to hunt through catalogues for just such information I made in my first two seasons' gardening.

How much time, just at the very busiest season of the whole year, such a table would have saved!


  0    5   10   15   20   25   30   35   40   45   50

|

 0|                       |PA|  |                   |
  |     RHUBARB-2         |RS|  |   SEED BED        |
  |                       |LE|??|                   |
 5|                       |Y |  |                   |
  |-------------------------------------------------|
  |                    ASPARAGUS-2                  |
10|-------------------------------------------------|
  |                                                 |
  |                   POLE BEANS-2                  |
15|-------------------------------------------------|
  |                    TOMATOES-1                   |
  |-------------------------------------------------|
20|                 CABBAGE EARLY-1                 |
  |                         LATE -1                 |
  |-------------------------------------------------|
25|       BROCCOLI-1      |    BRUSSELS SPROUTS-1   |
  |       PEPPERS-1       |       EGG PLANT-1       |
  |-------------------------------------------------|
30|                    CELERY-1                     |
  |-------------------------------------------------|
  |                                                 |
35|                ONIONS-5-1/2                     |
  |                  LEEKS-1/2                      |
  |-------------------------------------------------|
40|                                                 |
  |                  CARROTS-4                      |
  |-------------------------------------------------|
45|                                                 |
  |                   BEETS-4                       |
  |-------------------------------------------------|
50|     TURNIPS-1-1/2     |      RUTABAGA-1/2       |
  |                   PARSNIPS-1                    |
  |-------------------------------------------------|
55|                                                 |
  |                                                 |
  |                                                 |
60|                    CORN-4                       |
  |                                                 |
  |                                                 |
65|                                                 |
  |                                                 |
  |-------------------------------------------------|
70|                                                 |
  |                                                 |
  |                                                 |
75|                    PEAS-4                       |
  |                                                 |
  |                                                 |
80|-------------------------------------------------|
  |                                                 |
  |                  BUSH BEANS-3                   |
85|-------------------------------------------------|
  |                                                 |
  |                   LETTUCE-2                     |
90|     ONION SETS-1     |        ENDIVE-1          |
  |-------------------------------------------------|
  |  MUSKMELONS-6 HILLS  |    CUCUMBERS-7 HILLS     |
95|-------------------------------------------------|
  |                      |                          |
  |   PUMPKINS-4H        |    WATERMELONS-5H        |

100| | |

  |-------------------------------------------------|
  |                      |  SUMMER SQUASH, BUSH-8H  |

105| WINTER SQUASH-5H | |

  |                      |  SUMMER SQUASH, VINE-5H  |
  |                      |                          |

110|-------------------------------------------------|


A typical Planting Plan. The scale measurements at the left and top indicate the length and distance apart of rows. [ED. Distances are approximate, due to typing line constraints.]

The Planting Table prepared for one's own use should show, besides the information given, the varieties of each vegetable which experience has proved best adapted to one's own needs. The table shown herewith gives such a list; varieties which are for the most part standard favorites and all of which, with me, have proven reliable, productive and of good quality. Other good sorts will be found described in Part Two. Such a table should be mounted on cardboard and kept where it may readily be referred to at planting time.

The Check List is the counterpart of the planting table, so arranged that its use will prevent anything from being overlooked or left until too late. Prepare it ahead, some time in January, when you have time to think of everything. Make it up from your planting table and from the previous year's record. From this list it will be well to put down on a sheet of paper the things to be done each month (or week) and cross them off as they are attended to. Without some such system it is almost a certainty that you will overlook some important things.

The Garden Record is no less important. It may be kept in the simplest sort of way, but be sure to keep it. A large piece of paper ruled as follows, for instance, will require only a few minutes' attention each week and yet will prove of the greatest assistance in planning the garden next season.

VEGETABLE GARDEN RECORD--1910


|---------------|--------|--------|----------------------

VEGETABLE |VARIETY | PUT IN | READY | NOTES


|---------------|--------|--------|----------------------

Beans, dwarf |Red Valentine | May 10 | July 6 | Not best quality. Try

            |               |        |        | other earlies
            |Golden Wax     | May 15 | July 22| Rusted. Spray next
            |               |        |        | year

Bean, pole |Old Homestead | May 16 | July 26| Too many. 6 poles

            |               |        |        | next year
            |Early Leviathan| May 25 | Aug. 19| Good. Dry.

Bean, lima |Fordhook | May 15 | | Rotted. Try May 25 Beet |Egyptian | Apr. 10| June 12| Roots sprangled

            |Eclipse        | Apr. 10| June 14| Better quality

Cabbage |Wakefield | Apr. 9 | June 20| Injured by worms.

            |               |        |        |Hellebore next year

Etc., etc. | | | |


|---------------|--------|-------|----------------------


The above shows how such a record will be kept. Of course, only the first column is written in ahead. I want to emphasize in passing, however, the importance of putting down your data on the day you plant,

or harvest, or notice anything worth recording. If you let it go until tomorrow it is very apt to be lacking next year.

Try these four short-cuts to success, even if you have had a garden before. They will make a big difference in your garden; less work and

greater results.


CHECK LIST


Jan. 1st--Send for catalogues. Make planting plan and table. Order seeds.

Feb. 1st--Inside: cabbage, cauliflower, first sowing. Onions for plants.


Feb. 15th--Inside: lettuce, cabbage, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, beets.

March 1st--Inside: lettuce, celery, tomato (early).

March 15th--Inside: lettuce, tomato (main), eggplant, pepper, lima beans, cucumber, squash; sprout potatoes in sand.


April 1st--Inside: cauliflower (on sods), muskmelon, watermelon, corn. Outside: (seed-bed) celery, cabbage, lettuce. Onions, carrots, smooth peas, spinach, beets, chard, parsnip, turnip, radish. Lettuce, cabbage

(plants).

May 1st--Beans, corn, spinach, lettuce, radish.

May 15th--Beans, limas, muskmelon, watermelon, summer squash, peas, potatoes, lettuce, radish, tomato (early), corn, limas, melon, cucumber

and squash (plants). Pole-lima, beets, corn, kale, winter squash, pumpkin, lettuce, radish.

June 1st--Beans, carrots, corn, cucumber, peas, summer spinach, summer lettuce, radish, egg-plant, pepper, tomato (main plants).


June 15th--Beans, corn, peas, turnip, summer lettuce, radish, late cabbage, and tomato plants.

July 1st--Beans, endive, kale, lettuce, radish, winter cabbage, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts and celery plants.


July 15th--Beans, early corn, early peas, lettuce, radish.

Aug. 1st--Early peas, lettuce, radish.

Aug. 15th--Early peas, lettuce, radish in seed-bed, forcing lettuce for fall in frames.

Sept. 1st--Lettuce, radish, spinach and onions for wintering over.


NOTE.--This list is for planting only (the dates are approximate: see note I at the end of the chapter). Spraying and other garden operations may also be included in such a list. See "Calendar of Operations" at

end of book.


PLANTING TABLE


                                   DEPTH TO    -DISTANCE APART-

VEGETABLE PLANT[1] SOW--INs. SEEDS[2] ROWS


I. CROPS REMAINING ENTIRE SEASON


Asparagus, seed April-May 1 2-4 in. 15 in. Asparagus, plants April 4 1 ft. 3 ft. Bean, pole May 15-June 10 2 3 ft. 3 ft. Bean, lima May 20-June 10 2 3 ft. 3 ft.

Beet, late April-August 2 3-4 in. 15 in. Carrot, late May-July 1/2-1 2-3 in. 15 in. Corn, late May 20-July 10 2 3 ft. 4 ft. Cucumber May 10-July 15 1 4 ft. 4 ft.

Egg-plant, plants June 1-20 .. 2 ft. 30 in. Leek April .. 2-4 in. 15 in. Melon, musk May 15-June 15 1 4 ft. 4 ft. Melon, water May 15-June 15 1 6-8 ft. 6-8 ft.

Onion April 1/2-1 2-4 in. 15 in. Okra May 15-June 15 1/2-1 2 ft. 3 ft. Parsley[4] April-May 1/2 4-6 in. 1 ft. Parsnip April 1/2-1 3-5 in. 18 in.

Pepper, seed June 1st 1/2 3-6 in. 15 in. Pepper, plants June 1-20 .. 2 ft. 30 in. Potatoes, main April 15-June 20 4-6 13 in. 30 in. Pumpkins May 1-June 20 1-2 6-8 ft. 6-8 ft.

Rhubarb, plants April .. 2-3 ft. 3 ft. Salsify April-May 1 3-6 in. 18 in. Squash, summer May 15-July 1 1-2 4 ft. 4 ft. Squash, winter May 15-June 20 1-2 6-8 ft. 6-8 ft.

Tomato, seed June 1/2 3-4 in. 15 in. Tomato, plants May 15-July 20 .. 3 ft. 3 ft.

NOTE.--The index reference numbers refer to notes at end of chapter.



+---------+------------------------------------------

                 |SEED FOR |
                 | 50 FT.  |

VEGETABLE | ROW | VARIETIES


+---------+------------------------------------------

Asparagus, seed | 1 oz. | Palmetto, Giant Argenteuil, Barr's

                 |         |    Mammoth

Asparagus, plants | 50 | Palmetto, Giant Argenteuil, Barr's

                 |         |    Mammoth

Bean, pole | 1/2 pt. | Kentucky Wonder, Golden, Cluster,

                 |         |    Burger's Stringless

Bean, lima | 1/2 pt. | Early Leviathan, Giant Podded, Burpee

                 |         |    Improved

Beet, late | 1 oz. | Crimson Globe Carrot, late | 1/2 oz. | Danver's Half-long, Ox-heart, Chantenay Corn, late | 1/2 pt. | Seymour's Sweet Orange, White Evergreen,

                 |         |    Country Gentleman

Cucumber | 1/2 oz. | Early White Spine, Fordhook Famous, Davis

                 |         |    Perfect

Egg-plant, plants | 25 | Black Beauty, N.Y. Purple Leek | 1/2 oz. | American Flag

Melon, musk | 1/2 oz. | Netted Gem, Emerald Gem, Hoodoo Melon, water | 1/4 oz. | Cole's Early Sweetheart, Halbert Honey Onion | 1/2 oz. | Prizetaker, Danver's Globe, Ailsa Craig,

                 |         |    Southport Red Globe, Mammoth
                 |         |    Silverskin (white)

Okra | 1/2 oz. | Perfected Perkins, White Velvet Parsley | 1/2 oz. | Emerald

Parsnip | 1/4 oz. | Hollow Crowned (Improved) Pepper, seed | 1/2 oz. | Ruby King, Chinese Giant Pepper, plants | 25 | Ruby King, Chinese Giant Potatoes, main | 1/2 pk. | Irish Cobbler, Green Mountain, Uncle Sam

                 |         |    (Norton Beauty, Norwood, early)

Pumpkins | 1/4 oz. | Large Cheese, Quaker Pie Rhubarb, plants | 25 | Myatt's Victoria Salsify | 3/4 oz. | Mammoth Sandwich

Squash, summer | 1/4 oz. | White Bush, Delicata, Fordhook, Vegetable

                 |         |    Marrow

Squash, winter | 1/4 oz. | Hubbard, Delicious Tomato, seed | 1/2 oz. | Earliana, Chalk's Jewel, Matchless, Dwarf

                 |         |    Giant

Tomato, plants | 20 | Earliana, Chalk's Jewel, Matchless, Dwarf

                 |         |    Giant

+---------+------------------------------------------


PLANTING TABLE


                                   DEPTH TO    -DISTANCE APART-

VEGETABLE PLANT[1] SOW--INs. SEEDS[3] ROWS


II. CROPS FOR SUCCESSION PLANTINGS


Bean, dwarf May 5-Aug 15 2 2-4 in. 1-1/2-2 ft. Kohlrabi[4] April-July 1/2 - 1 6-12 in. 1-1/2-2 ft. Lettuce[4] April-August 1/2 1 ft. 1-1-1/2 ft.

Peas, smooth April 1-Aug 1 2-3 2-4 in. 3 ft. Peas, wrinkled April 10-July 15 2-3 2-4 in. 3-4 ft. Radish April 1-Sept 1 1/2 2-3 in. 1 ft. Spinach April-Sept 15 1 3-5 in. 18 in.

Turnip April-Sept 1/2-1 4-6 in. 15 in.

III. CROPS TO BE FOLLOWED BY OTHERS

Beet, early April-June 2 3-4 in. 15 in. Broccoli, early[4] April 1/2-1 1-1/2 ft. 2 ft.

Borecole[4] April 1/2-1 2 ft. 2-1/2 ft. Brussels sprouts[4] April 1/2-1 1-1/2 ft. 2 ft. Cabbage, early[4] April 1/2-1 1-1/2 ft. 2 ft. Carrot April 1/2-1 2-3 in. 15 in.

Cauliflower[4] April 1/2-1 1-1/2 ft. 2 ft. Com, early May 10-20 2 3 ft. 3-4 ft. Onion sets April-May 15 1-2 2-4 in. 15 in. Peas April 1-May 1 2 2-4 in. 3 ft.

Crops in Sec. II.

IV. CROPS THAT MAY FOLLOW OTHERS

Beet, late July-August 2 3-4 in. 15 in. Borecole May-June[2] 1/2-1 2 ft. 2-1/2 ft. Broccoli May-June[2] 1/2-1 2 ft. 2-1/2 ft.

Brussels sprouts May-June[2] 1/2-1 1-1/2 ft. 2-1/2 ft. Cabbage late May-June[2] 1/2-1 2-1/2 ft. 2-1/2 ft. Cauliflower May-June[2] 1/2-1 2 ft. 2-1/2 ft. Celery, seed April 1/2 1-2 in. 1 ft.

Celery, plant July 1-Aug 1 .. 6 in. 3-4 ft. Endive[4] April-August 1/2 1 ft. 1 ft. Peas, late May 15-Aug 1 2-3 2-4 in. 4 ft. Crops in Sec. II.


II. CROPS FOR SUCCESSION PLANTINGS


+---------+------------------------------------------

                 |SEED FOR |
                 | 50 FT.  |

VEGETABLE | ROW | VARIETIES


+---------+------------------------------------------

Bean, dwarf | 1 pt. | Red Valentine Burpee's Greenpod,

                 |         |    Improved Refugee, Brittle Wax,
                 |         |    Rust-proof Golden Wax, Burpee's
                 |         |    White Wax

Kohlrabi | 1/4 oz | White Vienna Lettuce | 50 | Mignonette, Grand Rapids, May King,

                 |         |    Big Boston, New York, Deacon, Cos,
                 |         |    Paris White

Peas, smooth | 1 pt | American Wonder Peas, wrinkled | 1 pt | Gradus, Boston Unrivaled, Quite Content Radish | 1/2 oz. | Rapid Red, Crimson Globe, Chinese

Spinach | 1/2 oz. | Swiss Chard Beet, Long Season, Victoria Turnip | 1/3 oz. | White Milan, Petrowski, Golden Ball


III. CROPS TO BE FOLLOWED BY OTHERS

Beet, early | 1 oz. | Edmund's Early, Early Model

Broccoli, early | 35 | Early White French Borecole | 25 | Dwarf Scotch Curled Brussels sprouts | 35 | Dalkeith, Danish Prize Cabbage, early | 35 | Wakefield, Glory of Enkhuisen,

                 |         |    Early Summer, Succession, Savoy

Carrot | 1/2 oz. | Golden Ball, Early Scarlet Horn Cauliflower | 35 | Burpee's Best Early, Snowball, Sea-foam

                 |         |    Dry Weather

Corn, early | 1/3 pt. | Golden Bantam, Peep o' Day, Cory Onion sets | 2 pt. | Peas | 1 pt. |

Crops in Sec. II.


IV. CROPS THAT MAY FOLLOW OTHERS

Beet, late | 1 oz. | Crimson Globe

Borecole | 25 | Dwarf Scotch Curled Broccoli | 25 | Early White French Brussels sprouts | 35 | Dalkeith, Danish Prize Cabbage, late | 25 | Succession, Danish Ballhead Drumhead

Cauliflower | 25 | As above [Savoy, Mammoth Rock (red)] Celery, seed | 1 oz. | White Plume, Golden Self-blanching,

                 |         |    Winter Queen

Celery, plant | 100 | White Plume, Golden Self-blanching,

                 |         |    Winter Queen

Endive | 1/2 oz. | Broad-Leaved Batavian, Giant Fringed Peas, late | 1 pt. | Gradus

Crops in Sec. II.


REFERENCE NOTES FROM THE TABLES


1 In the vicinity of New York City. Each 100 miles north or south will make a difference of 5 to 7 days later or earlier.

2 This is for sowing the seed. It will take three to six weeks before plants are ready. Hence the advantage of using the seed-bed. For

instance, you can start your late cabbage about June 15th, to follow the first crop of peas, which should be cleared off by the 10th of July.

3 Distances given are those at which the growing _plants_ should

stand, after thinning. Seed in drills should be sown several times as thick.

4 Best started in seed-bed, and afterward transplanted; but may be sown when wanted and afterward thinned to the best plants.