Horsemanship for Women/Part 4

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Horsemanship for Women by Theodore Hoe Mead
Part 4

PART IV.


BUYING A SADDLE-HORSE.


The opening of the horse-market is not announced to ladies by cards of invitation, though such an innovation on the old-fashioned methods might prove a great success in the hands of a skilful dealer. Nevertheless, as soon as spring opens, all over the United States, ladies are "shopping" for horses, but by no means in their usual jaunty and self-confident way, for their eyes, which do them such good service at the silk or lace counter, take on a timid and hesitating expression in the presence of this unwonted problem. The acquisition of a saddle-horse by a young girl is usually a long and complicated operation, in the course of which her hopes are alternately raised and depressed day by day, to be at last very likely disappointed altogether. It often begins at breakfast-time, somewhat in the following fashion : "Dear papa, don't you think I might have a saddle-horse this season ? Eleanor B——'s uncle has given her a beauty, and we could ride together; and you know that is just the sort of exercise the doctor said would be good for me." The father hesitates, and few fathers there are who do not in their hearts long to grant the request; but he is a very busy man, and does not feel as if he could take any more cares upon his shoulders; and very likely he knows little about horses, and really has not the slightest idea how to set about such a purchase; and his mind misgives him as he remembers what he has heard of the tricks of dealers. So he says, "Oh, my dear, I don't see how we can manage it. "We should be cheated, to begin with, and pay twice as much as he is worth, and he would run away and throw you off; and then he would be always sick, and finally fall lame, and would have to be given away before the season is over." This is the critical point of this part of the little family transaction, and if the daughter has nothing more convincing to offer in reply than some vague statement that she is sure she sees plenty of good horses in the street, and that she does not see why her horse should be sick any more than any one else's, and that there must be plenty of good men to take care of him to be had at low wages, then probably her case is lost. But suppose that she replies: "Oh yes, papa, I know a horse that will do nicely and can't be sickly for he has worked all summer and not lost a day and he is eight years old and so has eaten all his wild oats by this time and he isn't a very pretty color but then we can buy him cheaper for that reason and I don't care so much for color as I do for shape and he is very well formed indeed his legs and feet are excellent and he has a broad shoulder and a pretty neck and head and we gave him a long drive the other day and he never missed a step and he isn't afraid of anything and I drove him fast up a steep hill and jumped out at the top to give him a bunch of clover and took the opportunity to listen to his breathing and to feel his pulse and there is nothing the matter with his heart or wind I assure you and I will promise to go to the stable once a day to see him." Then the chances are that, after laughing at the long sentence without a stop, and telling her she is a runaway filly herself, papa will say, "Well, suppose we take a look at this wonderful animal; we are not obliged to buy him, you know, unless we please, and I don't say what I may decide finally," and her case is won. To be able, however, to make the reply above supposed, simple as it sounds, indicates a very unusual amount of observation for a young girl.

There are many ladies who can at a glance tell real point lace from artificial, be the imitation never so good; but there are comparatively few who know the points of a horse, or can detect any but the most glaring defects or blemishes. The reason is simply want of practice, for the difference between the well-made and the ill-made horse, or between the sound animal and the spavined or foundered one, is far greater than that between the two pieces of lace above mentioned, which to most masculine eyes would appear exactly alike. With her superior delicacy of observation and quickness of perception, a woman ought to be, other things supposed equal, a better judge of horses than a man, and there must surely be a great many who, if they really believed this, would think it worth their while to master the small vocabulary of technical terms in which the information they require is always couched, and such would speedily find their reward in the opening of a new and interesting field of research. To begin with, how few ladies so much as know the names of the different parts of the animal! Head, legs, and body, eyes, ears, and tail, are about all the words in the feminine dictionary of horse lore, and whether the pasterns are not a disease of colts, the coronet a part of a bridle, and the frog a swelling in the throat, my lady knoweth not. A half-hour, however, given to the illustration on the following page, will remove once for all this preliminary difficulty, and will open the way to a consideration of the proper form and motion of the parts of which the names are here given:


PARTS AND "POINTS" OF THE HORSE, ALPHABETICALLY ARRANGED.

Arm, or True Arm (8, 8).—Extends from the point of the shoulder (29) to the elbow (10). It should be long.

Back.—This is one of the four parts which, according to Arab saying, should be short.

Back Sinew.—The powerful muscle back of the cannon-bone. It should be free from contact with the bone.

Barrel, or Chest.— Should be roomy, as not only the lungs, but all the organs of digestion, are contained in it.

Horsemanship for Women 150.png

PARTS AND "POINTS"

Belly.—This is one of the four parts which the Arab proverb says must be long.

Breast, or Bosom.—Should be deep, but not too broad, or speed will be diminished.

Cannon-bone (11).—The strong oval bone stretching between the knee and fetlock-joint in the fore-leg, and between the hock and fetlock-joint in the hind-leg.

Chin Groove.—The place just above the swell of the lower lip, in which the curb-chain should lie.

Coronet (14).—A cartilaginous band encircling the top of the hoof.

Crest.—The upper part of the back of the neck.

Croup (18).— Strictly speaking, the upper part of hind-quarters between hip and tail, but in a general way taken for that part of the body back of the saddle.

Curb-place (29).—A part of the hind-leg, six or eight inches below the point of the hock, where "curbs," or enlargement of the back sinew resulting from strain, are to be looked for.

Ear.—Neither too long nor very short.

Elbow (10).—Should not be nearly under the point of the shoulder, but considerably back of it, and should neither be turned out nor pressed against the ribs.

Eye.—Should be clear and full, and of a gentle expression.

Fetlock.—The tuft of hair at the back of the pastern-joint. When thick and coarse it indicates common blood.

Fetlock-joint (12).—Is between the shank and the pastern, and is the same as pastern-joint.

Flank (22).

Forearm (9).— Should be loug and muscular.

Forehead.—The broader, the more sense and courage. The average of six thorough-bred English horses was nine and a half inches.

Frog.—The triangular piece in centre of bottom of hoof.

Gaskin, or Lower Thigh (23).—Should be strong and long, reaching well down. Measured from the stifle-joint to the point of hock should be twenty-eight inches in a well-bred horse of fifteen hands and three-quarters.

Girth (30, 30). — Gives approximately the capacity of the lungs.

Heel. — Should not to be too high or contracted, that is, drawn to-gether.

Hip. — Should be broad, with powerful muscles.

Hip-joint (20). — Is not always easily discovered by an amateur.

Hock (25). — One of the most important of the points of the horse; should be large, clean — that is, without any rough protuberances on the bone — flat, and "with a good clean point standing clear of the rest of the joint."

Hoof. — Deep, like a cup; not flat, like a saucer,

Jaw. — Should be wide up toward the socket, to give room for windpipe, and permit of a graceful carriage of head.

Knee. — Can hardly be too large. Looked at from in front, should appear much wider than the leg, and should stretch out backward into a sharp edge, called the pisiform-bone.

Loins (17). — Broad, muscular, and arched slightly upward.

Lower Thigh. — See "Gaskin" (23).

Mane. — When thick and coarse, indicates inferior blood.

Muzzle (4). — Should be small, but with large nostril. A coarse muzzle indicates low breeding.

Nostril. — Open and prominent.

Pastern (13). — The short oblique bone between the fetlock and hoof. Should not be straighter than sixty, nor lower than forty-five degrees to the ground.

Pastern-joint (12). — Same as fetlock- joint.

Pisiform-bone (16). — At the back of the knee.

Point of the Hock (26).

Point of the Shoulder (29). — The lower end of the shoulder-blade, to which is jointed the true arm.

Poll. — The top of the head.

Quarters (21). — Should be muscular.

Ribs. — Should be well arched, and come up close to the hip.

Shoulder (7, 7). — Should be long and oblique.

Spavin Place (27). — Should be free from bony enlargement.

Stifle-joint (24). — Corresponds to the human knee.

Tail.—Not set on too high, but yet carried gracefully.

Thigh, or True Thigh.—Reaches from hip-joint to stifle. Should be long to give speed.

Thrapple, or Throttle (5).—Upper part of throat.

True Arm (8, 8).—See "Arm." To a careless observer it appears to form part of the shoulder.

Withers (6).—It is the height of the withers which gives the height of the horse.


To be a "good judge of a horse" is indeed an accomplishment as rare as it is desirable; but while it cannot be taught by word of mouth or pen, yet a few principles may be acquired which will be of great assistance in cultivating the eye. Even if the judgment be never so thoroughly formed as to be a safe guide unaided in purchasing, yet a great deal of pleasure may be derived from noting the comparative excellences of the really fine horses constantly to be seen in this country; and there is no reason in the world why a lady's opinion on this subject should continue to weigh as little as it has generally done hitherto. A graceful neck and an air of spirit usually win the feminine suffrages, yet often co-exist with a long back, spindle-shanks, and a chest both shallow and narrow. Nevertheless, a good neck is an excellent thing, and so is a small head, especially if it have a wide forehead; but next look to see if there is also (to use a horsey expression), "a short back and a long belly," a deep chest, a sloping shoulder, and legs broad and long above the knee and hock, but broad and short below.

The Arabs have a proverb that "there should be four points of a horse long, four short, and four broad. "The long are the neck, the forearm, the thigh, and the belly; the short are the back, the pastern, the tail, and the ear; the broad are the forehead, the chest, the croup, and the limbs. The head should be small and bony; that of an English thorough-bred of fifteen and three-quarter hands will measure twenty-two to twenty-four inches in length, with the forehead eight to ten inches broad, the face dishing below the eyes. The withers should be high, the shoulder as broad as possible—not fleshy, but bony—and lying at an angle of about forty-five degrees. The chest should be broad and deep, to give room for lungs and heart. The knees should be broad, the hoofs large, and not flat, but deep.

The reasons for some of the above recommendations may be made clearer by a rough comparison between the frame of the horse and that of man. For instance, the shoulder of the former, from the withers to its forward point at the joint, is equivalent to the shoulder-blade and collar-bone of the latter, and a broad shoulder is as sure an indication of strength in the one as in the other. If the horse is "short above and long below," it gives him a carriage similar to that of a man with a full, broad chest, who holds his head high and his shoulders back.

The knee of the horse corresponds to the human wrist, and his hock, or "back knee," as the children call it, to our heel. The shank of the fore-leg, then, or the part between the knee and fetlock, corresponds to the hand, and the hoof and pastern to the fingers; while the shank of the hind-leg, or the part between hock and fetlock, corresponds to our foot, the hoof and pastern being the toes. The horse may thus be said to walk upon the tips of his fingers and toes, and it will readily be seen why the leg weakens in proportion as the pastern and shank lengthen. The arm proper of the horse is very short and almost concealed from view, reaching from the forward point of the shoulder to the elbow, which is close against the side.

The more oblique the shoulder, the greater the power of this arm to throw the forearm forward, so as to support the body in the gallop, and in coming down from a leap. A straight shoulder is adapted for pulling loads, but is not fit for the saddle, except upon level roads, becoming positively dangerous in broken ground. The two upper members of the hind-leg, reaching from the hip to the hock, are together commonly called the thigh, as the thigh proper, which stretches from the hip to the stifle-joint, is very short and almost concealed from observation. The stifle-joint, which corresponds to our knee, lies close against the flank. Read the description, to some extent traditional, of the wonderful mare Swallow, in Kingsley's "Hereward the Wake." She was evidently not from Arab stock, with her big ugly head; but horses—like men and women—of extraordinary strength, and beauty too, are sometimes happened upon in the most unlikely places. Indeed, in many an ungraceful form there is stored up an amount of vital energy which explains the saying that one can find "good horses of all shapes." Nevertheless, the presumption is always in favor of the well-shaped animal, and the acknowledged type of equine beauty is the English thorough-bred. This is of pure Arab blood, but so improved by many generations of careful breeding and training that it now excels not only all other European and Oriental races but the modern Arab himself, that is considered to be, weight for weight, twenty - five per cent, stronger than other breeds. One invariable mark of Arab blood, by-the-bye, is a high and graceful carriage of the tail. The eye should be kind and quiet, that of an Arab very gentle, even sleepy, when at rest, but full of fire and animation when in motion.

"The relative proportions of and exact shape desirable in each of the points described varies considerably in the several breeds. Thus, when speed and activity are essential, an oblique shoulder-blade is a sine quâ non, while for heavy harness it can hardly be too upright. There are some elements, however, which are wanted in any horse, such as big hocks and knees, flat legs with large sinews, open jaws (that is, with the lower jaw-bones wide apart), and full nostrils."

It is well, after taking a general look at a horse and getting an impression of him as a whole, to divide him up mentally into sections, and examine these in detail one after the other. Taking first the head, which should be bony, not fleshy, remember that the more brain the more "horse sense." Next look at the neck, which should be neither too thick nor too long, but connecting head and shoulders by a graceful sweep. Then the fore-quarters, observing that the shoulder-blade and true arm are both long, well supplied though not loaded with muscle, and join each other at the point of the shoulder at a rather sharp angle. Then the "middle-piece," which should be rounded in the barrel, arched slightly in the loin, "short above and long below," and well ribbed up towards the hip. Next the hind-quarters, then the legs, knees, hocks, and feet, observing that the knees are firm, the cannon-bones and pastern are flat and strong, and that the back sinew is strong and stands free from the bone.

Now have the horse set in motion, and observe him first from one side, then from the other, and then from behind, noting the carriage and movements of the different parts in the order above given. This examination is practically the more important of the two.

Let no one suppose that mere verbal instruction, however judicious and elaborate, will, without practice, make a good judge of horse-flesh any more than it will of Brussels point-lace. All it is here intended to do is to aid in training the eye, which must be constantly exercised upon whatever specimens may come before it, comparing them mentally with one another, and noting their defects and qualities whether of form or of motion. It will soon be found that such observations, particularly when relating to the motions of the horse, have a fascination peculiarly their own, and open a new and wide field of amusement.

In examining a horse a lady cannot of course usually make the thorough inspection personally which would be necessary to warrant his limbs and wind perfectly sound, but she can, by taking a little time to it, form an opinion which will be very nearly correct. She should first master the vocabulary at the end of this chapter, which will give her an idea what defects to be on the lookout for, and just where to seek for them; and she should cultivate her eye at every opportunity by scanning critically every horse she sees—or, to be more moderate, say one or two a day—endeavoring to detect a "spavin" or "curb," or what not, which the owner does not suspect or perhaps shuts his eyes to. Then, when a horse is brought up for her approval, let her take her own time, refuse to be hurried or hum- bugged, but, as already suggested, look him over from all sides, at rest and in motion, and finally get him on trial for a week. This last precaution is the most valuable of all, and worth, as "Stonehenge" says, ten per cent, on the price of the animal, and it can very often be obtained by the simple offer of paying for his services in case he is not purchased; indeed, some of the most successful New York City dealers grant this privilege to any responsible customer as a matter of course. To return to our inspection: First take a side view from a little distance, observing that he stands perpendicularly on all four legs, bearing equal weight on each; any "pointing," or putting forward of a fore- foot to relieve it of its share of weight, being indicative of tenderness if not lameness. Notice the size, shape, and relative proportion of the different parts, and scrutinize them carefully for swellings, or for weakened or deformed joints. Then do the same from before, then from behind. Now have him led past you, first at a walk, then at a slow trot, insisting that the groom shall not take him by the headstall, but by the end of the halter, so as to leave him free to nod his head if he pleases. Now have him saddled and bridled, and all his paces shown, finishing with a smart gallop long enough to sweat him well, after which listen carefully to his breathing, which should be noiseless; observe that the heaving of the flanks is regular and not spasmodic, and that the beating of the heart is not violent or irregular. During vour week of trial take some disinterested person with you to serve as witness in case of accident or misconduct, and work the horse hard every day, so as to be sure that he does not lose his appetite when fatigued, but being careful not to injure his feet by galloping on hard roads, or to let him slip or strain himself in any way. Remember the oft-quoted words of the English stable-man: "It ain't the speed that 'urts the 'orse; it's the 'ammer, 'ammer, 'ammer on the 'ard 'igh-road." After your first ride, leave the saddle on for twenty minutes with the girths slackened,

Horsemanship for Women 160.png
THE SORT OF HORSE TO BUY.

and next morning, before putting it on again, examine the back carefully for any soreness or puffy spot, and if such exist, abstain from riding until it has quite disappeared, for a day of patience now is better than a week after a saddle-gall has become fairly established. The saddle, of course, should fit the horse well, and there should always be a free space along above the backbone and withers.

The cut on the preceding page shows a saddle-horse of the very best form for a lady's use.

The color of a horse is an important factor in the price, except in the case of animals of extraordinary qualities; and although different persons have their special preferences, yet probably the order of the following list will give the average taste of the horse-buying public:

1. Blood bay with black points; that is, with mane, tail, and legs from the knee downward black.

2. Rich chestnut.

3. Rich brown.

4. Common bay with black points.

5. Common chestnut.

6. Dark dapple gray.

7. Full black.

8. Light bay with brown legs.

9. White.

10. Common gray.

11. Brownish-black.

12. Sorrel.

When your decision is finally made, obtain (from the person selling) a warranty, which had better be written upon the bill itself, giving the height, age, and color of the horse, and stating that he is sound, kind, goes well under the saddle and in single or double harness, and is afraid of nothing.

The vices which in the eye of the law make a horse returnable are Biting, Cribbing, Kicking, Rearing when dangerous, and Shying when dangerous.

In estimating the height of a horse it is convenient to remember that fifteen hands make exactly five feet—a "hand" being four inches, or a third of a foot.

To aid the inexperienced we give a cut showing a horse, originally of high spirit but faulty organization, broken down by ill usage, and also append a list of the various defects and ailments which every horse-owner ought to know something about.


LIST OF DISEASES AND DEFECTS.

[Those printed in small capitals constitute Unsoundness in the eye of the law.]

Acclimation.—Horses removed from one part of the country to another have usually a period of indisposition, often of severe illness, and always for some time require more than ordinary care. It is well, therefore, not to buy a Western horse in the Atlantic States until he has been at least a month in his new surroundings.

Apoplexy.—Sometimes called "sleepy staggers." Begins with drowsiness, passing into insensibility, with snoring respiration, and ending in death.

Blindness.—Often comes on gradually. Eyes of a bluish-black are thought suspicious, as is inflammation of ball or lid, or cloudiness of pupil.

Blind staggers.—See "Megrims" and "Staggers."

Bog-spavin.—A soft swelling on the inner side of the hock-joint towards the front. It is caused by the formation of a sac
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THE SORT OF HORSE NOT TO BUY.

containing synovial fluid which has oozed out of the joint. The result usually of brutality. Incurable.

Blood-spavin. — A swelling in nearly the same place caused by an aneurism or sac of arterial blood. Incurable. Very rare.

Bone-spavin. — A swelling caused by a bony growth on the inside of the hock-joint towards the front. It produces lameness, which sometimes passes off temporarily after a few minutes' work. Sometimes curable. This is what is usually meant by spavin.

Bots. — Caused by the larvae of the bot-fly, which cling to the lining of the stomach by their two hooks till after several months they reach maturity and pass out with the droppings. They seem to do little harm, and should be left alone, as they cannot be destroyed by any medicine safe for a horse to take.

Breaking Down. — A rupture of the tendons of the leg causing the fetlock-joint to give way downward. Incurable.

Broken Knee. — Indicated by white or bare spots, showing that the horse has been down, and is presumably a stumbler.

Broken Wind. — Accompanied by a husky cough, and indicated by heaving flanks and forcible double respiration after exercise. Incurable.

Capped Hock. — A soft movable swelling on point of hock, caused by a bruise, usually got in kicking.

Cataract. — Opacity of the crystalline lens of the eye.

Chapped Heels. — Always the result of neglect, Often accompanied by fever and constitutional disturbance.

Cold. — Shown by dulness, rough coat, loss of appetite, tears and running at the nose. Give soft food and nurse well without exercise.

Colic. — Distinguished from inflammation of the bowels by intervals of quiet between the spasms, and by the fact that the horse will strike his belly violently in the hope of relief. Give first a warm injection, to remove any obstruction in lower bowel, and then administer stimulants.

Contracted Heels. — Often caused by improper shoeing, but often natural, and in this case producing no ill result.

Corns. — Do not at all resemble human corns. A corn is a reddish and very sensitive spot in the sole of the foot under the shoe, caused by a rupture of the delicate blood-vessels, resulting in an abnormal fungoid growth.

Costiveness.—May bring on "blind staggers" in a horse inclined to this disease. No horse should be hurried when first taken out till his bowels have been moved.

Cough.—Constitutes unsoundness while it lasts. Caused by foul air, dusty food, irregular work. Crush the oats, damp the hay, and give linseed tea for drink.

Cribbing, or Crib-biting.—Is sometimes considered a vice, but is doubtless a result of indigestion. The horse lays hold of the manger with his teeth, straightens his neck, sucks wind into his stomach, and ejects gas. Probably some alkali, say lime-water or baking soda, would be beneficial.

Curb.—A soft, painful swelling on the back of the hind-leg six or eight inches below the hock. See illustration.

Cutting.—See "Interfering" and "Speedy Cut."

Discharge from Nostril.—Is usually caused by a simple cold, but may be a symptom of the contagious and incurable disease glanders, and proximity to it should therefore be carefully avoided.

Distemper.—A disease of young horses, occurring once only. See "Strangles."

Ewe Neck.—Carries the head high and nearly in a horizontal position, so that the bit has not a proper bearing on the "bars," but is inclined to slip back towards the grinders.

Farcy.—An incurable and contagious disease, caused by blood-poisoning, and indicated by sores usually on inside of thigh, or on neck and hips. As it is communicable to human beings, every farcied horse should be immediately killed. It is well to avoid all approach to horses having sores of any kind. See "Glanders."

Filled Legs.—A swelled condition of the lower parts, usually caused by want of exercise, and relieved by bandaging and rubbing.

Fistula of the Withers.—An abscess among the muscles over the shoulder-blades, usually caused by pressure of saddle upon the bony ridge of back. Requires surgical operation.

Forging.—See "Overreaching."

Founder, or Fever in the Feet.—An inflammation of the parts between the crust of the foot and the pedal-bone, including the laminæ, which cease to secrete horn. It is caused sometimes by hard roads, and sometimes by eating or drinking or standing in a draught of air when heated. This name is commonly applied to any rheumatic lameness of the fore-feet or legs brought on as above, whether its seat be the feet, the tendons of the legs, or the muscles of the breast, in which last case it is called "chest-founder." The treatment, which is only palliative, is hot bathing and friction with liniments.

Gadfly Bites.—Often very annoying. May be prevented by washing legs and flanks with a strong tea of green elder bark.

Galls—from saddle.—Best prevented by leaving the saddle in place for twenty minutes after loosening the girths. When occurring, however, should receive prompt attention, as they are very tedious if neglected. Examine the back carefully after the first ride on a new horse, and also before putting on the saddle the next day.

Glanders.— A disgusting, contagious, and incurable disease, the chief symptom of which is a discharge from one nostril, at first transparent, then slightly sticky, then thick and yellow. As it is highly contagious to human beings, in whom it is equally dreadful and always fatal, a glandered horse should be instantly killed, as the law requires. It is well to avoid all horses having any discharge, however slight, from the nose. Glanders may be caught from "farcy," and vice versa.

Grapes.— A filthy and incurable disease of heels and pastern, caused by gross neglect. It is the last stage of "grease."

Grease.—An aggravated form of "chapped heels," accompanied by swelling, fever and a serous discharge. Wash clean frequently, and anoint with Dalley's salve.

Gripes.— See "Colic."

Heart Disease.—May be detected by auscultation. Incurable. Ends in sudden death.

Heaves. — See "Broken Wind."

Hide-bound. — The skin appears too tight, and as if fast to the ribs. It is caused by a disordered stomach, and requires nourishing food.

Inflammation of Bowels. — The pain is continuous, and the horse is careful not actually to strike his belly with his feet. Requires, of course, very different treatment from colic, but an injection should be the first thing done.

Interfering. — Striking the fetlock-joint with the foot. Caused sometimes by weakness and fatigue, but usually by bad shoeing, and a good blacksmith is the best adviser.

Lampas. — A swelling of the gums, relieved by lancing.

Knee-sprung. — Incurable. Result of overwork.

Knuckled. — Same as "set over." A condition of the fetlockjoint corresponding to that of the "sprung" knee.

Laminitis. — The scientific name of "founder."

Mad Staggers. — Violent insanity, caused by inflammation of the brain. The last stage sometimes of sleepy staggers. Incurable.

Mallenders. — A scurvy patch at the back of the knee, caused by neglect, and not obstinate.

Mange. — An itch produced by a parasitic insect.

Megrims. — A falling-sickness like epilepsy. It begins with a laying back of the ears and shaking of the head; is accompanied by convulsions; and passes off of itself in two or three minutes, the horse appearing to be none the worse. Often called "Blind Staggers."

Navicular Disease. — An ulceration of the navicular-joint in the foot, causing lameness; incurable, except by extirpation of the nerve.

Nerved. — A nerved horse has had one of the nerves of the foot cut to remove the pain and lameness caused by the "navicular disease."

Ophthalmia. — A purulent inflammation of the eye. Epidemic.

Organic Disease of the bony system anywhere constitutes unsoundness.

Overreaching. — Striking the toe of the front-foot with the toe of the hind-foot; sometimes called "clicking." Often remedied by shoeing.

Poll-evil.—An abscess in the top of the neck, near the head, caused by a blow.

Pumice Foot.—Bulging sole, weak crust, the result of "laminitis." Incurable.

Quarter Crack.—Occurs usually on the inside of fore-foot. A bad sign, as well as very slow and troublesome to cure.

Quidding.—Dropping the food half chewed from the mouth. Indicative of sore throat.

Quittor.—Burrowing abscess in the foot.

Rheumatism.—Cause, effect, and treatment the same as for human beings.

Ring-bone.—An enlargement of the bone by growth, a little above the coronet.

Roaring.—Caused by a contraction of windpipe. Incurable.

Ruptures of all kinds constitute unsoundness.

Saddle-gall.—Swelling caused by chafing of saddle. If the skin is broken it is called a "sitfast;" if not, a "warble."

Sallenders.— Scurvy patch in front of hock-joint.

Sand Crack.—Occurs on the inside of fore-foot and on the toe of the hind-foot.

Scratches.—See "Chapped Heels."

Scouring.—Looseness of the bowels.

Seedy Toe.—A separation of the crust of the hoof from the laminæ, the result of laminitis. Scarcely curable.

Side-bone.—A bony growth just above the coronet, causing lameness. Incurable.

spavin.—See "Bone, Blood, and Bog Spavin."

Speedy Cut.—A cut of the knee from the foot of opposite leg. Dangerous, because the pain often causes the horse to fall.

Staggers.— See "Apoplexy." "Sleepy," " Trotting," and "Mad " Staggers are different forms and stages of the same disease, caused usually by overfeeding.

Strangles, or Colt Distemper.—A severe swelling of the glands of the throat, which gathers and breaks.

String-halt or Spring-halt.—A peculiar snatching up of the hind-leg, caused by some nervous disorder. Incurable.

Surfeit.—An eruption of round, blunt spots, caused by heating food.

Thick Wind.—Defective respiration without noise. Incurable.

Thickening of Back Sinews.—Result of strain.

Thrush.—An offensive discharge from the frog, the result of inflammation, caused by want of cleanliness or overwork, etc.

Thorough-pin.—A sac of synovial fluid formed between the bones of the hock from side to side.

Warble.—A saddle-gall when simply swollen but not broken.

Warts.—Should be removed, as they tend to spread.

Whirlbone Lameness.—Lameness of hip joint.

Windgalls, or Puffs.—Little oval swellings just above the fetlock-joint between the back sinew and the bone.

Worms.—Sometimes troublesome, but less so than often supposed.

Whistling.—Caused by a contraction of windpipe. Incurable.