Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995/Title VIII

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TITLE VIII—COUNTERINTELLIGENCE AND SECURITY[edit]

SEC. 801. SHORT TITLE.[edit]

This title may be cited as the ``Counterintelligence and Security Enhancements Act of 1994´´.

SEC. 802. ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION.[edit]

(a) AMENDMENT OF THE NATIONAL SECURITY ACT OF 1947—
The National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 401 et seq.) is amended by adding at the end the following new title:

``TITLE VIII—ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION

``PROCEDURES

``SEC. 801. (a) Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this title, the President shall, by Executive order or regulation, establish procedures to govern access to classified information which shall be binding upon all departments, agencies, and offices of the executive branch of Government. Such procedures shall, at a minimum—
``(1) provide that, except as may be permitted by the President, no employee in the executive branch of Government may be given access to classified information by any department, agency, or office of the executive branch of Government unless, based upon an appropriate background investigation, such access is determined to be clearly consistent with the national security interests of the United States;
``(2) establish uniform minimum requirements governing the scope and frequency of background investigations and reinvestigations for all employees in the executive branch of Government who require access to classified information as part of their official responsibilities;
``(3) provide that all employees in the executive branch of Government who require access to classified information shall be required as a condition of such access to provide to the employing department or agency written consent which permits access by an authorized investigative agency to relevant financial records, other financial information, consumer reports, and travel records, as determined by the President, in accordance with section 802 of this title, during the period of access to classified information and for a period of three years thereafter;
``(4) provide that all employees in the executive branch of Government who require access to particularly sensitive classified information, as determined by the President, shall be required, as a condition of maintaining access to such information, to submit to the employing department or agency, during the period of such access, relevant information concerning their financial condition and foreign travel, as determined by the President, as may be necessary to ensure appropriate security; and
``(5) establish uniform minimum standards to ensure that employees in the executive branch of Government whose access to classified information is being denied or terminated under this title are appropriately advised of the reasons for such denial or termination and are provided an adequate opportunity to respond to all adverse information which forms the basis for such denial or termination before final action by the department or agency concerned.
``(b)(1) Subsection (a) shall not be deemed to limit or affect the responsibility and power of an agency head pursuant to other law or Executive order to deny or terminate access to classified information if the national security so requires. Such responsibility and power may be exercised only when the agency head determines that the procedures prescribed by subsection (a) cannot be invoked in a manner that is consistent with the national security.
``(2) Upon the exercise of such responsibility, the agency head shall submit a report to the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives and the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate.

``REQUESTS BY AUTHORIZED INVESTIGATIVE AGENCIES

``SEC. 802. (a)(1) Any authorized investigative agency may request from any financial agency, financial institution, or holding company, or from any consumer reporting agency, such financial records, other financial information, and consumer reports as may be necessary in order to conduct any authorized law enforcement investigation, counterintelligence inquiry, or security determination. Any authorized investigative agency may also request records maintained by any commercial entity within the United States pertaining to travel by an employee in the executive branch of Government outside the United States.
``(2) Requests may be made under this section where—
``(A) the records sought pertain to a person who is or was an employee in the executive branch of Government required by the President in an Executive order or regulation, as a condition of access to classified information, to provide consent, during a background investigation and for such time as access to the information is maintained, and for a period of not more than three years thereafter, permitting access to financial records, other financial information, consumer reports, and travel records; and
``(B)(i) there are reasonable grounds to believe, based on credible information, that the person is, or may be, disclosing classified information in an unauthorized manner to a foreign power or agent of a foreign power;
``(ii) information the employing agency deems credible indicates the person has incurred excessive indebtedness or has acquired a level of affluence which cannot be explained by other information known to the agency; or
``(iii) circumstances indicate the person had the capability and opportunity to disclose classified information which is known to have been lost or compromised to a foreign power or an agent of a foreign power.
``(3) Each such request—
``(A) shall be accompanied by a written certification signed by the department or agency head or deputy department or agency head concerned, or by a senior official designated for this purpose by the department or agency head concerned (whose rank shall be no lower than Assistant Secretary or Assistant Director), and shall certify that—
``(i) the person concerned is or was an employee within the meaning of paragraph (2)(A);
``(ii) the request is being made pursuant to an authorized inquiry or investigation and is authorized under this section; and
``(iii) the records or information to be reviewed are records or information which the employee has previously agreed to make available to the authorized investigative agency for review;
``(B) shall contain a copy of the agreement referred to in subparagraph (A)(iii);
``(C) shall identify specifically or by category the records or information to be reviewed; and
``(D) shall inform the recipient of the request of the prohibition described in subsection (b).
``(b) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no governmental or private entity, or officer, employee, or agent of such entity, may disclose to any person, other than those officers, employees, or agents of such entity necessary to satisfy a request made under this section, that such entity has received or satisfied a request made by an authorized investigative agency under this section.
``(c)(1) Notwithstanding any other provision of law (other than section 6103 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986), an entity receiving a request for records or information under subsection (a) shall, if the request satisfies the requirements of this section, make available such records or information within 30 days for inspection or copying, as may be appropriate, by the agency requesting such records or information.
``(2) Any entity (including any officer, employee, or agent thereof) that discloses records or information for inspection or copying pursuant to this section in good faith reliance upon the certifications made by an agency pursuant to this section shall not be liable for any such disclosure to any person under this title, the constitution of any State, or any law or regulation of any State or any political subdivision of any State.
``(d) Any agency requesting records or information under this section may, subject to the availability of appropriations, reimburse a private entity for any cost reasonably incurred by such entity in responding to such request, including the cost of identifying, reproducing, or transporting records or other data.
``(e) An agency receiving records or information pursuant to a request under this section may disseminate the records or information obtained pursuant to such request outside the agency only—
``(1) to the agency employing the employee who is the subject of the records or information;
``(2) to the Department of Justice for law enforcement or counterintelligence purposes; or
``(3) with respect to dissemination to an agency of the United States, if such information is clearly relevant to the authorized responsibilities of such agency.
``(f) Nothing in this section may be construed to affect the authority of an investigative agency to obtain information pursuant to the Right to Financial Privacy Act (12 U.S.C. 3401 et seq.) or the Fair Credit Reporting Act (15 U.S.C. 1681 et seq.).

``EXCEPTIONS

``SEC. 803. Except as otherwise specifically provided, the provisions of this title shall not apply to the President and Vice President, Members of the Congress, Justices of the Supreme Court, and Federal judges appointed by the President.

``DEFINITIONS

``SEC. 804. For purposes of this title—
``(1) the term ``authorized investigative agency´´ means an agency authorized by law or regulation to conduct a counterintelligence investigation or investigations of persons who are proposed for access to classified information to ascertain whether such persons satisfy the criteria for obtaining and retaining access to such information;
``(2) the term ``classified information´´ means any information that has been determined pursuant to Executive Order No. 12356 of April 2, 1982, or successor orders, or the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, to require protection against unauthorized disclosure and that is so designated;
``(3) the term ``consumer reporting agency´´ has the meaning given such term in section 603 of the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 U.S.C. 1681a);
``(4) the term ``employee´´ includes any person who receives a salary or compensation of any kind from the United States Government, is a contractor of the United States Government or an employee thereof, is an unpaid consultant of the United States Government, or otherwise acts for or on behalf of the United States Government, except as otherwise determined by the President;
``(5) the terms ``financial agency´´ and ``financial institution´´ have the meanings given to such terms in section 5312(a) of title 31, United States Code, and the term ``holding company´´ has the meaning given to such term in section 1101(6) of the Right to Financial Privacy Act of 1978 (12 U.S.C. 3401);
``(6) the terms ``foreign power´´ and ``agent of a foreign power´´ have the same meanings as set forth in sections 101 (a) and (b), respectively, of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (50 U.S.C. 1801); and
``(7) the term ``State´´ means each of the several States of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the United States Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, and the Republic of Palau, and any other possession of the United States.´´.
(b) CLERICAL AMENDMENT—
The table of contents of the National Security Act of 1947 is amended by adding at the end the following:
``TITLE VIII—ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION
``Sec. 801. Procedures.
``Sec. 802. Requests by authorized investigative agencies.
``Sec. 803. Exceptions.
``Sec. 804. Definitions.´´.
(c) EFFECTIVE DATE—
The amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) shall take effect 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act.

SEC. 803. REWARDS FOR INFORMATION CONCERNING ESPIONAGE.[edit]

(a) REWARDS—
Section 3071 of title 18, United States Code, is amended—
(1) by inserting ``(a)´´ before ``With respect to´´; and
(2) by adding at the end the following new subsection:
``(b) With respect to acts of espionage involving or directed at the United States, the Attorney General may reward any individual who furnishes information—
``(1) leading to the arrest or conviction, in any country, of any individual or individuals for commission of an act of espionage against the United States;
``(2) leading to the arrest or conviction, in any country, of any individual or individuals for conspiring or attempting to commit an act of espionage against the United States; or
``(3) leading to the prevention or frustration of an act of espionage against the United States.´´.
(b) DEFINITIONS—
Section 3077 of such title is amended—
(1) by striking ``and´´ at the end of paragraph (6);
(2) by striking the period at the end of paragraph (7) and inserting ``; and´´; and
(3) by adding at the end the following new paragraph:
``(8) ``act of espionage´´ means an activity that is a violation of—
``(A) section 793, 794, or 798 of title 18, United States Code; or
``(B) section 4 of the Subversive Activities Control Act of 1950.´´.
(c) CLERICAL AMENDMENTS—
(1) The item relating to chapter 204 in the table of chapters for part II of such title is amended to read as follows:
``3071´´.
(2) The heading for chapter 204 of such title is amended to read as follows:
``CHAPTER 204—REWARDS FOR INFORMATION CONCERNING TERRORIST ACTS AND ESPIONAGE´´.

SEC. 804. CRIMINAL FORFEITURE FOR VIOLATION OF CERTAIN ESPIONAGE LAWS.[edit]

(a) IN GENERAL—
Section 798 of title 18, United States Code, is amended by adding at the end the following new subsection:
``(d)(1) Any person convicted of a violation of this section shall forfeit to the United States irrespective of any provision of State law—
``(A) any property constituting, or derived from, any proceeds the person obtained, directly or indirectly, as the result of such violation; and
``(B) any of the person's property used, or intended to be used, in any manner or part, to commit, or to facilitate the commission of, such violation.
``(2) The court, in imposing sentence on a defendant for a conviction of a violation of this section, shall order that the defendant forfeit to the United States all property described in paragraph (1).
``(3) Except as provided in paragraph (4), the provisions of subsections (b), (c), and (e) through (p) of section 413 of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 (21 U.S.C. 853 (b), (c), and (e)-(p)), shall apply to—
``(A) property subject to forfeiture under this subsection;
``(B) any seizure or disposition of such property; and
``(C) any administrative or judicial proceeding in relation to such property, if not inconsistent with this subsection.
``(4) Notwithstanding section 524(c) of title 28, there shall be deposited in the Crime Victims Fund established under section 1402 of the Victims of Crime Act of 1984 (42 U.S.C. 10601) all amounts from the forfeiture of property under this subsection remaining after the payment of expenses for forfeiture and sale authorized by law.
``(5) As used in this subsection, the term ``State´´ means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and any territory or possession of the United States.´´.
(b) AMENDMENTS FOR CONSISTENCY IN APPLICATION OF FORFEITURE UNDER TITLE 18—
(1) Section 793(h)(3) of such title is amended in the matter preceding subparagraph (A) by striking out ``(o)´´ each place it appears and inserting in lieu thereof ``(p)´´.
(2) Section 794(d)(3) of such title is amended in the matter preceding subparagraph (A) by striking out ``(o)´´ each place it appears and inserting in lieu thereof ``(p)´´.
(c) SUBVERSIVE ACTIVITIES CONTROL ACT—
Section 4 of the Subversive Activities Control Act of 1950 (50 U.S.C. 783) is amended by adding at the end the following new subsection:
``(e)(1) Any person convicted of a violation of this section shall forfeit to the United States irrespective of any provision of State law—
``(A) any property constituting, or derived from, any proceeds the person obtained, directly or indirectly, as the result of such violation; and
``(B) any of the person's property used, or intended to be used, in any manner or part, to commit, or to facilitate the commission of, such violation.
``(2) The court, in imposing sentence on a defendant for a conviction of a violation of this section, shall order that the defendant forfeit to the United States all property described in paragraph (1).
``(3) Except as provided in paragraph (4), the provisions of subsections (b), (c), and (e) through (p) of section 413 of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 (21 U.S.C. 853 (b), (c), and (e)-(p)) shall apply to—
``(A) property subject to forfeiture under this subsection;
``(B) any seizure or disposition of such property; and
``(C) any administrative or judicial proceeding in relation to such property, if not inconsistent with this subsection.
``(4) Notwithstanding section 524(c) of title 28, there shall be deposited in the Crime Victims Fund established under section 1402 of the Victims of Crime Act of 1984 (42 U.S.C. 10601) all amounts from the forfeiture of property under this subsection remaining after the payment of expenses for forfeiture and sale authorized by law.
``(5) As used in this subsection, the term ``State´´ means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and any territory or possession of the United States.´´.

SEC. 805. DENIAL OF ANNUITIES OR RETIRED PAY TO PERSONS CONVICTED OF ESPIONAGE IN FOREIGN COURTS INVOLVING UNITED STATES INFORMATION.[edit]

Section 8312 of title 5, United States Code, is amended by adding at the end thereof the following new subsection:
``(d)(1) For purposes of subsections (b)(1) and (c)(1), an offense within the meaning of such subsections is established if the Attorney General of the United States certifies to the agency administering the annuity or retired pay concerned—
``(A) that an individual subject to this chapter has been convicted by an impartial court of appropriate jurisdiction within a foreign country in circumstances in which the conduct violates the provisions of law enumerated in subsections (b)(1) and (c)(1), or would violate such provisions had such conduct taken place within the United States, and that such conviction is not being appealed or that final action has been taken on such appeal;
``(B) that such conviction was obtained in accordance with procedures that provided the defendant due process rights comparable to such rights provided by the United States Constitution, and such conviction was based upon evidence which would have been admissible in the courts of the United States; and
``(C) that such conviction occurred after the date of enactment of this subsection.
``(2) Any certification made pursuant to this subsection shall be subject to review by the United States Court of Claims based upon the application of the individual concerned, or his or her attorney, alleging that any of the conditions set forth in subparagraphs (A), (B), or (C) of paragraph (1), as certified by the Attorney General, have not been satisfied in his or her particular circumstances. Should the court determine that any of these conditions has not been satisfied in such case, the court shall order any annuity or retirement benefit to which the person concerned is entitled to be restored and shall order that any payments which may have been previously denied or withheld to be paid by the department or agency concerned.´´.

SEC. 806. POSTEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE FOR CERTAIN TERMINATED INTELLIGENCE EMPLOYEES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE.[edit]

(a) CONSOLIDATION AND EXTENSION OF AUTHORITY—
(1) IN GENERAL—
Chapter 81 of title 10, United States Code, is amended by adding at the end the following new section:
``Sec. 1599. Postemployment assistance: certain terminated intelligence employees
``(a) AUTHORITY— Subject to subsection (c), the Secretary of Defense may, in the case of any individual who is a qualified former intelligence employee, use appropriated funds—
``(1) to assist that individual in finding and qualifying for employment other than in an intelligence component of the Department of Defense;
``(2) to assist that individual in meeting the expenses of treatment of medical or psychological disabilities of that individual; and
``(3) to provide financial support to that individual during periods of unemployment.
``(b) QUALIFIED FORMER INTELLIGENCE EMPLOYEES— For purposes of this section, a qualified former intelligence employee is an individual who was employed as a civilian employee of the Department of Defense in a sensitive position in an intelligence component of the Department of Defense—
``(1) who has been found to be ineligible for continued access to information designated as ``Sensitive Compartmented Information´´ and employment with the intelligence component; or
``(2) whose employment with the intelligence component has been terminated.
``(c) CONDITIONS— Assistance may be provided to a qualified former intelligence employee under subsection (a) only if the Secretary determines that such assistance is essential to—
``(1) maintain the judgment and emotional stability of the qualified former intelligence employee; and
``(2) avoid circumstances that might lead to the unlawful disclosure of classified information to which the qualified former intelligence employee had access.
``(d) DURATION OF ASSISTANCE— Assistance may not be provided under this section in the case of any individual after the end of the five-year period beginning on the date of the termination of the employment of the individual with an intelligence component of the Department of Defense.
``(e) ANNUAL REPORT— (1) The Secretary of Defense shall submit to the congressional committees specified in paragraph (2) an annual report with respect to any expenditure made under this section.
``(2) The committees referred to in paragraph (1) are the following:
``(A) The Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations and the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives.
``(B) The Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations and the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate.
``(f) DEFINITION— In this section, the term ``intelligence component of the Department of Defense´´ means any of the following:
``(1) The National Security Agency.
``(2) The Defense Intelligence Agency.
``(3) The National Reconnaissance Office.
``(4) The Central Imagery Office.
``(5) The intelligence components of any of the military departments.´´.
(2) CLERICAL AMENDMENT—
The table of sections at the beginning of such chapter is amended by adding at the end the following new item:
``1599. Postemployment assistance: certain terminated intelligence employees.´´.
(b) REPEAL OF PREDECESSOR AUTHORITY—
(1) DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY—
Paragraph (4) of section 1604(e) of title 10, United States Code, is repealed.
(2) NATIONAL SECURITY AGENCY—
Section 17 of the National Security Agency Act of 1959 (50 U.S.C. 402 note) is repealed.

SEC. 807. PROVIDING A COURT ORDER PROCESS FOR PHYSICAL SEARCHES UNDERTAKEN FOR FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE PURPOSES.[edit]

(a) AMENDMENT OF THE FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE SURVEILLANCE ACT OF 1978—
The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (50 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.) is amended—
(1) by redesignating title III as title IV and section 301 as section 401, respectively;
(2) in section 401 (as so redesignated) by inserting ``(other than title III)´´ after ``provisions of this Act´´; and
(3) by inserting after title II the following new title:


``TITLE III—PHYSICAL SEARCHES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES FOR FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE PURPOSES

``DEFINITIONS

``SEC. 301. As used in this title:
``(1) The terms ``foreign power´´, ``agent of a foreign power´´, ``international terrorism´´, ``sabotage´´, ``foreign intelligence information´´, ``Attorney General´´, ``United States person´´, ``United States´´, ``person´´, and ``State´´ shall have the same meanings as in section 101 of this Act, except as specifically provided by this title.
``(2) ``Aggrieved person´´ means a person whose premises, property, information, or material is the target of physical search or any other person whose premises, property, information, or material was subject to physical search.
``(3) ``Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court´´ means the court established by section 103(a) of this Act.
``(4) ``Minimization procedures´´ with respect to physical search, means—
``(A) specific procedures, which shall be adopted by the Attorney General, that are reasonably designed in light of the purposes and technique of the particular physical search, to minimize the acquisition and retention, and prohibit the dissemination, of nonpublicly available information concerning unconsenting United States persons consistent with the need of the United States to obtain, produce, and disseminate foreign intelligence information;
``(B) procedures that require that nonpublicly available information, which is not foreign intelligence information, as defined in section 101(e)(1) of this Act, shall not be disseminated in a manner that identifies any United States person, without such person's consent, unless such person's identity is necessary to understand such foreign intelligence information or assess its importance;
``(C) notwithstanding subparagraphs (A) and (B), procedures that allow for the retention and dissemination of information that is evidence of a crime which has been, is being, or is about to be committed and that is to be retained or disseminated for law enforcement purposes; and
``(D) notwithstanding subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C), with respect to any physical search approved pursuant to section 302(a), procedures that require that no information, material, or property of a United States person shall be disclosed, disseminated, or used for any purpose or retained for longer than 24 hours unless a court order under section 304 is obtained or unless the Attorney General determines that the information indicates a threat of death or serious bodily harm to any person.
``(5) ``Physical search´´ means any physical intrusion within the United States into premises or property (including examination of the interior of property by technical means) that is intended to result in a seizure, reproduction, inspection, or alteration of information, material, or property, under circumstances in which a person has a reasonable expectation of privacy and a warrant would be required for law enforcement purposes, but does not include (A) ``electronic surveillance´´, as defined in section 101(f) of this Act, or (B) the acquisition by the United States Government of foreign intelligence information from international or foreign communications, or foreign intelligence activities conducted in accordance with otherwise applicable Federal law involving a foreign electronic communications system, utilizing a means other than electronic surveillance as defined in section 101(f) of this Act.

``AUTHORIZATION OF PHYSICAL SEARCHES FOR FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE PURPOSES

``SEC. 302. (a)(1) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the President, acting through the Attorney General, may authorize physical searches without a court order under this title to acquire foreign intelligence information for periods of up to one year if—
``(A) the Attorney General certifies in writing under oath that—
``(i) the physical search is solely directed at premises, information, material, or property used exclusively by, or under the open and exclusive control of, a foreign power or powers (as defined in section 101(a) (1), (2), or (3));
``(ii) there is no substantial likelihood that the physical search will involve the premises, information, material, or property of a United States person; and
``(iii) the proposed minimization procedures with respect to such physical search meet the definition of minimization procedures under paragraphs (1) through (4) of section 301(4); and
``(B) the Attorney General reports such minimization procedures and any changes thereto to the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives and the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate at least 30 days before their effective date, unless the Attorney General determines that immediate action is required and notifies the committees immediately of such minimization procedures and the reason for their becoming effective immediately.
``(2) A physical search authorized by this subsection may be conducted only in accordance with the certification and minimization procedures adopted by the Attorney General. The Attorney General shall assess compliance with such procedures and shall report such assessments to the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives and the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate under the provisions of section 306.
``(3) The Attorney General shall immediately transmit under seal to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court a copy of the certification. Such certification shall be maintained under security measures established by the Chief Justice of the United States with the concurrence of the Attorney General, in consultation with the Director of Central Intelligence, and shall remain sealed unless—
``(A) an application for a court order with respect to the physical search is made under section 301(4) and section 303; or
``(B) the certification is necessary to determine the legality of the physical search under section 305(g).
``(4)(A) With respect to physical searches authorized by this subsection, the Attorney General may direct a specified landlord, custodian, or other specified person to—
``(i) furnish all information, facilities, or assistance necessary to accomplish the physical search in such a manner as will protect its secrecy and produce a minimum of interference with the services that such landlord, custodian, or other person is providing the target of the physical search; and
``(ii) maintain under security procedures approved by the Attorney General and the Director of Central Intelligence any records concerning the search or the aid furnished that such person wishes to retain.
``(B) The Government shall compensate, at the prevailing rate, such landlord, custodian, or other person for furnishing such aid.
``(b) Applications for a court order under this title are authorized if the President has, by written authorization, empowered the Attorney General to approve applications to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a judge of the court to whom application is made may grant an order in accordance with section 304 approving a physical search in the United States of the premises, property, information, or material of a foreign power or an agent of a foreign power for the purpose of collecting foreign intelligence information.
``(c) The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court shall have jurisdiction to hear applications for and grant orders approving a physical search for the purpose of obtaining foreign intelligence information anywhere within the United States under the procedures set forth in this title, except that no judge shall hear the same application which has been denied previously by another judge designated under section 103(a) of this Act. If any judge so designated denies an application for an order authorizing a physical search under this title, such judge shall provide immediately for the record a written statement of each reason for such decision and, on motion of the United States, the record shall be transmitted, under seal, to the court of review established under section 103(b).
``(d) The court of review established under section 103(b) shall have jurisdiction to review the denial of any application made under this title. If such court determines that the application was properly denied, the court shall immediately provide for the record a written statement of each reason for its decision and, on petition of the United States for a writ of certiorari, the record shall be transmitted under seal to the Supreme Court, which shall have jurisdiction to review such decision.
``(e) Judicial proceedings under this title shall be concluded as expeditiously as possible. The record of proceedings under this title, including applications made and orders granted, shall be maintained under security measures established by the Chief Justice of the United States in consultation with the Attorney General and the Director of Central Intelligence.

``APPLICATION FOR AN ORDER

``SEC. 303. (a) Each application for an order approving a physical search under this title shall be made by a Federal officer in writing upon oath or affirmation to a judge of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court. Each application shall require the approval of the Attorney General based upon the Attorney General's finding that it satisfies the criteria and requirements for such application as set forth in this title. Each application shall include—
``(1) the identity of the Federal officer making the application;
``(2) the authority conferred on the Attorney General by the President and the approval of the Attorney General to make the application;
``(3) the identity, if known, or a description of the target of the search, and a detailed description of the premises or property to be searched and of the information, material, or property to be seized, reproduced, or altered;
``(4) a statement of the facts and circumstances relied upon by the applicant to justify the applicant's belief that—
``(A) the target of the physical search is a foreign power or an agent of a foreign power;
``(B) the premises or property to be searched contains foreign intelligence information; and
``(C) the premises or property to be searched is owned, used, possessed by, or is in transit to or from a foreign power or an agent of a foreign power;
``(5) a statement of the proposed minimization procedures;
``(6) a statement of the nature of the foreign intelligence sought and the manner in which the physical search is to be conducted;
``(7) a certification or certifications by the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs or an executive branch official or officials designated by the President from among those executive branch officers employed in the area of national security or defense and appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate—
``(A) that the certifying official deems the information sought to be foreign intelligence information;
``(B) that the purpose of the search is to obtain foreign intelligence information;
``(C) that such information cannot reasonably be obtained by normal investigative techniques;
``(D) that designates the type of foreign intelligence information being sought according to the categories described in section 101(e); and
``(E) includes a statement explaining the basis for the certifications required by subparagraphs (C) and (D);
``(8) where the physical search involves a search of the residence of a United States person, the Attorney General shall state what investigative techniques have previously been utilized to obtain the foreign intelligence information concerned and the degree to which these techniques resulted in acquiring such information; and
``(9) a statement of the facts concerning all previous applications that have been made to any judge under this title involving any of the persons, premises, or property specified in the application, and the action taken on each previous application.
``(b) The Attorney General may require any other affidavit or certification from any other officer in connection with the application.
``(c) The judge may require the applicant to furnish such other information as may be necessary to make the determinations required by section 304.

``ISSUANCE OF AN ORDER

``SEC. 304. (a) Upon an application made pursuant to section 303, the judge shall enter an ex parte order as requested or as modified approving the physical search if the judge finds that—
``(1) the President has authorized the Attorney General to approve applications for physical searches for foreign intelligence purposes;
``(2) the application has been made by a Federal officer and approved by the Attorney General;
``(3) on the basis of the facts submitted by the applicant there is probable cause to believe that—
``(A) the target of the physical search is a foreign power or an agent of a foreign power, except that no United States person may be considered an agent of a foreign power solely upon the basis of activities protected by the first amendment to the Constitution of the United States; and
``(B) the premises or property to be searched is owned, used, possessed by, or is in transit to or from an agent of a foreign power or a foreign power;
``(4) the proposed minimization procedures meet the definition of minimization contained in this title; and
``(5) the application which has been filed contains all statements and certifications required by section 303, and, if the target is a United States person, the certification or certifications are not clearly erroneous on the basis of the statement made under section 303(a)(7)(E) and any other information furnished under section 303(c).
``(b) An order approving a physical search under this section shall—
``(1) specify—
``(A) the identity, if known, or a description of the target of the physical search;
``(B) the nature and location of each of the premises or property to be searched;
``(C) the type of information, material, or property to be seized, altered, or reproduced;
``(D) a statement of the manner in which the physical search is to be conducted and, whenever more than one physical search is authorized under the order, the authorized scope of each search and what minimization procedures shall apply to the information acquired by each search; and
``(E) the period of time during which physical searches are approved; and
``(2) direct—
``(A) that the minimization procedures be followed;
``(B) that, upon the request of the applicant, a specified landlord, custodian, or other specified person furnish the applicant forthwith all information, facilities, or assistance necessary to accomplish the physical search in such a manner as will protect its secrecy and produce a minimum of interference with the services that such landlord, custodian, or other person is providing the target of the physical search;
``(C) that such landlord, custodian, or other person maintain under security procedures approved by the Attorney General and the Director of Central Intelligence any records concerning the search or the aid furnished that such person wishes to retain;
``(D) that the applicant compensate, at the prevailing rate, such landlord, custodian, or other person for furnishing such aid; and
``(E) that the Federal officer conducting the physical search promptly report to the court the circumstances and results of the physical search.
``(c)(1) An order issued under this section may approve a physical search for the period necessary to achieve its purpose, or for forty-five days, whichever is less, except that an order under this section shall approve a physical search targeted against a foreign power, as defined in paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of section 101(a), for the period specified in the application or for one year, whichever is less.
``(2) Extensions of an order issued under this title may be granted on the same basis as the original order upon an application for an extension and new findings made in the same manner as required for the original order, except that an extension of an order under this Act for a physical search targeted against a foreign power, as defined in section 101(a) (5) or (6), or against a foreign power, as defined in section 101(a)(4), that is not a United States person, may be for a period not to exceed one year if the judge finds probable cause to believe that no property of any individual United States person will be acquired during the period.
``(3) At or before the end of the period of time for which a physical search is approved by an order or an extension, or at any time after a physical search is carried out, the judge may assess compliance with the minimization procedures by reviewing the circumstances under which information concerning United States persons was acquired, retained, or disseminated.
``(d)(1)(A) Notwithstanding any other provision of this title, whenever the Attorney General reasonably makes the determination specified in subparagraph (B), the Attorney General may authorize the execution of an emergency physical search if—
``(i) a judge having jurisdiction under section 103 is informed by the Attorney General or the Attorney General's designee at the time of such authorization that the decision has been made to execute an emergency search, and
``(ii) an application in accordance with this title is made to that judge as soon as practicable but not more than 24 hours after the Attorney General authorizes such search.
``(B) The determination referred to in subparagraph (A) is a determination that—
``(i) an emergency situation exists with respect to the execution of a physical search to obtain foreign intelligence information before an order authorizing such search can with due diligence be obtained, and
``(ii) the factual basis for issuance of an order under this title to approve such a search exists.
``(2) If the Attorney General authorizes an emergency search under paragraph (1), the Attorney General shall require that the minimization procedures required by this title for the issuance of a judicial order be followed.
``(3) In the absence of a judicial order approving such a physical search, the search shall terminate the earlier of—
``(A) the date on which the information sought is obtained;
``(B) the date on which the application for the order is denied; or
``(C) the expiration of 24 hours from the time of authorization by the Attorney General.
``(4) In the event that such application for approval is denied, or in any other case where the physical search is terminated and no order is issued approving the search, no information obtained or evidence derived from such search shall be received in evidence or otherwise disclosed in any trial, hearing, or other proceeding in or before any court, grand jury, department, office, agency, regulatory body, legislative committee, or other authority of the United States, a State, or political subdivision thereof, and no information concerning any United States person acquired from such search shall subsequently be used or disclosed in any other manner by Federal officers or employees without the consent of such person, except with the approval of the Attorney General, if the information indicates a threat of death or serious bodily harm to any person. A denial of the application made under this subsection may be reviewed as provided in section 302.
``(e) Applications made and orders granted under this title shall be retained for a period of at least 10 years from the date of the application.

``USE OF INFORMATION

``SEC. 305. (a) Information acquired from a physical search conducted pursuant to this title concerning any United States person may be used and disclosed by Federal officers and employees without the consent of the United States person only in accordance with the minimization procedures required by this title. No information acquired from a physical search pursuant to this title may be used or disclosed by Federal officers or employees except for lawful purposes.
``(b) Where a physical search authorized and conducted pursuant to section 304 involves the residence of a United States person, and, at any time after the search the Attorney General determines there is no national security interest in continuing to maintain the secrecy of the search, the Attorney General shall provide notice to the United States person whose residence was searched of the fact of the search conducted pursuant to this Act and shall identify any property of such person seized, altered, or reproduced during such search.
``(c) No information acquired pursuant to this title shall be disclosed for law enforcement purposes unless such disclosure is accompanied by a statement that such information, or any information derived therefrom, may only be used in a criminal proceeding with the advance authorization of the Attorney General.
``(d) Whenever the United States intends to enter into evidence or otherwise use or disclose in any trial, hearing, or other proceeding in or before any court, department, officer, agency, regulatory body, or other authority of the United States, against an aggrieved person, any information obtained or derived from a physical search pursuant to the authority of this title, the United States shall, prior to the trial, hearing, or the other proceeding or at a reasonable time prior to an effort to so disclose or so use that information or submit it in evidence, notify the aggrieved person and the court or other authority in which the information is to be disclosed or used that the United States intends to so disclose or so use such information.
``(e) Whenever any State or political subdivision thereof intends to enter into evidence or otherwise use or disclose in any trial, hearing, or other proceeding in or before any court, department, officer, agency, regulatory body, or other authority of a State or a political subdivision thereof against an aggrieved person any information obtained or derived from a physical search pursuant to the authority of this title, the State or political subdivision thereof shall notify the aggrieved person, the court or other authority in which the information is to be disclosed or used, and the Attorney General that the State or political subdivision thereof intends to so disclose or so use such information.
``(f)(1) Any person against whom evidence obtained or derived from a physical search to which he is an aggrieved person is to be, or has been, introduced or otherwise used or disclosed in any trial, hearing, or other proceeding in or before any court, department, officer, agency, regulatory body, or other authority of the United States, a State, or a political subdivision thereof, may move to suppress the evidence obtained or derived from such search on the grounds that—
``(A) the information was unlawfully acquired; or
``(B) the physical search was not made in conformity with an order of authorization or approval.
``(2) Such a motion shall be made before the trial, hearing, or other proceeding unless there was no opportunity to make such a motion or the person was not aware of the grounds of the motion.
``(g) Whenever a court or other authority is notified pursuant to subsection (d) or (e), or whenever a motion is made pursuant to subsection (f), or whenever any motion or request is made by an aggrieved person pursuant to any other statute or rule of the United States or any State before any court or other authority of the United States or any State to discover or obtain applications or orders or other materials relating to a physical search authorized by this title or to discover, obtain, or suppress evidence or information obtained or derived from a physical search authorized by this title, the United States district court or, where the motion is made before another authority, the United States district court in the same district as the authority shall, notwithstanding any other provision of law, if the Attorney General files an affidavit under oath that disclosure or any adversary hearing would harm the national security of the United States, review in camera and ex parte the application, order, and such other materials relating to the physical search as may be necessary to determine whether the physical search of the aggrieved person was lawfully authorized and conducted. In making this determination, the court may disclose to the aggrieved person, under appropriate security procedures and protective orders, portions of the application, order, or other materials relating to the physical search, or may require the Attorney General to provide to the aggrieved person a summary of such materials, only where such disclosure is necessary to make an accurate determination of the legality of the physical search.
``(h) If the United States district court pursuant to subsection (g) determines that the physical search was not lawfully authorized or conducted, it shall, in accordance with the requirements of law, suppress the evidence which was unlawfully obtained or derived from the physical search of the aggrieved person or otherwise grant the motion of the aggrieved person. If the court determines that the physical search was lawfully authorized or conducted, it shall deny the motion of the aggrieved person except to the extent that due process requires discovery or disclosure.
``(i) Orders granting motions or requests under subsection (h), decisions under this section that a physical search was not lawfully authorized or conducted, and orders of the United States district court requiring review or granting disclosure of applications, orders, or other materials relating to the physical search shall be final orders and binding upon all courts of the United States and the several States except a United States Court of Appeals or the Supreme Court.
``(j)(1) If an emergency execution of a physical search is authorized under section 304(d) and a subsequent order approving the search is not obtained, the judge shall cause to be served on any United States person named in the application and on such other United States persons subject to the search as the judge may determine in his discretion it is in the interests of justice to serve, notice of—
``(A) the fact of the application;
``(B) the period of the search; and
``(C) the fact that during the period information was or was not obtained.
``(2) On an ex parte showing of good cause to the judge, the serving of the notice required by this subsection may be postponed or suspended for a period not to exceed 90 days. Thereafter, on a further ex parte showing of good cause, the court shall forego ordering the serving of the notice required under this subsection.

``CONGRESSIONAL OVERSIGHT

``SEC. 306. On a semiannual basis the Attorney General shall fully inform the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives and the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate concerning all physical searches conducted pursuant to this title. On a semiannual basis the Attorney General shall also provide to those committees and the Committees on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and the Senate a report setting forth with respect to the preceding six-month period—
``(1) the total number of applications made for orders approving physical searches under this title;
``(2) the total number of such orders either granted, modified, or denied; and
``(3) the number of physical searches which involved searches of the residences, offices, or personal property of United States persons, and the number of occasions, if any, where the Attorney General provided notice pursuant to section 305(b).

``PENALTIES

``SEC. 307. (a) A person is guilty of an offense if he intentionally—
``(1) under color of law for the purpose of obtaining foreign intelligence information, executes a physical search within the United States except as authorized by statute; or
``(2) discloses or uses information obtained under color of law by physical search within the United States, knowing or having reason to know that the information was obtained through physical search not authorized by statute, for the purpose of obtaining intelligence information.
``(b) It is a defense to a prosecution under subsection (a) that the defendant was a law enforcement or investigative officer engaged in the course of his official duties and the physical search was authorized by and conducted pursuant to a search warrant or court order of a court of competent jurisdiction.
``(c) An offense described in this section is punishable by a fine of not more than $10,000 or imprisonment for not more than five years, or both.
``(d) There is Federal jurisdiction over an offense under this section if the person committing the offense was an officer or employee of the United States at the time the offense was committed.

``CIVIL LIABILITY

``SEC. 308. An aggrieved person, other than a foreign power or an agent of a foreign power, as defined in section 101 (a) or (b)(1)(A), respectively, of this Act, whose premises, property, information, or material has been subjected to a physical search within the United States or about whom information obtained by such a physical search has been disclosed or used in violation of section 307 shall have a cause of action against any person who committed such violation and shall be entitled to recover—
``(1) actual damages, but not less than liquidated damages of $1,000 or $100 per day for each day of violation, whichever is greater;
``(2) punitive damages; and
``(3) reasonable attorney's fees and other investigative and litigation costs reasonably incurred.

``AUTHORIZATION DURING TIME OF WAR

``SEC. 309. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the President, through the Attorney General, may authorize physical searches without a court order under this title to acquire foreign intelligence information for a period not to exceed 15 calendar days following a declaration of war by the Congress.´´.


(b) CLERICAL AMENDMENT—
The table of contents in the first section of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 is amended by striking the items relating to title III and inserting the following:


``TITLE III—PHYSICAL SEARCHES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES FOR FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE PURPOSES
``Sec. 301. Definitions.
``Sec. 302. Authorization of physical searches for foreign intelligence purposes.
``Sec. 303. Application for an order.
``Sec. 304. Issuance of an order.
``Sec. 305. Use of information.
``Sec. 306. Congressional oversight.
``Sec. 307. Penalties.
``Sec. 308. Civil liability.
``Sec. 309. Authorization during time of war.
``TITLE IV—EFFECTIVE DATE
``Sec. 401. Effective date.´´.


(c) EFFECTIVE DATE—
The amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) shall take effect 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act, except that any physical search approved by the Attorney General of the United States to gather foreign intelligence information shall not be deemed unlawful for failure to follow the procedures of title III of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (as added by this Act), if that search is conducted within 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act pursuant to regulations issued by the Attorney General, which were in the possession of the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate and the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives before the date of enactment of this Act.

SEC. 808. LESSER CRIMINAL OFFENSE FOR UNAUTHORIZED REMOVAL OF CLASSIFIED DOCUMENTS.[edit]

(a) IN GENERAL—
Chapter 93 of title 18, United States Code, is amended by adding at the end the following new section:
``Sec. 1924. Unauthorized removal and retention of classified documents or material
``(a) Whoever, being an officer, employee, contractor, or consultant of the United States, and, by virtue of his office, employment, position, or contract, becomes possessed of documents or materials containing classified information of the United States, knowingly removes such documents or materials without authority and with the intent to retain such documents or materials at an unauthorized location shall be fined not more than $1,000, or imprisoned for not more than one year, or both.
``(b) For purposes of this section, the provision of documents and materials to the Congress shall not constitute an offense under subsection (a).
``(c) In this section, the term ``classified information of the United States´´ means information originated, owned, or possessed by the United States Government concerning the national defense or foreign relations of the United States that has been determined pursuant to law or Executive order to require protection against unauthorized disclosure in the interests of national security.´´.
(b) CLERICAL AMENDMENT—
The table of sections at the beginning of such chapter is amended by adding at the end the following:
``1924. Unauthorized removal and retention of classified documents or material.´´.

SEC. 809. REPORTS ON FOREIGN INDUSTRIAL ESPIONAGE.[edit]

(a) IN GENERAL—
(1) SUBMISSION AND CONTENTS—
In order to assist Congress in its oversight functions with respect to this Act and to improve the awareness of United States industry of foreign industrial espionage and the ability of such industry to protect against such espionage, the President shall submit to Congress a report that describes, as of the time of the report, the following:
(A) The respective policy functions and operational roles of the agencies of the executive branch of the Federal Government in identifying and countering threats to United States industry of foreign industrial espionage, including the manner in which such functions and roles are coordinated.
(B) The means by which the Federal Government communicates information on such threats, and on methods to protect against such threats, to United States industry in general and to United States companies known to be targets of foreign industrial espionage.
(C) The specific measures that are being or could be undertaken in order to improve the activities referred to in subparagraphs (A) and (B), including proposals for any modifications of law necessary to facilitate the undertaking of such activities.
(D) The threat to United States industry of foreign industrial espionage and any trends in that threat, including—
(i) the number and identity of the foreign governments conducting foreign industrial espionage;
(ii) the industrial sectors and types of information and technology targeted by such espionage; and
(iii) the methods used to conduct such espionage.
(2) DATE OF SUBMISSION—
The President shall submit the report required under this subsection not later than six months after the date of the enactment of this Act.
(b) ANNUAL UPDATE—
Not later than one year after the date referred to in paragraph (2) of subsection (a), and on the expiration of each year thereafter, the President shall submit to Congress a report updating the information referred to in paragraph (1)(D) of that subsection.
(c) FORM OF REPORTS—
To the maximum extent practicable, the reports referred to in subsections (a) and (b) shall be submitted in an unclassified form, but may be accompanied by a classified appendix.
(d) REPORT UNDER DEFENSE PRODUCTION ACT—
Section 721(k)(1)(B) of the Defense Production Act of 1950 (50 U.S.C. App. 2170(k)(1)(B)) is amended by inserting ``or directly assisted´´ after ``directed´´.
(e) DEFINITION—
For the purposes of this section, ``foreign industrial espionage´´ means industrial espionage conducted by a foreign government or by a foreign company with direct assistance of a foreign government against a private United States company and aimed at obtaining commercial secrets.

SEC. 810. COUNTERNARCOTICS TARGETS FUNDING.[edit]

Not less than $5,000,000 from the base budget for the National Security Agency shall be transferred to United States Army signals intelligence activities directed at counternarcotics targets. A detailed operations plan with special emphasis on the United States/Mexico border and including the participation of the National Security Agency, the Drug Enforcement Administration, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and the United States Customs Service, shall be provided to the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate and the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives no later than November 15, 1994. This plan shall include a detailed description of the planned targets and the type of intelligence collection, dissemination, analysis and tasking that will be included in these operations.

SEC. 811. COORDINATION OF COUNTERINTELLIGENCE ACTIVITIES.[edit]

(a) ESTABLISHMENT OF COUNTERINTELLIGENCE POLICY BOARD—
There is established within the executive branch of Government a National Counterintelligence Policy Board (in this section referred to as the ``Board´´). The Board shall report to the President through the National Security Council.
(b) FUNCTION OF THE BOARD—
The Board shall serve as the principal mechanism for—
(1) developing policies and procedures for the approval of the President to govern the conduct of counterintelligence activities; and
(2) resolving conflicts, as directed by the President, which may arise between elements of the Government which carry out such activities.
(c) COORDINATION OF COUNTERINTELLIGENCE MATTERS WITH THE FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION—
(1) Except as provided in paragraph (3), the head of each department or agency within the executive branch shall ensure that—
(A) the Federal Bureau of Investigation is advised immediately of any information, regardless of its origin, which indicates that classified information is being, or may have been, disclosed in an unauthorized manner to a foreign power or an agent of a foreign power;
(B) following a report made pursuant to subparagraph (A), the Federal Bureau of Investigation is consulted with respect to all subsequent actions which may be undertaken by the department or agency concerned to determine the source of such loss or compromise; and
(C) where, after appropriate consultation with the department or agency concerned, the Federal Bureau of Investigation undertakes investigative activities to determine the source of the loss or compromise, the Federal Bureau of Investigation is given complete and timely access to the employees and records of the department or agency concerned for purposes of such investigative activities.
(2) Except as provided in paragraph (3), the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation shall ensure that espionage information obtained by the Federal Bureau of Investigation pertaining to the personnel, operations, or information of departments or agencies of the executive branch, is provided through appropriate channels to the department or agency concerned, and that such departments or agencies are consulted with respect to espionage investigations undertaken by the Federal Bureau of Investigation which involve the personnel, operations, or information of such department or agency after a report has been provided pursuant to paragraph (1)(A).
(3) Where essential to meet extraordinary circumstances affecting vital national security interests of the United States, the President may on a case-by-case basis waive the requirements of paragraph (1) or (2), as they apply to the head of a particular department or agency, or the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Such waiver shall be in writing and shall fully state the justification for such waiver. Within thirty days, the President shall notify the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate and the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives that such waiver has been issued, and at that time or as soon as national security considerations permit, provide these committees with a complete explanation of the circumstances which necessitated such waiver.
(4) The Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation shall, in consultation with the Director of Central Intelligence and the Secretary of Defense, report annually, beginning on February 1, 1995, and continuing each year thereafter, to the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate and to the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives and, in accordance with applicable security procedures, the Committees on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and the Senate with respect to compliance with paragraphs (1) and (2) during the previous calendar year.
(5) Nothing in this section may be construed to alter the existing jurisdictional arrangements between the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Department of Defense with respect to investigations of persons subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice, nor to impose additional reporting requirements upon the Department of Defense with respect to such investigations beyond those required by existing law and executive branch policy.
(6) As used in this section, the terms ``foreign power´´ and ``agent of a foreign power´´ have the same meanings as set forth in sections 101 (a) and (b), respectively, of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (50 U.S.C. 1801).