Howard, Henry Granville Fitzalan- (DNB00)

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HOWARD, HENRY GRANVILLE FITZALAN-, fourteenth Duke of Norfolk (1815–1860), the eldest of the three sons of Henry Charles, thirteenth duke [q. v.] , by his wife Charlotte, eldest daughter of George Granville, first duke of Sutherland, was born on 7 Nov. 1815 in Great Stanhope Street, Mayfair. Like his two younger brothers, Edward George Fitzalan, afterwards Lord Howard of Glossop [q.v.], and Bernard Thomas, who died during his travels in the East at Cairo in 1846, he was educated at first privately, and was afterwards sent to Trinity College, Cambridge. On leaving the university, he entered the army as a cornet in the royal horse guards, but retired on attaining the rank of captain. At the general election of 1837 he was elected under his courtesy title of Lord Fitzalan M.P. for the borough of Arundel, a constituency which he represented for fourteen years altogether. While travelling in Greece during the autumn of the next year, he was prostrated by a serious illness at Athens, and was entertained at the British embassy there. On 19 June 1839 he married Augusta Marie Minna Catherine, younger daughter of Admiral Sir Edmund (afterwards Lord) Lyons, the ambassador at Athens. Soon after his marriage Fitzalan made at Paris the acquaintance of the Count de Montalembert, who became his intimate friend and biographer. At Paris Fitzalan regularly attended the services at Notre Dame, and formally joined the Roman catholic communion, becoming, according to Montalembert, 'the most pious layman of our times.' Thenceforward Fitzalan only took part in public life when some opportunity presented itself for furthering the interests of his coreligionists. On the death of his grandfather, Bernard Edward, twelfth duke of Norfolk [q.v.], in March 1842, Fitzalan assumed the title of Earl of Arundel and Surrey. Associated with the whigs from his entrance into the House of Commons, he found himself at last constrained to break away from them when they introduced the Ecclesiastical Titles Bill in 1850. His father, to whom he owed his seat, resolutely supported the bill, but he as resolutely opposed it at every stage.

When it became law he resigned his seat as representative of the family borough, and was at once returned as member for the city of Limerick, its representative, John O'Connell, one of the sons of the Liberator, retiring in his favour. On the dissolution of parliament in July 1852 he finally retired from the House of Commons. He took his seat in the House of Lords as Duke of Norfolk on the death of his father in February 1856. Disapproval of Lord Palmerston's policy led him to decline the order of the Garter when offered to him by that minister. He died at Arundel Castle on 25 Nov. 1860, aged 45. A pastoral letter, containing a panegyric by Cardinal Wiseman, was read in all the catholic churches in the diocese of Westminster on Sunday, 2 Dec. He administered his vast patrimony with rare liberality. The cardinal said of his charity: 'There is not a form of want or a peculiar application of alms which has not received his relief or co-operation.' By his wife, who survived him till 22 March 1886, he had three sons and eight daughters. His eldest son, Henry, succeeded as fifteenth duke, and his eldest daughter married J. R. Hope-Scott [q. v.]

The duke published: 1. 'A Few Remarks on the Social and Political Condition of British Catholics,' London, 1847, 8vo. 2. 'Letter to J. P. Plumptre, M.P., on the Bull "In Coena Domini,"' London, 1848, 8vo. 3. 'Observations on Diplomatic Relations with Rome,' London, 1848, 8vo, pp. 10. He also edited from the original manuscripts the 'Lives of Philip Howard, Earl of Arundel, and of Anne Dacres, his wife,' London, 1857, 8vo; 2nd edit., 1861.

[Personal recollections; Montalembert's monograph on Le Due de Norfolk in Le Correspondant, pp. 766-76, 25 Dec. 1860; Cardinal Wiseman's Pastoral, reprinted in the Times, 4 Dec. 1860; memoir in the Morning Star, 27 Nov. 1860; account of funeral in Times of same date; Tablet, 1 Dec. 1860, p. 760; Ann. Reg. 1860, p. 476; Gent. Mag. January 1861, p. 98.]

C. K.