Housing and Community Development Act of 1992/Title XIII

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==TITLE XIII — GOVERNMENT SPONSORED ENTERPRISES==

Sec. 1301. Short Title.[edit]

This title may be cited as the ``Federal Housing Enterprises Financial Safety and Soundness Act of 1992´´.

Sec. 1302. Congressional Findings.[edit]

The Congress finds that—
(1) the Federal National Mortgage Association and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (referred to in this section collectively as the `enterprises´), and the Federal Home Loan Banks (referred to in this section as the `Banks´), have important public missions that are reflected in the statutes and charter Acts establishing the Banks and the enterprises;
(2) because the continued ability of the Federal National Mortgage Association and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation to accomplish their public missions is important to providing housing in the United States and the health of the Nation's economy, more effective Federal regulation is needed to reduce the risk of failure of the enterprises;
(3) considering the current operating procedures of the Federal National Mortgage Association, the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, and the Federal Home Loan Banks, the enterprises and the Banks currently pose low financial risk of insolvency;
(4) neither the enterprises nor the Banks, nor any securities or obligations issued by the enterprises or the Banks, are backed by the full faith and credit of the United States;
(5) an entity regulating the Federal National Mortgage Association and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation should have sufficient autonomy from the enterprises and special interest groups;
(6) an entity regulating such enterprises should have the authority to establish capital standards, require financial disclosure, prescribe adequate standards for books and records and other internal controls, conduct examinations when necessary, and enforce compliance with the standards and rules that it establishes;
(7) the Federal National Mortgage Association and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation have an affirmative obligation to facilitate the financing of affordable housing for low- and moderate-income families in a manner consistent with their overall public purposes, while maintaining a strong financial condition and a reasonable economic return; and
(8) the Federal Home Loan Bank Act should be amended to emphasize that providing for financial safety and soundness of the Federal Home Loan Banks is the primary mission of the Federal Housing Finance Board.

Sec. 1303. Definitions.[edit]

For purposes of this title:
(1) AFFILIATE.—
Except as provided by the Director, the term `affiliate´ means any entity that controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with, an enterprise.
(2) CAPITAL DISTRIBUTION.—
(A) IN GENERAL.—
The term `capital distribution´ means—
(i) any dividend or other distribution in cash or in kind made with respect to any shares of, or other ownership interest in, an enterprise, except a dividend consisting only of shares of the enterprise;
(ii) any payment made by an enterprise to repurchase, redeem, retire, or otherwise acquire any of its shares, including any extension of credit made to finance an acquisition by the enterprise of such shares; and
(iii) any transaction that the Director determines by regulation to be, in substance, the distribution of capital.
(B) EXCEPTION.—
Any payment made by an enterprise to repurchase its shares for the purpose of fulfilling an obligation of the enterprise under an employee stock ownership plan that is qualified under section 401 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 or any substantially equivalent plan, as determined by the Director, shall not be considered a capital distribution.
(3) COMPENSATION.—
The term `compensation´ means any payment of money or the provision of any other thing of current or potential value in connection with employment.
(4) CORE CAPITAL.—
The term `core capital´ means, with respect to an enterprise, the sum of the following (as determined in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles):
(A) The par or stated value of outstanding common stock.
(B) The par or stated value of outstanding perpetual, noncumulative preferred stock.
(C) Paid-in capital.
(D) Retained earnings.
The core capital of an enterprise shall not include any amounts that the enterprise could be required to pay, at the option of investors, to retire capital instruments.
(5) DIRECTOR.—
The term `Director´ means the Director of the Office of Federal Housing Enterprise Oversight of the Department of Housing and Urban Development.
(6) ENTERPRISE.—
The term `enterprise´ means—
(A) the Federal National Mortgage Association and any affiliate thereof; and
(B) the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation and any affiliate thereof.
(7) EXECUTIVE OFFICER.—
The term `executive officer´ means, with respect to an enterprise, the chairman of the board of directors, chief executive officer, chief financial officer, president, vice chairman, any executive vice president, and any senior vice president in charge of a principal business unit, division, or function.
(8) LOW-INCOME.—
The term `low-income´ means—
(A) in the case of owner-occupied units, income not in excess of 80 percent of area median income; and
(B) in the case of rental units, income not in excess of 80 percent of area median income, with adjustments for smaller and larger families, as determined by the Secretary.
(9) MEDIAN INCOME.—
The term `median income´ means, with respect to an area, the unadjusted median family income for the area, as determined and published annually by the Secretary.
(10) MODERATE-INCOME.—
The term `moderate-income´ means—
(A) in the case of owner-occupied units, income not in excess of area median income; and
(B) in the case of rental units, income not in excess of area median income, with adjustments for smaller and larger families, as determined by the Secretary.
(11) MORTGAGE PURCHASES.—
The term `mortgage purchases´ includes mortgages purchased for portfolio or securitization.
(12) MULTIFAMILY HOUSING.—
The term `multifamily housing´ means a residence consisting of more than 4 dwelling units.
(13) NEW PROGRAM.—
The term `new program´ means any program for the purchasing, servicing, selling, lending on the security of, or otherwise dealing in, conventional mortgages that—
(A) is significantly different from programs that have been approved under this Act or that were approved or engaged in by an enterprise before the date of the enactment of this Act; or
(B) represents an expansion, in terms of the dollar volume or number of mortgages or securities involved, of programs above limits expressly contained in any prior approval.
(14) OFFICE.—
The term `Office´ means the Office of Federal Housing Enterprise Oversight of the Department of Housing and Urban Development.
(15) SECRETARY.—
The term `Secretary´ means the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development.
(16) SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING.—
The term `single family housing´ means a residence consisting of 1 to 4 dwelling units.
(17) STATE.—
The term `State´ means the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and any other territory or possession of the United States.
(18) TOTAL CAPITAL.—
The term `total capital´ means, with respect to an enterprise, the sum of the following:
(A) The core capital of the enterprise;
(B) A general allowance for foreclosure losses, which—
(i) shall include an allowance for portfolio mortgage losses, an allowance for nonreimbursable foreclosure costs on government claims, and an allowance for liabilities reflected on the balance sheet for the enterprise for estimated foreclosure losses on mortgage-backed securities; and
(ii) shall not include any reserves of the enterprise made or held against specific assets.
(C) Any other amounts from sources of funds available to absorb losses incurred by the enterprise, that the Director by regulation determines are appropriate to include in determining total capital.
(19) VERY LOW-INCOME.—
The term `very low-income´ means—
(A) in the case of owner-occupied units, income not in excess of 60 percent of area median income; and
(B) in the case of rental units, income not in excess of 60 percent of area median income, with adjustments for smaller and larger families, as determined by the Secretary.

Sec. 1304. Protection of Taxpayers Against Liability.[edit]

This title and the amendments made by this title may not be construed as obligating the Federal Government, either directly or indirectly, to provide any funds to the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, the Federal National Mortgage Association, or the Federal Home Loan Banks, or to honor, reimburse, or otherwise guarantee any obligation or liability of the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, the Federal National Mortgage Association, or the Federal Home Loan Banks. This title and the amendments made by this title may not be construed as implying that any such enterprise or Bank, or any obligations or securities of such an enterprise or Bank, are backed by the full faith and credit of the United States.


SUBTITLE A—SUPERVISION AND REGULATION OF ENTERPRISES

PART 1—FINANCIAL SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS REGULATOR

PART 2—AUTHORITY OF SECRETARY

PART 3—MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

SUBTITLE B—REQUIRED CAPITAL LEVELS FOR ENTERPRISES AND SPECIAL ENFORCEMENT POWERS

SUBTITLE C—ENFORCEMENT PROVISIONS

SUBTITLE D—AMENDMENTS TO CHARTER ACTS OF ENTERPRISES

SUBTITLE E—REGULATION OF FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK SYSTEM