Journal of researches into the natural history and geology of the countries visited during the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle round the world

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Journal of researches into the natural history and geology of the countries visited during the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle round the world  (1860) 
by Charles Darwin


JOURNAL OF RESEARCHES


INTO THE


NATURAL HISTORY AND GEOLOGY


OF THE


COUNTRIES VISITED DURING THE VOYAGE OF

H.M.S. BEAGLE ROUND THE WORLD,


UNDER THE

Command of Capt. Fitz Roy, R. N.



By CHARLES DARWIN, M.A., F.R.S.

AUTHOR OF 'ORIGIN OF SPECIES,' ETC.



TENTH THOUSAND.



LONDON:

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET.

1860.




LONDON : PRINTED BY W. CLOWES AND SONS, STAMFORD STREET
AND CHARING CROSS.



TO


CHARLES LYELL, Esq., F.R.S.,


THIS SECOND EDITION IS DEDICATED WITH GRATEFUL PLEASURE, AS AN ACKNOWLEDGMENT THAT THE CHIEF PART OF WHATEVER SCIENTIFIC MERIT THIS JOURNAL AND THE OTHER WORKS OF THE AUTHOR MAY POSSESS, HAS BEEN DERIVED FROM STUDYING THE WELL-KNOWN AND ADMIRABLE


PRINCIPLES OF GEOLOGY.




CONTENTS.


Rule Segment - Wave - 40px.svg Rule Segment - Wave - 40px.svg


Porto Praya—Ribeira Grande—Atmospheric Dust with Infusoria—Habits of a Sea-slug and Cuttle-Fish—St. Paul's Rocks, non-volcanic—Singular Incrustations—Insects the first Colonists of Islands—Fernando Noronha—Bahia—Burnished Rocks—Habits of a Diodon—Pelagic Confervæ and Infusoria—Causes of discoloured Sea

Page 1


Rio de Janeiro—Excursion north of Cape Frio—Great Evaporation—Slavery—Botofogo Bay—Terrestrial Planariæ—Clouds on the Corcovado—Heavy Rain—Musical Frogs—Phosphorescent Insects—Elater, springing powers of—Blue Haze—Noise made by a Butterfly—Entomology—Ants—Wasp killing a Spider—Parasitical Spider—Artifices of an Epeira—Gregarious Spider—Spider with an unsymmetrical Web

19


Monte Video—Maldonado—Excursion to R. Polanco—Lazo and Bolas—Partridges—Absence of Trees—Deer—Capybara, or River Hog—Tucutuco—Molothrus, cuckoo-like habits—Tyrant Flycatcher—Mocking-bird—Carrion Hawks—Tubes formed by Lightning—House struck

39

Rio Negro—Estancias attacked by the Indians—Salt Lakes—Flamingoes—R. Negro to R. Colorado—Sacred Tree—Patagonian Hare—Indian Families—General Rosas—Proceed to Bahia Blanca—Sand Dunes—Negro Lieutenant—Bahia Blanca—Saline Incrustations—Punta Alta—Zorillo

Page 63


Bahia Blanca—Geology—Numerous gigantic extinct Quadrupeds—Recent Extinction—Longevity of Species—Large Animals do not require a luxuriant Vegetation—Southern Africa—Siberian Fossils—Two species of Ostrich—Habits of Ovenbird—Armadilloes—Venomous Snake, Toad, Lizard—Hybernation of Animals— Habits of Sea-Pen—Indian Wars and Massacres—Arrow-head—Antiquarian Relic

81

Set out for Buenos Ayres—Rio Sauce—Sierra Ventana—Third Posta—Driving Horses—Bolas—Partridges and Foxes—Features of the Country—Long-legged Plover—Teru-tero—Hailstorm—Natural Enclosures in the Sierra Tapalguen—Flesh of Puma—Meat Diet—Guardia del Monte—Effects of Cattle on the Vegetation—Cardoon—Buenos Ayres—Corral where Cattle are slaughtered

106


Excursion to St. Fé—Thistle-Beds—Habits of the Bizcacha—Little Owl—Saline Streams—Level Plains—Mastodon—St. Fé—Change in Landscape—Geology—Tooth of extinct Horse—Relation of the Fossil and Recent Quadrupeds of North and South America—Effects of a great Drought—Parana—Habits of the Jaguar—Scissor-beak—King-fisher, Parrot, and Scissor-tail—Revolution—Buenos Ayres—State of Government

123

CHAPTER VIII.

Excursion to Colonia del Sacramiento—Value of an Estancia—Cattle, how counted—Singular Breed of Oxen—Perforated Pebbles—Shepherd Dogs—Horses broken in, Gauchos Riding—Character of Inhabitants—Rio Plata—Flocks of Butterflies—Aëronaut Spiders—Phosphorescence of the Sea—Port Desire—Guanaco—Port St. Julian—Geology of Patagonia—Fossil gigantic Animal—Types of Organization constant—Change in the Zoology of America—Causes of Extinction

Page 142


CHAPTER IX.

Santa Cruz—Expedition up the River—Indians—Immense Streams of Basaltic Lava—Fragments not transported by the River—Excavation of the Valley—Condor, habits of—Cordillera—Erratic Boulders of great size—Indian Relics—Return to the Ship—Falkland Islands—Wild Horses, Cattle, Rabbits—Wolf-like Fox—Fire made of Bones—Manner of hunting Wild Cattle—Geology—Streams of Stones—Scenes of Violence—Penguin—Geese—Eggs of Doris—Compound Animals

177


CHAPTER X.

Tierra del Fuego, first arrival—Good Success Bay—An Account of the Fuegians on board—Interview with the Savages—Scenery of the Forests—Cape Horn—Wigwam Cove—Miserable Condition of the Savages—Famines—Cannibals—Matricide—Religious Feelings—Great Gale—Beagle Channel—Ponsonby Sound—Build Wigwams and settle the Fuegians—Bifurcation of the Beagle Channel—Glaciers—Return to the Ship—Second Visit in the Ship to the Settlement—Equality of Condition amongst the Natives

204

CHAPTEE XI.

Strait of Magellan—Port Famine—Ascent of Mount Tarn—Forests—Edible Fungus—Zoology— Great Sea-weed —Leave Tierra del Fuego— Climate—Fruit-Trees and Productions of the Southern Coasts—Height of Snow-line on the Cordillera —Descent of Glaciers to the Sea — Icebergs formed — Transportal of Boulders — Climate and Productions of the Antarctic Islands — Preservation of Frozen Carcases — Recapitulation

Page 231


CHAPTER XII.

Valparaiso — Excursion to the Foot of the Andes — Structure of the Land — Ascend the Bell of Quillota — Shattered Masses of Greenstone— Immense Valleys— Mines — State of Miners—Santiago—Hot Baths of Cauquenes— Gold-Mines— Grinding-Mills— Perforated Stones — Habits of the Puma — El Turco and Tapacolo — Humming-birds

252


CHAPTER XIII.

Chiloe — General Aspect — Boat Excursion — Native Indians — Castro — Tame Fox — Ascend San Pedro — Chonos Archipelago — Peninsula of Tres Montes — Granitic Range — Boat-wrecked Sailors — Low's Harbour — Wild Potato — Formation of Peat — Myopotamus, Otter and Mice — Cheucau and Barking-bird — Opetiorhynchus — Singular Character of Ornithology — Petrels

273


CHAPTER XIV.

San Carlos, Chiloe— Osorno in eruption, contemporaneously with Aconcagua and Coseguina— Ride to Cucao— Impenetrable Forests — Valdivia — Indians — Earthquake— Concepcion—Great Earthquake—Rocks fissured —Appearance of the former Towns —The Sea black and boiling— Direction of the Vibrations—Stones twisted round—Great Wave —Permanent Elevation of the Land — Area of Volcanic Phenomena — The connexion between the Elevatory and Eruptive Forces—Cause of Earthquakes— Slow Elevation of Mountain-chains

291

CHAPTER XV.


Valparaiso—Portillo Pass— Sagacity of Mules — Mountain-Torrents — Mines, how discovered—Proofs of the gradual Elevation of the Cordillera—Effect of Snow on Rocks — Geological Structure of the two main Ranges — Their distinct Origin and upheaval—Great Subsidence—Red Snow—Winds —Pinnacles of Snow—Dry and clear Atmosphere — Electricity— Pampas — Zoology of the opposite sides of the Andes—Locusts — Great Bugs — Mendoza — Uspallata Pass — Silicified Trees buried as they grew—Incas Bridge — Badness of the Passes exaggerated — Cumbre — Casuchas — Valparaiso

Page 313

CHAPTER XVI.

Coast-road to Coquimbo — Great Loads carried by the Miners — — Coquimbo — Earthquake — Step-formed Terraces — Absence of recent Deposits — Contemporaneousness of the Tertiary Formations—Excursion up the Valley—Road to Guasco—Deserts—Valley of Copiapó— Rain and Earthquakes —Hydrophobia —The Despoblado — Indian Ruins— Probable change of Climate— River-bed arched by an Earthquake— Cold Gales of Wind— Noises from a Hill— Iquique —Salt Alluvium — Nitrate of Soda — Lima — Unhealthy Country — Ruins of Callao, overthrown by an Earthquake — Recent Subsidence—Elevated Shells on San Lorenzo, their decomposition — Plain with embedded Shells and fragments of Pottery— Antiquity of the Indian Race

337


CHAPTER XVII.

Galapagos Archipelago—The whole group volcanic—Number of Craters—Leafless Bushes —Colony at Charles Island — James Island — Salt-lake in Crater—Natural History of the Group— Ornithology, curious Finches— Reptiles— Great Tortoises, habits of— Marine Lizard, feeds on Sea-weed—Terrestrial Lizard, burrowing habits, herbivorous— Importance of Reptiles in the Archipelapo— Fish, Shells, Insects— Botany —American Type of Organisation—Differences in the Species or Races on different Islands—Tameness of the Birds—Fear of Man, an acquired Instinct

372

CHAPTER XVIII.

Pass through the Low Archipelago — Tahiti — Aspect — Vegetation on the Mountains — View of Eimeo — Excursion into the Interior — Profound Ravines — Succession of Water-falls — Number of wild useful Plants — Temperance of the Inhabitants — Their Moral State — Parliament convened — New Zealand — Bay of Islands — Hippahs — Excursion to Waimate — Missionary Establishment — English Weeds now run wild — Waiomio — Funeral of a New Zealand Woman — Sail for Australia

Page 402


CHAPTER XIX.

Sydney — Excursion to Bathurst — Aspect of the Woods — Party of Natives — Gradual Extinction of the Aborigines — Infection generated by associated men in health — Blue Mountains — View of the grand gulf-like Valleys — Their Origin and Formation — Bathurst, general civility of the lower orders — State of Society — Van Diemen's Land — Hobart Town — Aborigines all banished — Mount Wellington — King George's Sound — Cheerless aspect of the Country — Bald-head, calcareous casts of Branches of Trees — Party of Natives — Leave Australia

431


CHAPTER XX.

Keeling Island — Singular appearance— Scanty Flora — Transport of Seeds — Birds and Insects — Ebbing and flowing Wells — Fields of dead Coral—Stones transported in the roots of trees — Great Crab — Stinging Corals — Coral-eating Fish — Coral Formations — Lagoon Islands, or Atolls — Depth at which reef-building Corals can live — Vast Areas interspersed with low Coral Islands — Subsidence of their Foundations — Barrier Reefs— Fringing Reefs — Conversion of Fringing Reefs into Barrier Reefs, and into Atolls — Evidence of Changes in Level — Breaches in Barrier Reefs — Maldiva Atolls; their peculiar Structure —Dead and submerged Reefs— Areas of Subsidence and Elevation — Distribution of Volcanos — Subsidence slow, and vast in amount

452

CHAPTER XXI.

Mauritius, beautiful appearance of—Great crateriform Ring of Mountains—Hindoos—St. Helena—History of the Changes in the Vegetation—Cause of the Extinction of Land Shells—Ascension—Variation in the imported Rats—Volcanic Bombs—Beds of Infusoria—Bahia—Brazil—Splendour of Tropical Scenery—Pernambuco—Singular Reef—Slavery—Return to England—Retrospect on our Voyage

Page 483


Index
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