Latin for beginners (1911)/Part II

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Latin for beginners (1911) by Benjamin Leonard D'Ooge
Part II. Words and forms

LESSON I[edit]

FIRST PRINCIPLES[edit]

19. Subject and Predicate,

1. Latin, like English, expresses thoughts by means of sentences. A sentence is a combination of words that expresses a thought, and in its simplest form is the statement of a single fact. Thus,
Galba is a farmer The sailor fights
Galba est agricola Nauta pugnat
In each of these sentences there are two parts:
Subject Galba Predicate is a farmer
Galba est agricola
The sailor fights
Nauta pugnant
2. The subject is that person, place, or thing about which something is said, and is therefore a noun or some word which can serve the same purpose.
a. Pronouns, as their name implies (pro, "instead of," and noun often take the place of nouns, usually to save repeating the same noun, as, Galba is a farmer; he is a sturdy fellow.
3. The predicate is that which is said about the subject, and consists of a verb with or without modifiers.
a. A verb is a word which asserts something (usually an act) concerning a person, place, or thing.

20. The Object. In the two sentences, The boy hit the ball and The ball hit the boy, the same words are used, but the meaning is different, and depends upon the order of the words. The doer of the act, that about which something is said, is, as we have seen above, the subject. That to which something is done is the direct object of the verb. The boy hit the ball is therefore analyzed as follows:

Subject Predicate
The boy hit the ball
(verb) (direct object)

a. A verb whose action passes over to the object directly, as in the sentence above, is called a transitive verb. A verb which does not admit of a direct object is called intransitive', as, I walk, he comes.

21. The Copula. The verb to be in its different forms — are, is, was, etc. — does not tell us anything about the subject; neither does it govern an object. It simply connects the subject with the word or words in the predicate that possess a distinct meaning. Hence it is called the copula, that is, the joiner or link.

22. In the following sentences pronounce the Latin and name the nouns, verbs, subjects, objects, predicates, copulas:

1. America est patria mea
America is fatherland my
2. Agricola fīliam amat
(The) farmer (his) daughter loves
3. Filia est Iūlia
(His) daughter is Julia
4. Iūlia et agricola sunt in īnsulā
Julia and (the) farmer are on (the) island
5. Iūlia aquam portat
Julia water carries
6. Rosam in comīs habet
(A) rose in (her) hair (she) has
7. Iūlia est puella pulchra
Julia is (a) girl pretty
8. Domina filiam pulchram habet
(The) lady (a) daughter beautiful has
a. The sentences above show that Latin does not express some words which are necessary in English. First of all, Latin has no article the or a; thus agricola may mean the farmer, a farmer, or simply farmer. Then, too, the personal pronouns, I, you, he, she, etc., and the possessive pronouns, my, your, his, her, etc., are not expressed if the meaning of the sentence is clear without them.

LESSON II[edit]

FIRST PRINCIPLES (Continued)[edit]

23. Inflection. Words may change their forms to indicate some change in sense or use, as, is, are; was, were; who, whose, whom; farmer, farmer's; woman, women. This is called inflection. The inflection of a noun, adjective, or pronoun is called its declension, that of a verb its conjugation.

24. Number. Latin, like English, has two numbers, singular and plural. In English we usually form the plural by adding -s or -es to the singular. So Latin changes the singular to the plural by changing the ending of the word. Compare

Naut-a pugnat The sailor fights
Naut-ae pugnant The sailors fight

25. Rule. Nouns that end in -a in the singular end in -ae in the plural.

26. Learn the following nouns so that you can give the English for the Latin or the Latin for the English. Write the plural of each.

agri’cola, farmer (agriculture) [1]
aqua, water (aquarium)
causa, cause, reason
do’mina, lady of the house, mistress (dominate)
filia, daughter (filial)
fortū’na, fortune
fuga, flight (fugitive)
iniū’ria, wrong, injury
luna, moon (lunar)
nauta, sailor (nautical)
puel’la, girl
silva, forest (silvan)
terra, land (terrace)

27. Compare again the sentences

Nauta pugna-t The sailor fights
Nautae pugna-nt The sailors fight

In the first sentence the verb pugna-t is in the third person singular, in the second sentence pugna-nt is in the third person plural.

28. Rule. Agreement of Verb. A finite verb must always be in the same person and number as its subject.

29. Rule. In the conjugation of the Latin verb the third person singular active ends in -t, the third person plural in -nt. The endings which show the person and number of the verb are called personal endings.

30. Learn the following verbs and write the plural of each. The personal pronouns he, she, it, etc., which are necessary in the inflection of the English verb, are not needed in the Latin, because the personal endings take their place. Of course, if the verb's subject is expressed we do not translate the personal ending by a pronoun; thus nauta pugnat is translated the sailor fights, not the sailor he fights.

ama-t he (she, it) loves, is loving, does love (amity, amiable)
labō’ra-t he (she, it) labors, is laboring, does labor
nūntia-t[2] he (she, it) announces, is announcing, does announce
porta-t he (she, it) carries, is carrying, does carry (porter)
pugna-t he (she, it) fights, is fighting, does fight (pugnacious)

31. EXERCISES

I.
1. The daughter loves, the daughters love.
2. The sailor is carrying, the sailors carry.
3. The farmer does labor, the farmers labor.
4. The girl is announcing, the girls do announce.
5. The ladies are carrying, the lady carries.
II.
1. Nauta pugnat, nautae pugnant.
2. Puella amat, puellae amant.
3. Agricola portat, agricolae portant.
4. Fīlia labōrat, fīliae labōrant.
5. Nauta nūntiat, nautae nūntiant.
6. Dominae amant, domina amat.


Latin for beginners (1911).djvu-35.png

DOMINA

LESSON III[edit]

FIRST PRINCIPLES (Continued)[edit]

32. Declension of Nouns. We learned above (§§19, 20) the difference between the subject and object, and that in English they may be distinguished by the order of the words. Sometimes, however, the order is such that we are left in doubt. For example, the sentence The lady her daughter loves might mean either that the lady loves her daughter, or that the daughter loves the lady.

1. If the sentence were in Latin, no doubt could arise, because the subject and the object are distinguished, not by the order of the words, but by the endings of the words themselves. Compare the following sentences:

Domina fīliam amat The lady loves her daughter
Fīliam domina amat
Amat fīliam domina
Domina amat fīliam
Fīlia dominam amat The daughter loves the lady
Dominam fīlia amat
Amat dominam fīlia
Fīlia amat dominam


a. Observe that in each case the subject of the sentence ends in -a and the object in -am. The form of the noun shows how it is used in the sentence, and the order of the words has no effect on the essential meaning.

2. As stated above (§23), this change of ending is called declension, and each different ending produces what is called a case. When we decline a noun, we give all its different cases, or changes of endings. In English we have three cases, — nominative, possessive, and objective; but, in nouns, the nominative and objective have the same form, and only the possessive case shows a change of ending, by adding ’s or the apostrophe. The interrogative pronoun, however, has the fuller declension, who? whose? whom?

33. The following table shows a comparison between English and Latin declension forms, and should be thoroughly memorized:


English Cases Latin Cases
Declension of who? Name of case and use Declension of domina and translation Name of case and use Singular
  • Who?
  • Whose?
  • Whom?
  • Nominative — case of the subject
  • Possessive — case of the possessor
  • Objective — case of the object
  • do’min-a the lady
  • domin-ae the lady’s, of the lady
  • domin-am the lady
  • Nominative — case of the subject
  • Genitive — case of the possessor
  • Accusative — case of the direct object
  • Who?
  • Whose?
  • Whom?
  • Nominative — case of the subject
  • Possessive — case of the possessor
  • Objective — case of the object
  • domin-ae the ladies
  • domin-ā’rum the ladies’, of the ladies
  • domin-ās the ladies
  • Nominative — case of the subject
  • Genitive — case of the possessor
  • Accusative — case of the direct object

Plural

When the nominative singular of a noun ends in -a, observe that
a. The nominative plural ends in -ae.
b. The genitive singular ends in -ae and the genitive plural in -ārum.
c. The accusative singular ends in -am and the accusative plural in -ās.
d. The genitive singular and the nominative plural have the same ending.

34. EXERCISE Pronounce the following words and give their general meaning. Then give the number and case, and the use of each form. Where the same form stands for more than one case, give all the possible cases and uses.

1. Silva, silvās, silvam.
2. Fugam, fugae, fuga.
3. Terrārum, terrae, terrās.
4. Aquās, causam, lūnās.
5. Filiae, fortūnae, lūnae.
6. Iniūriās, agricolārum, aquārum.
7. Iniūriārum, agricolae, puellās
8. Nautam, agricolās, nautās.
9. Agricolam, puellam, silvārum.

LESSON IV[edit]

FIRST PRINCIPLES (Continued)[edit]

35. We learned from the table (§33) that the Latin nominative, genitive, and accusative correspond, in general, to the nominative, possessive, and objective in English, and that they are used in the same way. This will be made even clearer by the following sentence:

Filia agricolae nautam amat, the farmer’s daughter (or the daughter of the farmer) loves the sailor

What is the subject? the direct object? What case is used for the subject? for the direct object? What word denotes the possessor? In what case is it?

36. Rule. Nominative Subject. The subject of a finite verb is in the Nominative and answers the question Who? or What?

37. Rule. Accusative Object. The direct object of a transitive verb is in the Accusative and answers the question Whom? or What?

38. Rule. Genitive of the Possessor. The word denoting the owner or possessor of something is in the Genitive and answers the question Whose?


Latin for beginners (1911).djvu-38.png

DIANA SAGITTAS PORTAT ET FERAS NECAT

39. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 283.

I.

1. Diāna est dea.
2. Lātōna est dea.
3. Diāna et Lātōna sunt deae.
4. Diāna est dea lūnae.
5. Diāna est fīlia Lātōnae.
6. Lātōna Diānam amat.
7. Diāna est dea silvārum.
8. Diāna silvam amat.
9. Diāna sagittās portat.
10. Diāna ferās silvae necat.
11. Ferae terrārum pugnant.

For the order of words imitate the Latin above.

II.

1. The daughter of Latona does love the forests.
2. Latona's daughter carries arrows.
3. The farmers' daughters do labor.
4. The farmer's daughter loves the waters of the forest.
5. The sailor is announcing the girls' flight.
6. The girls announce the sailors' wrongs.
7. The farmer's daughter labors.
8. Diana's arrows are killing the wild beasts of the land.

40. CONVERSATION

Translate the questions and answer them in Latin. The answers may be found in the exercises preceding.

1. Quis est Diāna?
2. Cuius fīlia est Diāna?
3. Quis Diānam amat?
4. Quis silvam amat?
5. Quis sagittās portat?
6. Cuius fāliae labōrant?

LESSON V[edit]

FIRST PRINCIPLES (Continued)[edit]

41. The Dative Case. In addition to the relationships between words expressed by the nominative, genitive (possessive), and accusative (objective) cases, there are other relationships, to express which in English we use such words as from, with, by to, for, in, at.[3]

Latin, too, makes frequent use of such prepositions; but often it expresses these relations without them by means of case forms which English does not possess. One of the cases found in the Latin declension and lacking in English is called the dā’tive.

42. When the nominative singular ends in -a, the dative singular ends in -ae and the dative plural in -īs.

Note. Observe that the genitive singular, the dative singular, and the nominative plural all have the same ending, -ae; but the uses of the three cases are entirely different. The general meaning of the sentence usually makes clear which case is intended.

a. Form the dative singular and plural of the following nouns: fuga, causa, fortūna, terra, aqua, puella, agricola, nauta, domina.

43. The Dative Relation. The dative case is used to express the relations conveyed in English by the prepositions to, towards, for.

These prepositions are often used in English in expressions of motion, such as She went to town, He ran towards the horse, Columbus sailed for America. In such cases the dative is not used in Latin, as motion through space is foreign to the dative relation. But the dative is used to denote that to or towards which a benefit, injury, purpose, feeling, or quality is directed, or that for which something serves or exists.

a. What dative relations do you discover in the following?

The teacher gave a prize to John because he replied so promptly to all her questions — a good example for the rest of us. It is a pleasure to us to hear him recite. Latin is easy for him, but it is very hard for me. Some are fitted for one thing and others for another.

44. The Indirect Object. Examine the sentence

Nauta fugam nūntiat, the sailor announces the flight

Here the verb, nūntiat, governs the direct object, fugam, in the accusative case. If, however, we wish to mention the persons to whom the sailor announces the flight, as, The sailor announces the flight to the farmers, the verb will have two objects:

1. Its direct object, flight (fugam)
2. Its indirect object, farmers

According to the preceding section, to the farmers is a relation covered by the dative case, and we are prepared for the following rule:

45. Rule. Datiye Indirect Object. The indirect object of a verb is in the Dative.

a. The indirect object usually stands before the direct object

46. We may now complete the translation of the sentence The sailor announces the flight to the farmers, and we have

Nauta agricolīs fugam nūntiat

47. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 283.

Point out the direct and indirect objects and the genitive of the possessor.

I.

1. Quis nautis pecūniam dat?
2. Filiae agricolae nautis pecūniam dant.
3. Quis fortūnam pugnae nūntiat?
4. Galba agricolis fortūnam pugnae nāntiat.
5. Cui domina fābulam nārrat?
6. Fīliae agricolae domina fābulam nārrat.
7. Quis Diānae corōnam dat?
8. Puella Diānae corōnam dat quia Diānam amat.
9. Dea lūnae sagittās portat et ferās silvārum necat.
10. Cuius victōriam Galba nūntiat?
11. Nautae victōriam Galba nūntiat.

Imitate the word order of the preceding exercise.

II.

1. To whom do the girls give a wreath?
2. The girls give a wreath to Julia, because Julia loves wreaths.
3. The sailors tell the ladies[4] a story, because the ladies love stories.
4. The farmer gives his (§22.a) daughter water.
5. Galba announces the cause of the battle to the sailor.
6. The goddess of the moon loves the waters of the forest.
7. Whose wreath is Latona carrying? Diana's.

LESSON VI[edit]

FIRST PRINCIPLES (Continued)[edit]

48. The Ablative Case. Another case, lacking in English but found in the fuller Latin declension, is the ab’la-tive.

49. When the nominative singular ends in -a, the ablative singular ends in -ā and the ablative plural in -īs.

a. Observe that the final -ǎ of the nominative is short, while the final -ā of the ablative is long, as,

Nom. filiǎ Abl. filiā

b. Observe that the ablative plural is like the dative plural.

c. Form the ablative singular and plural of the following nouns: fuga, causa, fortūna, terra, aqua, puella, agricola, nauta, domina.

50. The Ablative Relation. The ablative case is used to express the relations conveyed in English by the prepositions from, with, by, at, in. It denotes

1. That from which something is separated, from which it starts, or of which it is deprived — generally translated by from.

2. That with which something is associated or by means of which it is done — translated by with or by.

3. The place where or the time when something happens — translated by in or at.

a. What ablative relations do you discover in the following?

In our class there are twenty boys and girls. Daily at eight o'clock they come from home with their books, and while they are at school they study Latin with great zeal. In a short time they will be able to read with ease the books written by the Romans. By patience and perseverance all things in this world can be overcome.

51. Prepositions. While, as stated above (§41), many relations expressed in English by prepositions are in Latin expressed by case forms, still prepositions are of frequent occurrence, but only with the accusative or ablative.

'52. Rule. Object of a Preposition. A noun governed by a preposition must be in the Accusative or Ablative case.

53. Prepositions denoting the ablative relations from, with, in, on, are naturally followed by the ablative case. Among these are

ā[5] or ab, from, away from
from, down from
ē[5] or ex, from, out from, out of
cum, with
in, in, on

1. Translate into Latin, using prepositions. In the water, on the land, down from the forest, with the fortune, out of the forests, from the victory, out of the waters, with the sailors, down from the moon.

54. Adjectives. Examine the sentence

Puella parva bonam deam amat, the little girl loves the good goddess

In this sentence parva (little) and bonam (good) are not nouns, but are descriptive words expressing quality. Such words are called adjectives,[6] and they are said to belong to the noun which they describe.

You can tell by its ending to which noun an adjective belongs. The ending of parva shows that it belongs to puella, and the ending of bonam that it belongs to deam. Words that belong together are said to agree, and the belonging-together is called agreement. Observe that the adjective and its noun agree in number and case.

55. Examine the sentences

Puella est parva, the girl is little

Puella parva bonam deam amat, the little girl loves the good goddess

In the first sentence the adjective parva is separated from its noun by the verb and stands in the predicate. It is therefore called a predicate adjective. In the second sentence the adjectives parva and bonam are closely attached to the nouns puella and deam respectively, and are called attributive adjectives.

a. Pick out the attributive and the predicate adjectives in the following:

Do you think Latin is hard? Hard studies make strong brains. Lazy students dislike hard studies. We are not lazy.

56. DIALOGUE

Julia and Galea

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 283.
I. Quis, Galba, est Diāna?
G. Diāna, Iūlia, est pulchra dea lūnae et silvārum.
I. Cuius fīlia, Galba, est Diāna?
G. Lātōnae fīlia, Iūlia, est Diāna.
I. Quid Diāna portat?
G. Sagittas Diana portat.
I. Cūr Diana sagittas portat?
G. Diāna sagittās portat, Iūlia, quod malās ferās silvae magnae necat.
I. Amatne Lātōna fīliam?
G. Amat, et fīlia Lātōnam amat.
I. Quid fīlia tua parva portat?
G. Corōnās pulchrās fiha mea parva portat.
I. Cui fīlia tua corōnās pulchrās dat?
G. Diānae corōnās dat.
I. Quis est cum fiha tuā? Estne sōla?
G. Sōla nōn est; fīlia mea parva est cum ancillā meā.

a. When a person is called or addressed, the case used is called the voc’ative (Latin vocāre, "to call"). In form the vocative is regularly like the nominative. In English the name of the person addressed usually stands first in the sentence. The Latin vocative rarely stands first. Point out five examples of the vocative in this dialogue.

b. Observe that questions answered by yes or no in English are answered in Latin by repeating the verb. Thus, if you wished to answer in Latin the question Is the sailor fighting? Pugnatne nauta? you would say Pugnat, he is fighting, or Nōn pugnat, he is not fighting.

LESSON VII[edit]

THE FIRST OR Ā-DECLENSION[edit]

57. In the preceding lessons we have now gone over all the cases, singular and plural, of nouns whose nominative singular ends in -a. All Latin nouns whose nominative singular ends in -a belong to the First Declension. It is also called the Ā-Declension because of the prominent part which the vowel a plays in the formation of the cases. We have also learned what relations are expressed by each case. These results are summarized in the following table:

Case Noun Translation Use and General Meaning of Each Case
Singular
  • Nom.
  • Gen.
  • Dat.
  • Acc.
  • Abl.
  • do’min-a
  • domin-ae
  • domin-ae
  • domin-am
  • domin-ā
  • the lady
  • of the lady, or the lady’s
  • to or for the lady
  • the lady
  • from, with, by, in, the lady
  • The subject
  • The possessor of something
  • Expressing the relation to or for, especially the *indirect object
  • The direct object
  • Separation (from), association or means (with, by), place where or time when (in, at)
Plural
  • Nom.
  • Gen.
  • Dat.
  • Acc.
  • Abl.
  • domin-ae
  • domin-ā’rum
  • domin-īs
  • domin-ās
  • domin-īs
  • the ladies
  • of the ladies, ox the ladies’
  • to or for the ladies
  • the ladies
  • from, with, by, in, the ladies

The same as the singular

58. The Base. That part of a word which remains unchanged in inflection and to which the terminations are added is called the base.

Thus, in the declension above, domin- is the base and -a is the termination of the nominative singular.

59. Write the declension of the following nouns, separating the base from the termination by a hyphen. Also give them orally.

pugna, terra, lūna, ancil’la, corō’na, īn’sula, silva

60. Gender. In English, names of living beings are either masculine or feminine, and names of things without life are neuter. This is called natural gender. Yet in English there are some names of things to which we refer as if they were feminine; as, "Have you seen my yacht? She is a beauty." And there are some names of living beings to which we refer as if they were neuter; as, "Is the baby here? No, the nurse has taken it home." Some words, then, have a gender quite apart from sex or real gender, and this is called grammatical gender.

Latin, like English, has three genders. Names of males are usually masculine and of females feminine, but names of things have grammatical gender and may be either masculine, feminine, or neuter. Thus we have in Latin the three words, lapis, a stone; rūpēs, a cliff; and saxum, a rock. Lapis is masculine, rūpēs feminine, and saxum neuter. The gender can usually be determined by the ending of the word, and must always be learned, for without knowing the gender it is impossible to write correct Latin.

61. Gender of First-Declension Nouns. Nouns of the first declension are feminine unless they denote males. Thus silva is feminine, but nauta, sailor, and agricola, farmer, are masculine.

62. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 284.

I. 1. Agricola cum fīliā in casā habitat. 2. Bona fīlia agricolae cēnam parat. 3. Cēna est grāta agricolae[7] et agricola bonam fīliam laudat. 4. Deinde fīlia agricolae gallīnās ad cēnam vocat. 5. Galllnae fīliam agricolae amant. 6. Malae fīliae bonās cēnās nōn parant. 7. Fīlia agricolae est grāta dominae. 8. Domina in īnsulā magnā habitat. 9. Domina bonae puellae parvae pecūniam dat.

II.

1. Where does the farmer live?
2. The farmer lives in the small cottage.
3. Who lives with the farmer?
4. (His) little daughter lives with the farmer.
5. (His) daughter is getting (parat) a good dinner for the farmer.
6. The farmer praises the good dinner.
7. The daughter's good dinner is pleasing to the farmer.


Latin for beginners (1911).djvu-47.png

What Latin words are suggested by this picture ?

63. CONVERSATION

Answer the questions in Latin.

1. Quis cum agricolā in casā habitat?
2. Quid bona fīlia agricolae parat?
3. Quem agricola laudat?
4. Vocatne fīlia agricolae gallinās ad cēnam?
5. Cuius fīlia est grāta dominae?
6. Cui domina pecūniam dat?

LESSON VIII[edit]

FIRST DECLENSION (Continued)[edit]

64. We have for some time now been using adjectives and nouns together, and you have noticed an agreement between them in case and in number (§54). They agree also in gender. In the phrase silva magna, we have a feminine adjective in -a agreeing with a feminine noun in -a.

65. Rule. Agreement of Adjectives. Adjectives agree with their nouns in gender, number, and case.

66. Feminine adjectives in -a are declined like feminine nouns in -a, and you should learn to decline them together as follows:

Noun

Adjective

domina (base domin-), f., lady

bona (base bon-), good

Singular

Terminations

Nom. do’mina bona -a
Gen. dominae bonae -ae
Dat. dominae bonae -ae
Acc. dominam bonam -am
Abl. dominā bonā

plural

Nom. do’minae bonae -ae
Gen. dominā’rum bonā’rum -ārum
Dat. dominīs bonīs -īs
Acc. dominās bonās -ās
Abl. dominīs bonīs īs

a. In the same way decline together puella mala, the bad girl; ancil’la parva, the little maid; fortū’na magna, great fortune.


67. The words dea, goddess. and fīlia, daughter, take the ending -ābus instead of -īs in the dative and ablative plural. Note the dative and ablative plural in the following declension:


dea bona (bases de- bon-)

Singular Plural
Nom. dea bona deae bonae
Gen. deae bonae deā’rum bonā’rum
Dat. deae bonae deā’bus bonis
Acc. deam bonam deās bonas
Abl. deā bonā deā’bus bonīs

a. In the same way decline together fīlia parva.

68. Latin Word Order. The order of words in English and in Latin sentences is not the same.

In English we arrange words in a fairly fixed order. Thus, in the sentence My daughter is getting dinner for the farmers, we cannot alter the order of the words without spoiling the sentence. We can, however, throw emphasis on different words by speaking them with more force. Try the effect of reading the sentence by putting special force on my, daughter., dinner., farmers.

In Latin, where the office of the word in the sentence i3 shown by its ending (cf. §32.1), and not by its position, the order of words is more free, and position is used to secure the same effect that in English is secured by emphasis of voice. To a limited extent we can alter the order of words in English, too, for the same purpose.

Compare the sentences

I saw a game of football at Chicago last November (normal order)
Last November I saw a game of football at Chicago
At Chicago, last November, I saw a game of football

1. In a Latin sentence the most emphatic place is the first next in importance is the last; the weakest point is the middle. Generally the subject is the most important word, and is placed first usually the verb is the next in importance, and is placed last. The other words of the sentence stand between these two in the order of their importance. Hence the normal order of words — that is, where no unusual emphasis is expressed — is as follows :

subject — modifiers of the subject — indirect object — direct object — adverb — verb

Changes from the normal order are frequent, and are due to the desire for throwing emphasis upon some word or phrase. Notice the order of the Latin words when you are translating, and imitate it when you are turning English into Latin.

2. Possessive pronouns and modifying genitives normally stand after their nouns. When placed before their nouns they are emphatic, as fīlia mea, my daughter; mea fīlia, my daughter; casa Galbae, Galba's cottage; Galbae casa, Galba’s cottage.

Notice the variety of emphasis produced by writing the following sentence in different ways:

Fīlia mea agricolīs cēnam parat (normal order)
Mea filia agricolīs parat cenam (mea and cēnam emphatic)
Agricolīs fīlia mea cēnam parat (agricolīs emphatic)

3. An adjective placed before its noun is more emphatic than when it follows. When great emphasis is desired, the adjective is separated from its noun by other words.

Fīlia mea casam parvam nōn amat (parvam not emphatic)
Fīlia mea parvam casam nōn amat (parvam more emphatic)
Parvam fīlia mea casam nōn amat (parvam very emphatic)

4. Interrogative words usually stand first, the same as in English.

5. The copula (as est, sunt) is of so little importance that it frequently does not stand last, but may be placed wherever it sounds well.

69. EXERCISE

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 284.

Note the order of the words in these sentences and pick out those that are not normal in position and hence are unusually emphatic.

1. Longae nōn sunt tuae viae.
2. Suntne tubae novae in meā casā? Nōn sunt.
3. Quis lātā in silvā habitat? Diāna, lūnae clārae pulchra dea, lātā in silvā habitat.
4. Nautae altās et lātās amant aquās.
5. Quid ancilla tua portat? Ancilla mea tubam novam portat.
6. Ubi sunt Lesbia et Iūlia? In tuā casā est Lesbia et Iūlia est in meā.
7. Estne Italia lāta terra? Longa est Italia, nōn lāta.
8, Cui Galba agricola fābulam novam nārrat? Fīliābus dominae clārae fābulam novam nārrat.
9. Clāra est īnsula Sicilia.
10. Quem laudat Lātōna? Lātōna laudat filiam.


First Review of Vocabulary and Grammar, §§502-505

LESSON IX[edit]

THE SECOND OR 0-DECLENSION[edit]

70. Latin nouns are divided into five declensions.

The declension to which a noun belongs is shown by the ending of the genitive singular. This should always be learned along with the nominative and the gender.

71. The nominative singular of nouns of the Second or O-Declension ends in -us, -er, -ir, or -um. The genitive singular ends in -ī.

72. Gender. Nouns in -um are neuter. The others are regularly masculine.

73. Declension of nouns in -us and -um. Masculines in -us and neuters in -um are declined as follows:

dominus (base domin-), m., master pīlum (base pil-), n., spear

Singular

TERMINATIONS TERMINATIONS
Nom.[8] do'minus -us pīlum -um
Gen. dominī -ī pīlī -ī
Dat. dominō -ō pīlō -ō
Acc. dominum -um pīlum -um
Abl. dominō -o pīlō -ō
Voc. domine -e pīlum -um

Plural

Nom. dominī -ī pīla -a
Gen. dominō’rum -ōrum pilō’rum -ōrum
Dat. dominīs -īs pīlīs -īs
Acc. dominōs -ōs pīla -a
Abl. dominīs -īs pīl'īs -īs

a. Observe that the masculines and the neuters have the same terminations excepting in the nominative singular and the nominative and accusative plural.

b. The vocative singular of words of the second declension in -us ends in -ĕ, as domine, O master; serve, O slave. This is the most important exception to the rule in §56. a.

74. Write side by side the declension of domina, dominus, and pīlum. A comparison of the forms will lead to the following rules, which are of great importance because they apply to all five declensions:

a. The vocative, with a single exception (see §73. b), is like the nominative. That is, the vocative singular is like the nominative singular, and the vocative plural is like the nominative plural.

b. The nominative, accusative, and vocative of neuter nouns are alike, and in the plural end in -a.

c. The accusative singular of masculines and feminines ends in -m and the accusative plural in -s.

d. The dative and ablative plural are always alike.

e. Final -i and -o are always long; final -a is short, except in the ablative singular of the first declension.

75. Observe the sentences

Lesbia est bona, Lesbia is good
Lesbia est ancilla, Lesbia is a maidservant

We have learned (§55) that bona, when used, as here, in the predicate to describe the subject, is called a predicate adjective. Similarly a noun, as ancilla, used in the predicate to define the subject is called a predicate noun.

76. Rule. Predicate Noun. A predicate noun agrees in case with the subject of the verb.

Latin for beginners (1911).djvu-52.png

PILA

77. DIALOGUE

Galba and Marcus

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 285.

G. Quis, Mārce, est lēgātus gerēns (bearing) pīllum et tubam?

M. Lēgātus, Galba, est Sextus.

G. Ubi Sextus habitat?[9]

M. In oppidō Sextus cum fīliābus habitat.

G. Amantne oppidānī Sextum?

M. Amant oppidānī Sextum et laudant, quod magnā cum cōnstantiā pugnat.

G. Ubi, Mārce, est ancilla tua? Cūr nōn cēnam parat?

M. Ancilla mea, Galba, equō lēgātī aquam et frūmentum dat.

G. Cūr nōn servus Sextī equum dominī curat?

M. Sextus et servus ad mūrum oppidī properant. Oppidānī bellum parant.[10]


Latin for beginners (1911).djvu-53.png
legatus gerens pilum et tubam

78. CONVERSATION

Translate the questions and answer them in Latin.
1. Ubi fīliae Sextī habitant?
2. Quem oppidānī amant et laudant?
3. Quid ancilla equō lēgātī dat?
4. Cuius equum ancilla cūrat?
5. Quis ad mūrum cum Sextō properat?
6. Quid oppidānī parant?

LESSON X[edit]

SECOND DECLENSION (Continued)[edit]

79. We have been freely using feminine adjectives, like bona, in agreement with feminine nouns of the first declension and declined like them. Masculine adjectives of this class are declined like dominus, and neuters like pīlum. The adjective and noun, masculine and neuter, are therefore declined as follows:

Masculine Noun and Adjective Neuter Noun and Adjective
dominus bonus, the good master pīlum bonum, the good spear
Bases domin- bon- Bases pīl- bon-

Singular

terminations

terminations

Nom. do'minus bonus -us pilum bonum -um
Gen. dominī bonī -ī pīlī bonī -ī
Dat. dominō bonō -ō pīlō bonō -ō
Acc. dominum bonum -um pīlum bonum -um
Abl. dominō bonō -ō pīlō bonō -ō
Voc. domine bone -e pīlum bonum -um

Plural

Nom. dominī bonī -ī pīla bona -a
Gen. dominō’rum bonō’rum -ōrum pīlō’rum bonō’rum -ōrum
Dat. dominīs bonīs -īs pīlīs bonīs -īs
Acc. dominōs bonōs -ōs pīla bona -a
Abl. dominīs bonīs -īs pīlīs bonīs -īs

Decline together bellum longom, equus parvus, servus malus, mūrus altua, frūmentxim noyum.

80. Observe the sentences

Lesbia ancilla est bona, Lesbia, the maidservant, is good

Fīlia Lesbiae ancillae est bona, the daughter of Lesbia, the maidservant, is good

Seryus Lesbiam ancillam amat, the slave loves Lesbia, the maidservant

In these sentences ancilla, ancillae, and ancillam denote the class of persons to which Lesbia belongs and explain who she is. Nouns so related that the second is only another name for the first and explains it are said to be in apposition, and are always in the same case.

81. Rule. Apposition. An appositive agrees in case with the noun which it explains.

82. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 285.

I.
1. Patria servī bonī, vīcus servōrum bonōrum, bone popule.
2. Populus oppidī magnī, in oppidō magnō, in oppidis magnīs.
3. Cum pīlīs longīs, ad pīla longa, ad mūrōs lātōs.
4. Lēgāte male, amīcī lēgātī malī, cēna grāta dominō bonō.
5. Frūmentum equōrum parvōrum, domine bone, ad lēgātōs clārōs.
6. Rhēnus est in Germāniā, patriā meā.
7. Sextus lēgātus pilum longum portat.
8. Oppidānī bonī Sextō lēgātō clārō pecūniam dant.
9. Malī servī equum bonum Mārcī dominī necant.
10. Galba agricola et Iīlia fīlia bona labōrant.
11. Mārcus nauta in īnsulā Sidliā habitat.
II.
1. Wicked slave, who is your friend? Why does he not praise Galba, your master?
2. My friend is from (ex) a village of Germany, my fatherland.
3. My friend does not love the people of Italy.
4. Who is caring for[11] the good horse of Galba, the farmer?
5. Mark, where is Lesbia, the maidservant?
6. She is hastening[11] to the little cottage[12] of Julia, the farmer's daughter.

=LESSON XI=

ADJECTIVES OF THE FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS[edit]

83. Adjectives of the first and second declensions are declined in the three genders as follows:

Singular

masculine feminine neuter
Nom. bonus bona bonum
Gen. bonī bonae bonī
Dat. bonō bonae bonō
Acc. bonum bonam bonum
Abl. bonō bonā bonō
Voc. bone bona bonum

Plural

Nom. bonī bonae bona
Gen. bonōrum bonārum bonōrum
Dat. bonīs bonīs bonīs
Acc. bonōs bonās bon'a
Abl. bonīs bonīs bonīs

a. Write the declension and give it orally across the page, thus giving the three genders for each case.

b. Decline grātus, -a, -um; malus, -a, -um; altus, -a, -um ; parvus, -a, -um.

84. Thus far the adjectives have had the same terminations as the nouns. However, the agreement between the adjective and its noun does not mean that they must have the same termination. If the adjective and the noun belong to different declensions, the terminations will, in many cases, not be the same. For example, nauta, sailor, is masculine and belongs to the first declension. The masculine form of the adjective bonus is of the second declension. Consequently, a good sailor is nauta bonus. So, the wicked farmer is agricola malus. Learn the following declensions:

'85. nauta bonus (bases naut- bon-), m., the good sailor

Singular Plural
Nom. nauta bon'us nautae bonī
Gen. nautae bonī nautārum bonōrum
Dat. nautae bonō nautīs bonīs
Acc. nautam bonum nautās bonōs
Abl'. nautā bonō nautīs bonīs
Voc. nauta bone nautae bonī

86. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 285.

I.
1. Est[13] in vīcō nauta bonus.
2. Sextus est amīcus nautae bonī.
3. Sextus nautae bonō galeam dat.
4. Populus Rōmānus nautam bonum laudat.
5. Sextus cum nautā bonō praedam portat.
6. Ubi, nauta bone, sunt arma et tēla lēgātī Rōmānī?
7. Nautae bonī ad bellum properant.
8. Fāma nautārum bonōrum est clāra.
9. Pugnae sunt grātae nautīs bonīs.
10. Oppidānī nautās bonōs cūrant.
11. Cūr, nautae bonī, malī agricolae ad Rhēnum properant?
12. Malī agricolae cum bonīs nautīs pugnant.
II.
1. The wicked farmer is hastening to the village with (his) booty.
2. The reputation of the wicked farmer is not good.
3. Why does Galba's daughter give arms and weapons to the wicked farmer?
4. Lesbia invites the good sailor to dinner.
5. Why is Lesbia with the good sailor hastening from the cottage?
6. Sextus, where is my helmet?
7. The good sailors are hastening to the toilsome battle.
8. The horses of the wicked farmers are small.
9. The Roman people give money to the good sailors.
10. Friends care for the good sailors.
11. Whose friends are fighting with the wicked farmers?


Latin for beginners (1911).djvu-57.png

GALEAE =LESSON XII=

NOUNS IN -IUS AND -IUM[edit]

87. Nouns of the second declension in -ius and -ium end in -ī in the genitive singular, not in -, and the accent rests on the penult; as, fīlī from fīlius (son), praesi’dī from praesi’dium (garrison).

88. Proper names of persons in -ius, and fīlius, end in -ī in the vocative singular, not in -ĕ, and the accent rests on the penult; as, Vergi’lī, O Vergil; fīlī, O son.

a. Observe that in these words the vocative and the genitive are alike.

89. praesidium (base praesidi-), n., garrison fīlius (base fīli-), m., son

Singular

Nom. praesidium fīlius
Gen. praesi’dī fīlī
Dat. praesidiō fīliō
Acc. praesidium filium
Abl. praesidiō fīliō
Voc. praesidium fīlī

The plural is regular. Note that the -i- of the base is lost only in the genitive singular, and in the vocative of words like fīlius.

Decline together praesidium parvum; fīlius bonus; fluvius longus, the long river; proelium clārum, the famous battle.

90. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 285.

I.
1. Frūmentum bonae terrae, gladī malī, bellī longī.
2. Cōnstantia magna, praesidia magna, clāre Vergi’lī.
3. Male serve, Ō clārum oppidum, male fīlī, fīliī malī, filī malī.
4. Fluvī longī, fluviī longī, fluviōrum longōrum, fāma praesi’dī magnī.
5. Cum gladiīs parvīs, cum deābus clārīs, ad nautās clārōs.
6. Multōrum proeliōrum, praedae magnae, ad proelia dūra.

Germānia

II.
Germānia, patria Germānōrum, est clāra terra. In Germāniā sunt fluviī multī. Rhēnus magnus et lātus fluvius Germāniae est. In silvīs lātīs Germāniae sunt ferae multae. Multī Germānī in oppidīs magnīs et in vīcīs parvīs habitant et multī sunt agricolae bonī. Bella Germānōrum sunt magna et clāra. Populus Germāniae helium et 5 proelia amat et saepe cum finitimīs pugnat. Fluvius Rhēnus est finitimus oppidīs[14] multīs et Clārīs.

LESSON XIII[edit]

SECOND DECLENSION (Continued)[edit]

91. Declension of Nouns in -er and -ir. In early Latin all the masculine nouns of the second declension ended in -os. This -os later became -us in words like servus, and was dropped entirely in words with bases ending in -r, like puer, boy; ager, field; and vir, man. These words are therefore declined as follows:

92.

puer, m., boy ager, m., field vir, m., man
Base puer- Base agr- Base vir-

Singular

terminations
Nom. puer agerr vir
Gen. puerī agrī virī ī
Dat. puerō agrō virō ō
Acc. puerum agrum virum um
Abl. puerō agrō virō ō

Plural

Nom'. puerī agrī virī ī
Gen. puerōrum agrōrum virōrum ōrum
Dat. puerīs agrīs virīs īs
Acc. puerōs agrōs virōs ōs
Abl. puerīs agrīs virīs īs

a. The vocative case of these words is like the nominative, following the general rule (§74.a).
b. The declension differs from that of servus only in the nominative and vocative singular.
c. Note that in puer the e remains all the way through, while in ager it is present only in the nominative. In puer the e belongs to the base, but in ager (base agr-) it does not, and was inserted in the nominative to make it easier to pronounce. Most words in -er are declined like ager. The genitive shows whether you are to follow puer or ager.

93. Masculine adjectives in -er of the second declension are declined like nouns in -er. A few of them are declined like puer, but most of them like ager. The feminine and neuter nominatives show which form to follow, thus,

Masc. Fem. Neut.
līber lībera līberum (free) is like puer
pulcher pulchra pulchrum (pretty) is like ager

For the full declension in the three genders, see §469.b.c.

94. Decline together the words vir līber, terra lībera, frūmentum līberum, puer pulcher, puella pulchra, oppidum pulchrum.

95. Italia[15]

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 286.

Magna est Italiae fāma, patriae Rōmānōrum, et clāra est Rōma, domina orbis terrārum.[16] Tiberim,[17] fluvium Rōmānum, quis nōn laudat et pulchrōs fluviō fīnitimōs agrōs? Altōs mūrōs, longa et dūra bella, Clārās victōriās quis nōn laudat? Pulchra est terra Italia. Agrī bonī agricolīs praemia dant magna, et equī agricolārum cōpiam frūmentī ad oppida et vīcōs portant. In agrīs populi Rōmānī labōrant multī servī. Viae Itahae sunt longae et lātae. Fīnitima Italiae est īnsula Sicilia.


96. DIALOGUE

Marcus and Cornelius

C. Ubi est, Mārce, fīlius tuus? Estne in pulchrā terrā Italiā?
M. Nōn est, Cornēlī, in Italiā, Ad fluvium Rhēnum properat cum cōpiīs Rōmānīs quia est[18] fāma novī bellī cum Germānls. Liber Germāniae populus Rōmānōs nōn amat.
C. Estne fīlius tuus cōpiārum Rōmānārum lēgātus?
M. Lōgātus nōn est, sed est apud legiōnāriōs.
C. Quae[19] arma portat[20]?
M. Scūtum magnum et iōrīcam dūram et galeam pulchram portat.
C. Quae tēla portat?
M. Gladium et pīlum longum portat
C. Amatne lēgātus fīlium tuum?
M. Amat, et saepe filiō meō praemia pulchra et praedam multam dat.
C. Ubi est terra Germānōrum?
M. Terra Germānōrum, Cornēlī, est fīnitima Rhēnō, fluviō magnō et altō.

LEGIONARIUS

 =LESSON XIV=

THE POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS[edit]

'97. Observe the sentences

This is my shield
This shield is mine

In the first sentence my is a possessive adjective; in the second mine is a possessive pronoun, for it takes the place of a noun, this shield is mine being equivalent to this shield is my shield. Similarly, in Latin the possessives are sometimes adjectives and sometimes pronouns.

98. The possessives my, mine, your, yours, etc. are declined like adjectives of the first and second declensions.

Singular

1st Pers. meus, mea, meum  my, mine
2d Pers. tuus, tua, tuum  your, yours
3d Pers. suus, sua, suum  his {own), her {own), its {own1)

Plural

1st Pers. noster, nostra, nostrum  our, ours
2d Pers. vester, vestra, vestrum  your, yours
3d Pers. suus, sua, suum  their {own), theirs

Note. Meus has the irregular vocative singular masculine , as mī fīlī, O my son.

a. The possessives agree with the name of the thing possessed in gender, number, and case. Compare the English and Latin in

Sextus is calling his boy  Sextus \scriptstyle{

\left.

\begin{matrix}
\ \\ \ 
\end{matrix}

\right\}\, } suum puerum vocat
Julia is calling her boy  Iūlia

Observe that suum agrees with puenim, and is unaffected by the gender of Sextus or Julia.

b. When your, yours, refers to one person, use tuus; when to more than one, vester; as,

Lesbia, your wreaths are pretty  Corōnae tuae, Lesbia, sunt pulchrae
Girls, your wreaths are pretty  Corōnae vestrae, puellae, sunt pulchrae

c. Suus is a reflexive possessive, that is, it usually stands in the predicate and regularly refers back to the subject. Thus, Vir suōs servōs vocat means The man calls his (own) slaves. Here his (suōs) refers to man (vir), and could not refer to any one else.

d. Possessives are used much less frequently than in English, being omitted whenever the meaning is clear without them. (Cf. §22.a.) This is especially true of suus, -a, -um, which, when inserted, is more or less emphatic, like our his own, her own, etc.

99. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 286.

I
1 Mārcus amīcō Sextō cōnsilium suum nūntiat.
2. Est cōpia frūmcntī in agrīs nostrīs.
3. Amīcī meī bonam cēnam ancillae vestrae laudant.
4. Tua lōrīca, mī fīlī, est dūra.
5. Scūta nostra et tēla, mi amīce, in castrīs Rōmānīs sunt.
6. Suntne virī patriae tuae līberī? Sunt.
7. Ubi, Cornēlīi, est tua galea pulchra?
8. Mea galea, Sexte, est in casā meā.
9. Pīlum longum est tuum, sed gladius est meus.
10. Iūlia gallīnās suās pulchrās amat et gallīnae dominam suam amant.
11, Nostra castra sunt vestra.
12. Est cōpia praedae in castrīs vestrīs.
13. Amīcī tuī miserīs et aegrīs cibum et pecūniam saepe dant.
II.
1. Our teacher praises Mark's industry.
2. My son Sextus is carrying his booty to the Roman camp.[21]
3. Your good girls are giving aid to the sick and wretched.[22]
4. There are [23] frequent battles in our villages.
5. My son, where is the lieutenant's food?
6. The camp is mine, but the weapons are yours.



ACRICOLA ARAT =LESSON XV=

THE ABLATIVE DENOTING WITH[edit]

100. Of the various relations denoted by the ablative case (§50) there is none more important than that expressed in English by the preposition with. This little word is not so simple as it looks. It does not always convey the same meaning, nor is it always to be translated by cum. This will become clear from the following sentences:

a. Mark is feeble with (for or because of) want of food
b. Diana kills the beasts with (or by) her arrows
c. Julia is with Sextus
d. The men fight with great steadiness

a. In sentence a, with want (of food) gives the cause of Mark's feebleness. This idea is expressed in Latin by the ablative without a preposition, and the construction is called the ablative of cause:

Mārcus est īnfīrmus inopiā cibī

b. In sentence b, with (or by) her arrows tells by means of what Diana kills the beasts. This idea is expressed in Latin by the ablative without a preposition, and the construction is called the ablative of means:

Diāna sagittīs suīs ferās necat

c. In sentence c we are told that Julia is not alone, but in company with Sextus. This idea is expressed in Latin by the ablative with the preposition cum, and the construction is called the ablative of accompaniment:

Iīlia est cum Sextō

d. In sentence d we are told how the men fight. The idea is one of manner. This is expressed in Latin by the ablative with cum, unless there is a modifying adjective present, in which case cum may be omitted. This construction is called the ablative of manner:

Virī (cum) cōnstantiā magnā pugnant

101. You are now able to form four important rules for the ablative denoting with:

102. Rule. Ablative of Cause. Cause is denoted by the ablative without a preposition. This answers the question Because of what?

103. Rule. Ablative of Means. Means is denoted by the ablative without a preposition. This answers the question By means of what? With what?

N.B. Cum must never be used with the ablative expressing cause or means.

104. Rule. Ablative of Accompaniment. Accompaniment is denoted by the ablative with cum. This answers the question With whom ?

105. Rule. Ablative of Manner. The ablative with cum is used to denote the manner of an action. Cum may be omitted, if an adjective is used with the ablative. This answers the question How? In what manner?

106. What uses of the ablative do you discover in the following passage, and what question does each answer?

The soldiers marched to the fort with great speed and broke down the gate with blows of their muskets. The inhabitants, terrified by the din, attempted to cross the river with their wives and children, but the stream was swollen with (or by) the rain. Because of this many were swept away by the waters and only a few, almost overcome with fatigue, with great difficulty succeeded in gaining the farther shore.

107. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 286.

I. The Romans prepare for War. Rōmānī, clārus Italiae populus, helium parant. Ex agrīs suīs, vīcīs, oppidīsque magnō studiō virī validī ad arma properant. Iam lēgātī cum legiōnāriīs ex Italiā ad Rhēnum, fluvium Germāniae altum et lātum, properant, et servī equīs et carrīs cibum frūmentumque ad castra Rōmāna portant. Inopiā bonōrum tēlōrum īnfīrmī sunt Germānī, sed Rōmānī armātī galeīs, lōrīcīs, scūtīs, gladiīs, pīlīsque sunt validī.

II.

1. The sturdy farmers of Italy labor in the fields with great diligence.
2. Sextus, the lieutenant, and (his) son Mark are fighting with the Germans.
3. The Roman legionaries are armed with long spears.
4. Where is Lesbia, your maid, Sextus? Lesbia is with my friends in Galba's cottage.
5. Many are sick because of bad water and for lack of food.
6. The Germans, with (their) sons and daughters, are hastening with horses and wagons.

LESSON XVI[edit]

THE NINE IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES[edit]

108. There are nine irregular adjectives of the first and second declensions which have a peculiar termination in the genitive and dative singular of all genders:

Masc. Fem. Neut.
Gen. -īus -īus -īus
Dat.
Otherwise they are declined like bonus, -a, -um. Learn the list

and the meaning of each :

alius, alia, aliud, other^ another {pi several) alter, altera, alterum, the one^ the other (of two) iinus, -a, -um, one^ alone j (in the plural) only uUus, -a, -um, any nuUus, -a, -um, none., no solus, -a, -um, alone lotus, -a, -um, all., whole, entire uter, utra, utrum, which? {pi two) neuter, neutra, neutrum, neither {pi two)

109 PARADIGMS

Singular MASC. FEM. NEUT. masc. FEM. NEUT. Nom. nullus nulla nullum alius alia aliud Gen. nulli'us nulli'us nulli'us ali'us alfus airus Dat. null! nulli nulli alii alii alii Ace. nullum nOllam nullum alium aliam aliud AK nulls nulla nulls aliS m m

The Plural is Regular

a. Note the peculiar neuter singular ending in -d of alins. The genitive alius is rare. Instead of it use alterius, the genitive of alter. d. These peculiar case endings are found also in the declension of pro- nouns (see § 114). For this reason these adjectives arc sometimes called the pronominal adjectives. . Learn the following idioms : alter, -era, -erum . . . alter, -era, -erum, M^ t?«^ . . . the other {pi tvio) alius, -a, -ud . . . alius, -a, -ud, one . . . another {pi any number) alii, -ae, -a. . . . alii, -ae, -a, some . . . others EXAMPLES . Alterum oppidum est magnum, alterum parviun, the one town is large, the other small (of two towns). . Aliud oppidum est validum, aliud infirmum, one town is strong, another weak (of towns in general). . Alii gladids, alii scuta portant, some carry swords, others shields. . EXERCISES I. I. In utra casa est lulia? lulia est in neutra casa. 2. Null! malo puero praemium dat magister. 3. Alter puer est nauta, alter agricola. 4. Alii viri aquam, alii terram amant. 5. Galba Gnus (or solus) cum studio laborat. 6. Estne uUus carrus in agro meo? 7. Lesbia est ancilla alterius dominl, Tullia alterius. 8. Lesbia sola cenam parat. 9. Cena nullius alterius ancillae est bona. 10. Lesbia null! alii viro cenam dat. Note. The pronominal adjectives, as you observe, regularly stand before and not after their nouns. II. I. The men of all Germany are preparing for war. 2. Some towns are great and others are small. 3. One boy likes chickens, another horses. 4. Already the booty of one town is in our fort. . Our whole village is suffering for (i.e. weak because of) lack of food. . The people are already hastening to the other town. 7. Among the Romans (there) is no lack of grain. LESSON XVII THE DEMONSTRATIVE /S, EA, ID . A demonstrative is a word that points out an object definitely, as this^ that, these, those. Sometimes these words are pronouns, as, Do you hear these ? and sometimes adjectives, as. Do you hear these men? In the former case they are called demonstrative pronouns, in the latter demonstrative adjectives. . Demonstratives are similarly used in Latin both 2^^ pronouns and as adjectives. The one used most is is, masculine ; ea, feminine ; id, neuter Singular r this that Plural these those . Is is declined as follows. Compare its declension with that of alius, § 109. Bask e- S INGULAR Plural MASC. FEM. NEUT. MASC. FEM. NEUT. No7n. is ea id

{or ii) 

eae ea Ge?i. eius eius eius eorum earum eorum Dat. ei ei el els {or iis) ■ eis {or iis) els {or iis) Ace. eum earn id e5s eas ea AM. eo ea eo eis {or iis) els {or iis) eis {or iis) Note that the base e- changes to i- in a few cases. The genitive singular eius is pronounced eh'yus. In the plural the forms with two i's are preferred and the two i's are pronounced as one. Hence, pronounce ii as i and iis . Besides being used as demonstrative pronouns and adjectives the Latin demonstratives are regularly used for the personal pronoun he, she, it. As a personal pronoun, then, is would have the following meanings: Norn. Gftt. Sing, h Vat, Ace. Abl. 'Norn. Gen. Plur. . Dai. Ace. Abi. COMPARISON BETWEEN SUUS AND IS 49 ia, he; ea, she; id, // eius, of him or his ; eius, of her ^ her^ or /f^rrj/ eius, 0/ it ( 'I //; ci, to ox for him ; ei, /<? ox for her ; el, /<? ox for it eum, ///wy earn, ^<rr/ id, // efl, withy from ^ etc., ^/wy e&, wit h^ from ^ etc., ^^ry eC, w////, from^ etc., // el or ii, eae, ea, they edrum, earum, eSnim, of them, their eis or iis, eis or lis, eis or lis, to ox for them e5s, eas, ea, them eis or iis, eis or iis, eis or iis, with^ from^ etc., them . Comparison between suus and is. We learned above (§ 98. c) that 8UU8 is a reflexive possessive. When his, her (poss.), its, their, do not refer to the subject of the sentence, we express his, her, its by eius, the genitive singular of is, ea, id ; and their by the genitive plural, using eOnim to refer to a masculine or neuter antecedent noun and e&rum to refer to a feminine one. EXAMPLES Galba calls his (own) son, Galba suum filium vocal Galba calls his son (not his own, but another's), Galba eius filium vocat fulia calls her (own) children, lulia suds liberos vocat fulia calls her children (not her own, but another's), lulia eius llberds vocat The men praise their (own) boys, viri su6s puerSs laudant The men praise their boys (not their own, but others'), viri eorum puerds laudant . EXERCISES First leam the special vocabulary, p. 287. I. He praises her, him, it, them. 2. This cart, that report, these teachers, those women, that abode, these abodes. 3. That strong garrison, among those weak and sick women, that want of firmness, those frequent plans. . The other woman is calling her chickens (A^ <?w«). 5. Another woman is calling her chickens {not her own). 6. The Gaul praises his arms (his own). 7. The Gaul praises his arms (not his own). 8. This farmer often plows their fields. 9. Those wretched slaves long for their master {thdr own). 10. Those wretched slaves long for their master {not their own). 1 1 . Free men love their own father- land. 12. They love its villages and towns. . DIALOGUE 1 Cornelius and Marcus M. Quis est vir, Cornell, cum puero parvo ? Estne R5manus et liber ? C. Romanus non est, Marce. Is vir est servus et eius domicilium est in silvis Galliae. M. Estne puer filius eius servl an alterius ? C. Neutrius filius est puer. Is est filius legatl Sexti. M. Quo puer cum eo servo properat ? C. Is cum servo properat ad latos Sexti agros.^ Totum frumentum est iam maturum et magnus servorum numerus in Italiae ^ agris laborat. M. Agricolaene sunt Gall! et patriae suae agros arant ? C. Non agricolae sunt. Bellum. amant Galll, non agri culturam. Apud eos viri pugnant et feminae auxilio liberorum agros arant parantque cibum. M. Magister noster pueris puellisque gratas Gallorum fabulas saepe narrat et laudat eos saepe. C. Mala est fortuna eorum et saepe miseri servi multis cum lacri- mls patriam suam desiderant.

There are a number of departures from the normal order in this dialogue. 

Find them, and give the reason. 2 When a noun is modified by both a genitive and an adjective, a favorite order of words is adjective, genitive, noun 8 A modifying genitive often stands between a preposition and its object Second Review, Lessons IX-XVII, §§ 506-509 LESSON XVIII CONJUGATION THE PRESENT, IMPERFECT, AND FUTURE TENSES OF SUM . The inflection of a verb is called its conjugation (cf. § 23). In English the verb has but few changes in form, the different meanings being expressed by the use of personal pronouns and auxiliaries, as, / am carried^ we have carried^ they shall have carried, etc In Latin, on the other hand, instead of using personal pronouns and auxiliary verbs, the form changes with the meaning. In this way the Romans expressed differences in tense, mood, voice, person, and number. . The Tenses. The different forms of a verb referring to differ- ent times are called its tenses. The chief distinctions of time arc present, past, and future :

. The present, that is, what is happening 1 

now, or what usually happens, is ex- I the Puksknt Tbnsk pressed by J . The past, that is, what was happening, ' used to happen, happened, has happened, "^"^ Imperfect, Perfect, r ^ , f f *, . , , I AND Pluperfect Tenses or had happened, is expressed by j . The future, that is, what is going to hap- x„k future and Future pen, is expressed by / Perfect Tenses . The Moods. Verbs have inflection of mood to indicate the manner in which they express action. The moods of the Latin verb ai-e the indicative, subjunctive, imperative, and infinitive. a. A verb is in the indicative mood when it makes a statement or asks a question about something assumed as a fact. All the verbs we have used thus far are in the present indicative. . The Persons. There are three persons, as in English. The first person is the person speaking (/ sing) ; the second person the person spoken to (^you sing) ; the third person the person spoken of {he sings). Instead of using personal pronouns for the different per- sons in the two numbers, singular and plural, the Latin verb uses the pergonal endings (cf. § 22 ^ ; 29). We have already learned that -t is the ending of the third person singular in the active voice and -nt of the third person plural. The complete list of personal endings of the active voice is as follows : Singular Plural st Pers. J -m or -o , we -mus d Pers. thou or you -s you -tis jd Pers. he, she, it -t they -nt . Most verbs form their moods and tenses after a regular plan and are called regular verbs. Verbs that depart from this plan are called irregular. The verb to be is irregular in Latin as in English. The present, imperfect, and future tenses of the indicative are inflected as follows: Present Indicative singular plural jst Pers. su-m, / am su-mus, we are d Pers. e-s, you ^ are es-tis, you ^ are jd Pers. es-t, he, she, or // is su-nt, they are Imperfect Indicative st Pers. er-a-m, / was er-a'-mus, we were d Pers. er-a-s, you were er-a'-tis, you were jd Pers. er-a-t, he, she, or it was er-a-nt, they were Future Indicative st Pers. er-o, / shall be er'-i-mus, we shall be * d Pers. er-i-s, you will be er'-i-tis, you will lie jd Pers. er-i-t, he will be er-u-nt, they will be a. Be careful about vowel quantity and accent in these forms, and con- sult §§ 12.2; 14; 15.

Observe that in English you are, you were, etc. may be either singular or 

plural. In Latin the singular and plural forms are never the same.

Latin for beginners (1911).djvu-73.png

. DIALOGUE The Boys Skxtus and Marcus 1 irst learn the special vocabulary, p. 287. S. Ubi es, Marce ? Ubi est Quintus ? Ubi estis, amici ? M. Cum Quinto, Sexte, in silva sum. Non s6li sumus; sunt in silva multi alii pueri. S. Nunc laetus es, sed nOper non laetus eras. Cur miser eras ? M. Miser eram quia amicI mei erant in alio vico et eram solus. Nunc sum apud socios meos. Nunc laeti sumus et erimus. S. Eratisne in ludo hodie ? M. Hodie non eramus in ludo, quod magister erat aeger. S. Eritisne mox in ludo } M. Amici mei ibi erunt, sed ego (/) non ero. . Cur non ibi eris ? Magister, saepe iratus, inopiam tuam studi diligentiaeque non laudat. M. Nuper aeger eram et nunc infirmus sum. . EXERCISE I . You are, you were, you will be, (j/«^. and plur^. 2. I am, I was, I shall be. 3. He is, he was, he will be. 4. We are, we were, we shall be. 5. They are, they were, they will be. . Why were you not in school to-day? I was sick. 7. Lately he was a sailor, now he is a farmer, soon he will be a teacher. 8. To-day I am happy, but lately I was wretched. 9. The teachers were happy because of the boys' industry. PUBRI KOMANI IN LUDO LESSON XIX THE FOUR REGULAR CONJUGATIONS • PRESENT ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF AMO AND MONEO . There are four conjugations of the regular verbs. These con- jugations are distinguished from each other by the final vowel of the present conjugation-stem.^ This vowel is called the distinguishing vowel, and is best seen in the present infinitive. Below is given the present infinitive of a verb of each conjugation, the present stem, and the distinguishing vowel. Conjugation Pres. Infin. Pres. Stem DISTINGUISHING VOWEL I. ama're, to love ama- a II. mone're, to advise mone- I III. re'g6re, to rule reg&-

IV. audi're, to hear audi- i a. Note that the present stem of each conjugation is found by dropping -re, the ending of the present infinitive. Note. The present infinitive of sum is esse, and es- is the present stem. . From the present stem are formed the present, imperfect, and future tenses. . The inflection of the Present Active Indicative of the first and of the second conjugation is as follows : Sing. Plur.

The stem is the body of a word to which the terminations are attached. 

It is often identical with the base (cf. § 58). If, however, the stem ends in a vowel, the latter does not appear in the base, but is variously combined with the inflectional terminations. This point is further explained in § 230. ElEi amo, ama'te {love) s. Stem ama- mo'neS, mone're {advise) Pres. Stem mone- personal ENDINGS I. a'mo, / love mo'neo, / advise -6 . a'mas, you love mo'nes, you advise -s . a'mat, he {she, it) loves mo'net, he {she, it) advises -t I. ama'mus, we love mone'mus, we advise -mus . ama'tis, you love mone'tis, you advise -tis . a'mant, they love mo'nent, they advise -nt

( . The present tense is inflected by adding the personal endings to the present stem, and its first person uses -5 and not -m. The form »m6 is for ama-d, the two vowels a-6 contracting to 6. In mone5 there is no contraction. Nearly all regular verbs ending in -ed belong to the second conjugation. . Note that the long final vowel of the stem is shortened before another vowel (mone-C = mo'nW), and before final -t (amSt, monfit) and -nt (^amint, monSnt). Compare § 1 2. 2. . Like amO and moneO inflect the present active indicative of the following verbs * : Indicative Present a'r6, 1 plow cu'r6, / care for •d€ae«, / destroy desi'derO, / long for d6,'- 1 give •ha 1)6(5, 1 have ha 'bits, / live^ I dwell ♦iu'beS, / order labS'rO, / labor Ian 'do, I praise matii'rS, I hasten "•mo'ved, / fnove nar'ro, / tell ne'c6, / kill niin'tiS, / announce pa'ro, I prepare por'to, / carry pro'per6, / hasten pug'nS, I fight ♦vi'deO, I see vo'c5, / call Infinitive Present ara're, to plow ciira're, to care for dele're, to destroy desidera're, to long for da 're, to give habe're, to have habita're, to live, to dwell lube 're, to order labOra're, to labor lauda're, to praise matura're, to hasten move're, to move narra're, to tell neca're, to kill niintia're, to announce para 're, to prepare porta 're, to carry propera're, to hasten pugna're, to fight vide're, to see voca're, to call . The Translation of the Present. In English there are three ways of expressing present action. We may say, for example, I live ^ I am livings or I do live. In Latin the one expression habitO covers all three of these expressions. ' The only new verbs in this list are the five of the second conjugation which are starred. Learn their meanings. * Observe that in d6, dire, the a is short, and that the present stem is di- and not dl-. The only forms of d5 that have « long are dia (pres. indie), di (pres. imv.), and dins (pres. part). . EXERCISES Give the voice^ mood, tense, person, and ttumber of each form. I. I . Vocamus, properatis, iubent. 2 . Movetis, laudas, vides. 3. De- letis, habetis, dant. 4. Maturas, deslderat, videmus. 5. lubet, mo- vent, necat. 6. Narramus, moves, vident. 7. Laboratis, properant, portas, parant. 8. Delet, habetis, iubemus, das. N.B. Observe that the personal ending is of prime importance in trans- lating a Latin verb form. Give that your first attention. II. I. We plow, we are plowing, we do plow. 2. They care for, they are caring for, they do care for. 3. You give, you are having, you do have (sing.y 4. We destroy, I do long for, they are living. 5. He calls, they see, we are telling. 6. We do fight, we order, he is moving, he prepares. 7. They are laboring, we kill, you announce. LESSON XX IMPERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF AMO AND MONEO . Tense Signs. Instead of using auxiliary verbs to express differences in tense, like was, shall, will, etc., Latin adds to the verb stem certain elements that have the force of auxiliary verbs. These are called tense signs. . Formation and Inflection of the Imperfect. The tense sign of the imperfect is -ba-, which is added to the present stem. The imperfect consists, therefore, of three parts : Present Stem Tense Sign personal ending ama- ba- m loving was I The inflection is as follows : Conjugation I Conjugation II personal SINGULAR ENDINGS . ama1t)am, I was loving mone'bam, I was advising -m . ama'bas, you were loving mone'bas, you were advising -s . ama'bat, he was loving mone'bat, he was advising -t PERSONAL I'LURAL ENDINGS . amaba'mus, we were loving moneba^mns, we were advising -mus . amaba'tis, jtf« were loving ■ monebi'tis, 7^?// were advising -tis . ama'bant, they were loving mone'bant, they were advising -nt a. Note that the i of the tense sign -ba- is shortened before -nt, and before m and t when final. (Cf. § 1 2. 2.) In a similar manner inflect the verbs given in § 129. . Meaning of the Imperfect. The Latin imperfect describes an act as going on ox progressing in past time, like the English past- progressive tense (as, I was walking). It is the regular tense used to describe a past situation or condition of affairs. . EXERCISES I. I. Videbamus, dgsiderabat, maturabas. 2. Dabant, vocabatis, delebamus. 3. Pugnant, laudabas, movebatis. 4. lubSbant, properS- batis, portabamus. 5. Dabas, narrabant, laborabatis. 6. Videbant, movebas, nuntiabamus. 7. Necabat, movebam, habebat, parabatis. II. I. You were having {sing, and plur.), we were killing, they were laboring. 2. He was moving, we were ordering, we were fight- ing. 3. We were telling, they were seeing, he was calling. 4. They were living, I was longing for, we were destroying. 5. You were giving, you were moving, you were announcing, {sing, and plur.). 6. They were caring for, he was plowing, we were praising. . Nl'OBE AND HER CHILDREN First learn the special vocabulary, p. 287. Nioba, regina Thebanorum, erat pulchra fgmina sed superba. Erat superba n6n sOlum fOrma* suS maritique potentia* sed edam magnO liberOrum numerS.* Nam habebat* septem filiOs et septem filias. Sed ea superbia erat reginae • causa magnae tristitiae et llberis • causa durae poenae. Note. The words Niobi, ThSbinfirum, and mariti will be found in the general vocabulary. Translate the selection without looking up any other words.

  • Ablative of cause. * Translate had; it denotes a past situation. (See

f 134.) • Dative, cf. % 43. LESSON XXI FUTURE ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF AMO AND MONEO . The tense sign of the Future Indicative in the first and second conjugations is -bi-. This is joined to the present stem of the verb and followed by the personal ending, as follows : Present Stem Tense Sign personal ending ama- bi- s loz'e will you . The Future Active Indicative is inflected as follows . Conjugation I Conjugation II SINGULAR

. ama'bo, / shall love mone'bo, / shall advise 

. ama'bis, you will love mone'bis, you will advise . ama'bit, he will love mone'bit, he will advise PLURAL . 2xak%vcaxi&y we shall love vcionQ')m.u&, we shall advise . SLmafbitis, you will love mone'hitiSy you will advise . ama'bunt, Ihey will love mone'bunt, Ihey will advise a. The personal endings are as in the present. The ending -bo in the first person singular is contracted from -bi-o. The -bi- appears as -bu- in the third person plural. Note that the inflection is like that of ero, the future of sum. Pay especial attention to the accent. In a similar manner inflect the verbs given in § 129. . EXERCISES I. I. Movebitis, laudabis, arabo. 2. Delebitis, vocabitis, dabunt. 3. Maturabis, deslderabit, videbimus. 4. Habebit, movebunt, necabit. 5. Narrabimus, monebis, videbunt. 6. Laborabitis, curabunt, dabis. 7. Habitabimus, properabitis, iubebunt, parabit. 8. Nuntiabo, porta- bimus, iubebo. II. I. We shall announce, we shall see, I shall hasten. 2. I shall carry, he will plow, they will care for. 3. You will announce, you will move, you will give, (sing, and plur.). 4. We shall fight, we shall destroy, I shall long for. 5. He will call, they will see, you will tell {J>lur.). 6. They will dwell, we shall order, he will praise. 7. They will labor, we shall kill, you will have {sing, and piur.), he will destroy. . Ni'oBE AND HER CHILDREN (Concluded) First learn the special vocabulary, p. 288. Apoll5 et Di§na erant liberi LatOnae. lis ThebanI sacra crfibra parabant.* Oppidan! amabant LatSnam et liberSs eius. Id superbae reginae erat molestum. " Cur," inquit, " Latonae et liberis sacra paratis? Duos liberos habet Latona; quattuordecim habeo ego. Ubi sunt mea sacra ? " Latona ils verbis * Irata liberos suos vocat. 5 Ad earn volant Apollo Dianaque et sagittis' suis miseros liberos reginae superbae delent. Niobe, nuper laeta, nunc misera, sedet apud liberos interfectOs et cum perpetuis lacrimis* eos desiderat. Note. Consult the general vocabulary for Apolld, inquit, duos, and quattnor- dedm. Try to remember the meaning of all the other words. LESSON XXII REVIEW OF VERBS • THE DATIVE WITH ADJECTIVES L Review the present, imperfect, and future active indicative, both orally and in writing, of sum and the verbs in § 129. . We learned in § 43 for what sort of expressions we may expect the dative, and in § 44 that one of its commonest uses is with Trrbs to express the indirect object. It is also very common with adjectives to express the object toward which the quality denoted by the adjective is directed. We have already had a number of cases

  • Observe the force of the imperfect here, used to prepare, icere in the habit

of preparing; so amibant denotes a past situation of affairs. (See § 134.) * Abla- tive of cause. ■ Ablative of means. * This may be either manner or ac- companiment It is often impossible to draw a sharp line between means, manner, and accompaniment. The Romans themselves drew no sharp distinc- tion. It waa enough for them if the general idea demanded the ablative case. where gratus, agreeable to, was so followed by a dative ; and in the last lesson we had molestus, annoying to, followed by that case. The usage may be more explicitly stated by the following rule : . Rule. Dative with Adjectives. The dative is used with adjectives to denote the object toward which the given quality is directed. Such are, especially, those meanitig near, also fit, friendly, pleasing, like, and their opposites. . Among such adjectives memorize the following : idoneus, -a, -um,yf/, suitable (for) molestus, -a, -um, annoying (to), amicus, -a, -was., friendly (to) troublesome (to) inimicus, -a, -um, hostile (to) finitimus, -a, -um, neighboring (to) gratus, -a, -um, pleasing (to), agree- proximus, -a, -um, nearest, next able (to) . (to) . EXERCISES I. I. Roman! terram idoneam agri culturae habent. 2. Galli copiis Romanis inimici erant. 3. Cui dea Latona arnica non erat? 4. Dea Latona superbae reginae amica non erat. 5. Cibus noster, Marce, erit armatis viris gratus. 6. Quid erat molestum populis Italiae? 7. Bella longa cum Gallis erant molesta populis Italiae. 8. Agri Germanorum fluvio Rheno finitimi erant. 9. Roman! ad silvam oppido proximam castra movebant. 10. Non solum forma sed etiam superbia reginae erat magna. 11. Mox regina pulchra erit aegra tristitia. 12. COr erat Niobe, reglna Thebanorum, laeta ? Laeta erat Niobe multis f!li!s et f!liabus. II. I. The sacrifices of the people will be annoying to the haughty queen. 2. The sacrifices were pleasing not only to Latona but also to Diana. 3. Diana will destroy those hostile to Latona. 4. The punishment of the haughty queen was pleasing to the goddess Diana. 5. The Romans will move their forces to a large field ^ suitable for a camp. 6. Some of the allies were friendly to the Romans, others to the Gauls.

Why not the dative t  

. Cornelia and her Jewels First learn the special vcx:abulary, p. 288. Apud antiquas dominSs, Cornelia, African! filia, erat ^ maximC cUra. Filii eius erant Tiberius Gracchus et GSius Gracchus. li pueri cum Cornelia in oppido Roma, claro Italiae oppido, habitabant. Ibi eos curabat ComSlia et ibi magno cum studio eos docebat. Bona fCmina erat Cornelia et bonam disciplinam maxime amSbat. Note. Can you translate the paragraph above ? There are no new words. LESSON XXIII PRESENT ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF REGO AND AUDIO . As we learned in § 126, the present stem of the third con- jugation ends in -€, and of the fourth in -i. The inflection of the Present Indicative is as follows : Conjugation III Conjugation IV re'gS, re'gere (ru/g) PRES.STEM regfc- au'diS, audi're {hear) Pres. Stem audi- SINGULAR . re'gft, / ru/e . re'gis, you rule . rc'git, he {she, it) rules au'difi, / hear au'dis, you hear au'dit, he {she, if) hears PLURAL

. re'gimus, ive rule 

. re'giti8,^^« rule . re'gunt, I hey rule audl'mui, we hear ZMdVtBfyou hear au'diant, they hear

. The personal endings are the same as before. 

. The final short -e- of the stem reg*- combines with the -6 in the first person, becomes -u- in the third person plural, and becomes -I- elsewhere. The inflection is like that of erO, the future of sum.

  • Observe that all the imperfects denote continued or progressive action,

or describe a state of affairs. (Cf. § 134.) . In audi5 the personal endings are added regularly to the stem audi-. In the third person plural -u- is inserted between the stem and the personal ending, as audi-u-nt. Note that the long vowel of the stem is shortened before final -t just as in ani5 and mone5. (Cf. § 12. 2.) Note that -i- is always short in the third conjugation and long in the fourth, excepting where long vowels are regularly shortened. (Cf. § 12. 1,2.) . Like regO and audio inflect the present active indicative of the following verbs : Indicative Present Infinitive Present ag5, / dnve agere, to drive dico, / say dicere, to say duco, / lead ducere, to lead mitto, / send mittere, to send munio, I fortify munire, to fortify reperio, I find reperire, to find venio, / come venire, to come . EXERCISES I. I. Quis agit.? Curvenit? Quern mittit? Quern ducis? 2. Quid mittunt ? Ad quem veniunt ? Cuius castra muniunt . 3. Quern agunt } Venimus. Quid puer reperit ? 4. Quem mittimus ? Cuius equum du- citis? Quid dicunt? 5. Munimus, venitis, dicit. 6. Agimus, reperitis, munis. 7. Reperis, ducitis, dicis. 8. Agitis, audlmus, regimus. II. I. What do they find.? Whom do they hear? Why does he come ? 2. Whose camp are we fortifying ? To whom does he say ? What are we saying ? 3. I am driving, you are leading, they are hear- ing. 4. You send, he says, you fortify {sing, and plur.). 5. I am coming, we find, they send. 6. They lead, you drive, he does fortify. 7. You lead, you find, you rule, (all flur.). . Cornelia and her Jewels (Concluded) Proximum domicilio Comeliae erat pulchrae Campanae domicilium. Campana erat superba non solum forma sua sed maxime omamentis suis. Ea^ laudabat semper. " Habesne tu ulla omamenta, Cornelia ? "

  • Ea, accusative plural neuter.

inquit. "Ubi sunt tua omamenta?" Deinde Cornelia filiQs su6s Tiberium et Gaium vocat. " Puen mel," inquit, " sunt mea omamenta. Nam bonl llberi sunt semper bonae feminae Omamenta maxime cl§ra." Note. The only new words here arc Campinl^ semper, and tfl.


" PUERI MEI SUNT MEA ORNAMENTA" LESSON XXIV IMPERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF REGO AND AUDIO • THE DATIVE WITH SPECIAL INTRANSITIVE VERBS . PARADIGMS Conjugation III Conjugation IV singular

. regettam, / was ruling 

. regelkis, you were ruling . regSlMty he was ruling PLURAL

. rcgcba'mu«, wi were ruling 

. regibft'tis, you were ruling . regS'bAiit, tfuy were ruling audie'bam, / was hearing audie'bfts, you were hearing audie'bat, he was hearing audieba'mus, we were hearing audieba'tis, you were hearing audielMint, they were hearing

. The tense sign is -ba-, as in the first two conjugations. 

. Observe that the final -e- of the 'stem is lengthened before the tense sign -ba-. This makes the imperfect of the third conjugation just like the imperfect of the second (cf. monebam and regebam). . In the fourth conjugation -e- is inserted between the stem and the tense sign -ba- (audi-e-ba-m). . In a similar manner inflect the verbs given in § 148. . EXERCISES I. i. Agebat, veniebat, mittebat, ducebant. 2. Agebant, mittebant, ducebas, muniebant. 3. Mittebamus, ducebatis, dicebant 4. Munie- bamus, veniebatis, dicebas. 5. Mittebas, veniebamus, reperiebat. 6. Reperiebas, veniebas, audiebatis. 7. Agebamus, reperiebatis, muni- ebat. 8. Agebatis, dicebam, muniebam. II. I. They were leading, you were driving {sing, and plur.), he was fortifying. 2. They were sending, we were finding, I was com- ing. 3. You were sending, you were fortifying, (sing, and plur.), he was saying. 4. They were hearing, you were leading (sing, and plur.), I was driving. 5. We were saying, he was sending, I was fortifying, 6. They were coming, he was hearing, I was finding. 7, You were ruling (sing, and plur.), we were coming, they were ruUng. . The Dative with Special Intransitive Verbs. We learned above (§ 20.^) that a verb which does not admit of a direct object is called an intransitive verb. Many such verbs, however, are of such meaning that they can govern an indirect object, which will, of course, be in the dative case (§ 45). Learn the following list of intransitive verbs with their meanings. In each case the dative indirect object is the person or thing to which a benefit, injury, or feeling is directed. (Cf. § 43.) credo, credere, believe (give belief to) faveo, favere, favor (show favor to) 1 noceo, nocere, injure (do harm to) pared, parere, obey (give obedience to) persuadeo, persuadere, persuade (offer persuasion to) resisto, resistere, resist (offer resistance to) studeo, studere, be eager for (give attention to) . Rule. Dative with Intransitive Verba. The dative of the indirect object is used with the intransitive verbs credo^ faveo^ noceoj pared, persuaded, resisto, studeb, and others of like meaning. . EXERCISE I . Credisne verbis sociorum ? Multi verbis eorum n6n credunt. 2. Mei flnitimi c5nsili6 tuo non favebunt, quod bello student. 3. Tibe- rius et Gaius disciplinae durae non resistebant et Comeliae parebant. 4. Dea erat inimica septem filiabus reginae. 5. Dura poena et per- petua tristitia reginae non persuadebunt. 6. Nuper ea resistebat et nunc resistit potentiae Latonae. 7. Mox sagittae volabunt et liberis miseris noc^bunt. LESSON XXV FUTURE ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF REGO AND AUDid . In the future tense of the third and fourth conjugations we meet with a new tense sign. Instead of using -bi-, as in the first and second conjugations, we use -4-* in the first person singular and -«- in the rest of the tense. In the third conjugation the final -6- of the stem is dropped before this tense sign ; in the fourth conjugation the final -i- of the stem is retained.* . PARADIGMS Conjugation III Conjugation IV SINGULAR

. re'gam, / shall rule au'diam, / shall hear 

. rc'ggs, you will rule au'diJa, you will hear 2,. tq' gttf he will rule diu'^^/tf he will hear PLURAL

. reg€'miu, we shall rule audiS'mus, we shall hear 

. regi'tiaf you will rule audii^t^, you will hear . re'gcnt, they will rule au'dient, they will hear > The -4- is shortened before -m final, and -*- before -t final and before -nt. (Cf. § 12. 2.) * The + is, of course, shortened, being before another voweL (C£.Ji2. I)

. Observe that the future of the third conjugation is like the present of 

the second, excepting in the first person singular. . In the same manner inflect the verbs given in § 148. . EXERCISES I. I. Dicet, ducetis, mtiniemus. 2. Dicent, dicetis, mittemus 3. Munient, venient, mittent, agent. 4. Dticet, mittes, veniet, aget. 5. Muniet, reperietis, agemus. 6. Mittam, veniemus, regent. 7. Au- dietis, venies, reperies. 8. Reperiet, agam, ducemus, mittet. 9. Vide- bitis, sedebo, vocabimus. II. I.I shall find, he will hear, they will come. 2. I shall fortify, he will send, we shall say. 3. I shall drive, you will lead, they will hear. 4. You will send, you will fortify, {sing, and plur.), he will say. 5. I shall come, we shall find, they will send. . Who ^ will believe the story ? I ^ shall believe the story. 7. Whose friends do you favor ? We favor our friends. 8. Who will resist our weapons ? Sextus will resist your weapons. 9. Who will persuade him ? They will persuade him. 10. Why were you injuring my horse? I was not injuring your horse. 11. Whom does a good slave obey? A good slave obeys his master. 12. Our men were eager for another battle. LESSON XXVI VERBS IN '10 OF THE THIRD CONJUGATION • THE IMPERA- TIVE MOOD . There are a few common verbs ending in -16 which do not belong to the fourth conjugation, as you might infer, but to the third. The fact that they belong to the third conjugation is shown by the ending of the infinitive. (Cf. §126.) Compare audio, audi're {hear), fourth conjugation capio, ca'pere {take), third conjugation

Remember that quis, who, is singular in number. ^ Express by ego, 

because it is emphatic.

. The present, imperfect, and future active indicative of capifl are inflected as follows : capio, capere, take Pres. Stem cape- Present Imperfect SINGULAR Future . ca'pi6 capie'bam ca'piam J. ca'pis capie'bas ca'piSs . ca'pit capielMit PLURAL ca'piet I . ca'pimus capieba'mus capie'miifl J. ca'pitis capieba'tis capie'tis . ca'piunt capie'bant ca'pient

. Observe that capiS and the other -15 verbs follow the fourth conju- 

gation wherever in the fourth conjugation two vowels occur in succession. (Cf. capiS, audiS ; capiunt, audiunt ; and all the imperfect and future.) All other forms are like the third conjugation. (Cf . capis, regis ; capit, regit ; etc.) . Like capid, inflect faciS, facere, make^ do fugi5, fugere, flee iaci5, iacere, hurl rapid, rapere, seize . The Imperative Mood. The imperative mood expresses a command; as, come! send! The present tense of the imperative is used only in the second person, singular and plural. Tfu singular in the active voice is regularly the same in form as the present stem. The plural is formed by adding -te to the singular. Conjugation Singular Plural I. ami, love thou ama'te, love ye II. mone, advise thou mone'te, advise ye III. {a) rege, rule thou re'gite, rule ye {b) cape, take thou ca'pitc, take ye IV. audi, hear thou audi'te, hear ye sum (irregular) es, be thou este, be ye plural. In the third conjugation the final -4- of the stem becomes -I- in the . The verbs dico, say j duc5, lead; and faci5, make, have the irregular forms die, due, and fae in the singular. . Give the present active imperative, singular and plural, of venio, dueo, Yoco, doeeo, laudo, dico, sedeo, ago, faeio, miinio, mitto, rapio. . EXERCISES I. I. Fugient, faciunt, iaciebat. 2. Dele, ntintiate, fugiunt. 3. Ve- nite, die, facietis. 4. DOcite, iaciam, fugiebant. 5. Fac, iaciebamus, fugimus, rapite. 6. Sedete, reperi, doCete. 7 . Fugiemus, iacient, rapies. 8. Reperient, rapiebatis, nocent. 9. Favete, resiste, parebitis. . Vola ad multas terras etda auxilium. 11. Ego tela mea capiam et multas feras delebo. 12. Quis fabulae tuae credet? 13. Este bonl, pueri, et audite verba grata magistri. II. I. The goddess will seize her arms and will hurl her weapons. 2. With her weapons she will destroy many beasts. 3. She will give aid to the weak.^ 4. She will fly to many lands and the beasts will flee. 5. Romans, telP the famous story to your children. Third Review, Lessons XVIII-XXVI, §§ 510-512 LESSON XXVII THE PASSIVE VOICE • PRESENT, IMPERFECT, AND FUTURE INDICATIVE OF AMO AND MONEO . The Voices. Thus far the verb forms have been in the active voice; that is, they have represented the subject as performing an action ; as, ^he lion — ^ killed —*- the hunter A verb is said to be in the passive voice when it represents its sub- ject as receiving an action ; as, The lion -• — was killed -* — by the hunter Note the direction of the arrows.

Plural. An adjective used as a noun. (Cf. §99. II. 3.) - Imperative. 

The imperative generally stands first, as in English. . Passiye Personal Endings. In the passive voice we use a different set of personal endings. They are as follows : r I. -r, / C I. -mur, lue Sing. 2. -ris, -re, you Plur. J 2. -mini, you [ 3. -tur, he, she, it [3. -ntur, they a. Observe that the letter -r appears somewhere in all but one of the endings. This is sometimes called the passive sign. . PARADIGMS amS, amare mone5, monere PRBS.STBM ama- Fres. Stem mone- Present Indicative ' a'mor, / am loved Sing. - mo'neor, / am advised PERSONAL ENDINGS -or^ ama na or ama re, you are mone ris^rmoneTe,jf?« -ns or -re loved ^ ama'tur, he is loved ama'mor, we are loved ama'mini, you are loved aman'tur, they are loved are advised mone'tur, he is advised mone'mur, ive are ad- vised mone'mini, you are ad- vised monen'tur, they are ad- vised -tur -mur -mmi -ntur Imperfect Indicative (Tense Sign -ba-) amaiMur, / was being loved moneTwur, / was being -r advised amSbi'ria <7r amaba're, ^^» moneba'ris or mone- SiNG. <( were being loved ba're, you were being -ris or -re advised amibi'tur, he was being monebi'tur, he was be- -tur loved ing advised ' am&bi'mor, we were being monebi'mor, we were -mur loved being advised am&ba'mini, you were be- monSbft^miid, you were -mini ing loved being adinsed am&ban'tnr, they were be- moneban'tur, they were -ntur ing loved being advised In the present the personal ending of the first person singular is -or. Plur. r- /rr. ' o V N PERSONAL Future (Tense Sign -bi-) endings ' ama'bor, / shall be loved mone'bor, / sJiall be ad- -r vised ama'beris or ama'bere, you mone'beris or mone'- SiNG. will be loved bere, you will be ad- -ris or -re vised ama'bitur, he will be loved mone'bitur, he will be -tur advised ' ama'bimur, we shall be mone'bimur, ze/^ i*^// ^^ -mar loved advised p^^^^ I amabi'mini, you will be monebi'mini, you will -mini loved be advised amabim'tur, they will be monebun'tur, they will -ntur loved be advised . The tense sign and the personal endings are added as in the active. . In the future the tense sign -bi- appears as -bo- in the first person, -be- in the second, singular number, and as -bu- in the third person plural. . Inflect laudo, nec5, porto, moveo, dele5, iubeo, in the present, imperfect, and future indicative, active and passive. . Intransitive verbs, such as maturO, I hasten; habito, I dwell, do not have a passive voice with a personal subject. . EXERCISES I. I. Laudaris ^r laudare, laudas, datur, dat. 2. Dabitur, dabit, vide- mini, videtis. 3. Vocabat, vocabatur, delebitis, delebiminl. 4. Para- batur, parabat, curas, curaris or curare. 5. Portabantur, portabant, videbimur, videbimus. 6. luberis or iubere, iubes, laudabaris or lauda- bare, laudabas. 7. Moveberis or movebere, movebis, dabantur, dabant. 8. Delentur, delent, parabamur, parabamus. II. I. We prepare, we are prepared, I shall be called, I shall call, you were carrying, you were being carried. 2. I see, I am seen, it was being announced, he was announcing, they will order, they will be ordered. 3. You will be killed, you will kill, you move, you are moved, we are praising, we are being praised. 4. I am called, I call,

you will have, you are cared for. 5. They are seen, they see, we were teaching, we were being taught, they will move, they will be moved.

PERSEUS ANDROMEDAM SBRVAT . Per'seus and Androm'eda First learn the special vocabulary, p. 288. Perseus filius erat lovis,* maximi * deorum. De e6 multas fabulas narrant po^tae. El favent del, ei magica arma et alas dant, Eis teUs armatus et alls fretus ad multas terras volabat et mOnstra saeva delft- bat et miseris infirmisque auxilium dabat. ^

IOTi«, the genitive of lappiter. * Used substantively, tA^ greaUit. So 

below, 1. 4, miMTto and Inflnnis are used substantively. Aethiopia est terra Africae. Earn terram Cepheus^ regebat. Ei^ Neptunus, maximus aquarum deus, erat Iratus et mittit^ monstrum saevum ad Aethiopiam. Ibi monstrum non solum latis pulchrisque Aethiopiae agris nocebat sed etiam domicilia agricolarum delebat, et 5 multos viros, feminas, liberosque necabat. Populus ex agris fugiebat et oppida muris validls muniebat. Tum Cepheus magna tristitia com- motus ad lovis oraculum properat et ita dicit : "Amid me! necantur ; agri mel vastantur. Audi verba mea, luppiter. Da miseris auxi- lium. Age monstrum saevum ex patria." LESSON XXVIII PRESENT, IMPERFECT, AND FUTURE INDICATIVE PASSIVE OF KEGO AND AUDIO . Review the present, imperfect, and future indicative active of rego and audio, and learn the passive of the same tenses (§§ 490, 491). a. Observe that the tense signs of the imperfect and future are the same as in the active voice, and that the passive personal endings (§ 164) are added instead of the active ones. b. Note the slight irregularity in the second person singular present of the third conjugation. There the final -e- of the stem is not changed to -i-, as it is in the active. We therefore have re'geris or re'gere, not re'giris, re'gire. c. Inflect ago, dico, duco, munio, reperio, in the present, imperfect, and future indicative, active and passive. . EXERCISES I. I. Agebat, agebatur, mittebat, mittebatur, ducebat. 2. Agunt, aguntur, mittuntur, mittunt, muniunt. 3. Mittor, mittar, mittam, du- cere, ducere. 4. Dicemur, dicimus, dicemus, dicimur, muniebamini. 5. Ducitur, ducimini, reperimur, reperiar, agitur. 6. Agebamus, agebamur, reperiris, reperieminl. 7. Munimini, veniebam, ducebar,

Pronounce in two syllables, Ce'pheus. 2 gj^ at him, dative with iratus. 

8 The present is often used, as in EngUsh, in speaking of a past action, in order to make the story more vivid and exciting. dicetur. 8. MittiminI, mittitis, mitteris, mittens, ageb5mini. 9. Dicitur, dicit, muniuntur, reperient^ audientur. II. I.I was being driven, I was driving, we were leading, we were being led, he says, it is said. 2. I shall send, I shall be sent, you will find, you will be found, they lead, they are led. 3. I am found, we are led, they are driven, you were being led {sing, and plur.). 4. We shall drive, we shall be driven, he leads, he is being led, they will come, they will be fortified. 5. They were ruling, they were being ruled, you will send, you will be sent, you are sent, {sing, and plur.). 6. He was being led, he will come, you are said {sing, and plur.). . . Perseus and Andromeda {Continued) First learn the special vocabulary, p. 288. Tum Oraculum ita respondet : " Mala est fortuna tua. Neptunus, magnus aquarum deus, terrae Aethiopiae inimlcus, eas poenas mittit. Sed para irato deo sacrum idoneum et monstrum saevum ex patria tua aggtur. Andromeda filia tua est monstro grata. Da eam monstro. Serva caram patriam et vltam populi tul." Andromeda autem erat 5 puella pulchra. Eam amabat Cepheus maxime. LESSON XXIX PRESENT, IMPERFECT, AND FUTURE INDICATIVE PASSIVE OF -16 VERBS • PRESENT PASSIVE INFINITIVE AND IMPERATIVE . Review the active voice of capiO, present, imperfect, and future, and learn the passive of the same tenses (§ 492), a. The present forms capior and capiuntur are like aadior, aadiuntur, and the rest of the tense is like regor. b. In like manner inflect the passive of iadS and rapid. . The Infinitiye. The infinitive mood gives the general mean- mg of the verb without person or number ; as, amire, to love. Infinitive means unlimited. The forms of the other moods, being limited by person and number, arc called thc^nite, or limited, verb forms. CONJ. Pres. Stem Pres. Infinitive Active I. ama- ama're, to love II. mone- mone're, to advise III. rege- re'gere, to rule cape- ca'pere, to take IV. audi- audrre, to hear . The forms of the Present Infinitive, active and passive, are as follows : Pres. Infinitive Passive ama'ri, to be loved mone'ri, to be advised re'gi, to be ruled ca'pi, to be taken audfri, to be heard . Observe that to form the present active infinitive we add -re to the present st^m. a. The present infinitive of sum is esse. There is no passive. . Observe that the present passive infinitive is formed from the active by changing final -« to -i, except in the third conjugation, which changes final -ere to -i. . Give the active and passive present infinitives of doced, sedeo, volo, euro, mitto, duco, munio, reperio, iacio, rapio. . The forms of the Present Imperative, active and passive, are as follows : Active! coNj. sing. plur. I. a'ma ama'te II. mo'ne mone'te III. re'ge re'gite ca'pe ca'pite Passive sing. plur. ama're, be thou loved ama'mini, be ye loved mone're, be thou advised mone'mini, be ye advised re'gere, be thou ruled regi'mini, be ye ruled ca'pere, be thou taken capi'mini, be ye taken IV. au'di audi'te dMdVxe, be thou heard midVmim, be ye heard

. Observe that the second person singular of the present "passive im- 

perative is like the present active infinitive, and that both singular and plural are like the second person singular ^ and plural, respectively, of the present passive indicative. . Give the present imperative, both active and passive, of the verbs in §174-3.

For the sake of comparison the active is repeated from § 161. 2 That 

is, using the personal ending -re. A form like amare may be either indicative, infinittvey or imperative.

. EXERCISES First learn the special vocabulary, p. 289. I. I. Turn Perseus alls ad terras multas volabit. 2. MOnstrum sae- vum per aquas properat et mox agrOs nostros vastabit. 3. Si autem Cepheus ad 5raculum properabit, oraculum ita respondebit. 4. Quis telis Persel superabitur? Multa monstra telis eius superabuntur. 5. Cum curis magnis et lacrimis multls agricolae ex domiciliis cans aguntur. 6. Multa loca vastabantur et multa oppida delebantur. 7. Monstrum est validum, tamen superabitur. 8. Credesne sempei* verbis 6raculi ? Ego iis non semper credam. 9. Parebitne Cepheus oraculo? Verba oraculi ei persuadebunt. 10. Si non fugiemus, oppi- dum capietur et oppidan! necabuntur. 11. Vocate pueros et narrate fabulam claram de monstro saevo. II. I. Fly thou, to be cared for, be ye sent, lead thou. 2. To lead, to be led, be ye seized, fortify thou. 3. To be hurled, to fly, send thou, to be found. 4. To be sent, be ye led, to hurl, to be taken. 5. Find thou, hear ye, be ye ruled, to be fortified. LESSON XXX SYNOPSES IN THE FOUR CONJUGATIONS • THE ABLATIVE DENOTING FROM . Vou should learn to give rapidly synopses of the verbs you have had, as follows : * Conjugation I Conjugation II iNDICATmt ACTIVF. PASSIVE ACTIVE PASSIVE Pres. a'mS a'mor mo'nett mo'neor Imperf. ama'bam amaiMu: mone'bar Fut. ama'M ama'bor moneT)© mone'bor

Synopses should be given not only in the first person, but in other per- 

sons as well, particularly in the third singular and plural. Conjugation I Conjugation II Imperative ACTIVE passive active PASSIVE Pres. a'ma ama're Infinitive mo'ne mone're Pres. ama're ama'ri mone're mone'ri Conjugation III Conjugation III Indicative (-io verbs) ACTIVE PASSIVE active PASSIVE 'Pres. re'go re'gor ca'pio ca'pior Itnperf. rege'bam rege'bar capie'bam capie'bar FuL re'gam re'gar Imperative ca'piam ca'piar Pres. re'ge re'gere Infinitive ca'pe ca'pere Pres, re'gere re'gi Conjugatio:n IV Indicative active ca'pere PASSIVE ca'pi Pres. au'dio au'dior Imperf. audiel>ain audie'bar Put. au'diam Imperative au'diar Pres, au'di Infinitive audi're Pres. audfre audrri I. Give the synopsis of rapio, munio, reperio, doceo, vide5, dico, ago, laudo, ports, and vary the person and number. . We learned in § 50 that one of the three relations covered by the ablative case is expressed in English by the preposition from. This is sometimes called the separative ablative^ and it has a number of special uses. You have already grown familiar with the first mentioned below. . R I' 1 . 1 . . Ablative of the Place From . The place from which is expressed by the ablative with the prepositions a or ah, de, e or ex. Agricolae ex agris yeniunt, the farmers come from the fields a. a or ab ^exioX.c& from near a place ; € or ex, out from it ; and dc, down from it. This may be represented graphically as follows : a or ab < Place e or ex ^> de V . Rule. Ablative of Separation. Words expressing sepa- ration or deprivation require an ablative to complete their meaning. (1. If the separation is actual and literal of one material thing from another, the preposition i or ab, e or ex, or de is generally used. If no actual motion takes place of one thing from another, no preposition is necessary. (a) Perseus terram I mSnstris liberal Perseus frees the land from ?»onsters (literal separation — actual motion is expressed) (J>) Perseus terram tristitia llberat Perseus frees the land from sorrow (fig^xm^vt separation — no actual motion is expressed) . Rule. Ablative of the Personal Agent. The word express- ing the person from whom an action s tarts y when not the subject ^ is put in the ablative with the preposition a or ah. It. In this construction the English translation of I, ab is by rather than from. This ablative. is regularly used with passive verbs to indicate the person by whom the act was performed. Mdnstrum a Persed necatnr, the mpnster is being slain by (^.from) Perseus d. Note that the active form of the above sentence would be Perseus monstrum necat, Perseus is.slayiiig the monster. In the passive the object of the active verb becomes the subject^ and the subject of the active verb becomes the ablative of the personal agent ^ with a or ab. c. Distinguish carefully between the ablative of means and the ablative of the personal agent. Both are often translated into English by the prepo- sition by. (Cf. § lOO. b) Means is a thing; the agent or actor is a person. The ablative of means has no preposition. The ablative of the personal agent has a or ab. Compare Fera sagitta necatur, the wild beast is killed by an arrow Fera a Diana necatur, the wild beast is killed by Diana Sagitta, in the first sentence, is the ablative of means; a Diana, in the second, is the ablative of the personal agent. . EXERCISES First learn the special vocabulary, p. 289. I. I. Viri inopia cibi defessi ab eo loco discedent. 2. German! castris Romanis adpropinquabant, tamen legatus copias a proelio continebat. 3. Multa Gallorum oppida ab Romanis capientur. 4. Tuni Roman! totum populum eorum oppidorum gladiis pilisque interficient. . Oppidan! Romams resistant, sed defess! longo proelio fugient. . Mult! ex Gallia fugiebant et in Germanorum v!c!s habitabant. . Miser! nautae vulnerantur ab inim!c!s ^ saevis et cibo egent. 8. Dis- cedite et date viris frumentum et copiam v!n!. 9. Copiae nostrae a proelio continebantur ab Sexto legato. 10. Id oppidum ab provincia Romana longe aberat. II. I. The weary sailors were approaching a place dear to the god- dess Diana. 2. They were without food and without wine. 3. Then Galba and seven other men are sent to the ancient island by Sextus. 4. Already they are not far away from the land, and they see armed men on a high place. 5. They are kept from the land by the men with spears and arrows. 6. The men kept hurling their weapons down from the high place with great eagerness.

inimicls, here used as a noun. See vocabulary.  

' LESSON XXXI PERFECT, PLUPERFECT, AND FUTURE PERFECT OF SUM . Principal Parts. There are certain parts of the verb that are of so much consequence in tense formation that we call them the principal parts. In English the principal parts are the present, the past, and the past participle ; as, go, went, gone; see, saw, seen, etc. The principal parts of the Latin verb are th^ Jirst person singular 0/ the present indicative, Xh^ present infinitive, kvt first person singular of the perfect indicative, and }c'& perfect passive participle. . Conjugation Stems. From the principal parts we get three conjugation stems, from which are formed the entire conjugation. We have already learned about the present stem, which is found from the present infinitive (cf. §126. <7). The other two stems are the perfect stem and the participial stem. . The Perfect Stem. The perfect stem of the verb is formed in various ways, but may always be found by dropping -i from the first person singular of the perfect, the third of the principal parts. From the perfect stem are formed the following tenses : The Perfect Active Indicative The Plupbrfbct Active Indicative (English Past Psrfbct) The Future Perfect Activb Indicative All these tenses express completed action in present, past, or future time respectively. . The Endings of the Perfect. The perfect active indicative is inflected by adding the endings of the perfect to the perfect stem. These endings are different from those found in any other tense, and are as follows : Sing.

. -i, / 

. AtM^you Plur. . -It, he, she, it . -imiis, wi . -istis, you . -inint or -fat, th^y . Inflection of sum in the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect indicative : * Pres. Indic. Pres. Infin, Perf. Indic. Prin. Parts sum esse fui Perfect Stem fu- siNGULAR Perfect plural ful, / have been, I was fu'imus, we have been, we were fuis'ti, you have been, you were fuis'tis, you have been, you were fu'it, he has been, he was fue'runt or fue're, they have been, they we7'e Pluperfect (Tense Sign -era-) fu'eram, / had been fuera'mus, we had been fu'eras, you had been fuera'tis, you had been fu'erat, he had been fu'erant, they had been Future Perfeci' (Tense Sign -eri-) fu'ero, / shall have been fue'rimus, we shall have been fu'eris, you will have been fue'ritis, you will have been f u'erit, he will have been f u'erint, they will have been . Note carefully the changing accent in the perfect. . Observe that the pluperfect may be formed by adding eram, the im- perfect of sum, to the perfect stem. The tense sign is -era-. . Observe that the future perfect may be formed by adding ero, the future of sum, to the perfect stem. But the third person plural ends in -erint, not in -erunt. The tense sign is -eri-. . All active perfects, pluperfects, and future perfects are formed on the perfect stem and inflected in the same way. . DIALOGUE The Boys Titus, Marcus, and Quintus First learn the special vocabulary, p. 289. M. Ubi fuistis, Tite at Quinte ? T. Ego in meo ludo fui et Quintus in suo ludo fuit. Boni pueri f uimus. Fuitne Sextus in vico hodie ? M. Fuit. Nuper per agros proximos fluvio properabat. Ibi is et Cornelius habent navigium. T. Xavigium dicis ? Alii * narrS earn fabulam I M. Vero {Yes, truly), pulchrum et novum navigium 1 Q. Cuius pecunia * Sextus et Cornelius id navigium parant ? Quis lis pecuniam dat ? M. Amici Comeli multum habent aurum et puer pecunia n5n eget. T. Qu6 pueri navigabunt ? NSvigabuntne longg a terra ? M. Dubia sunt cSnsilia eorum. Sed hodie, credo, si ventus erit ido- neus, ad maximam insulam navigabunt. lam antea ibi fuerunt. Tum autem ventus erat perfidus et pueri magno in periculo erant. Q. Aqua vent6 commQta est inimica nautis semper, et saepe per- fidus ventus navigia rapit, agit, deletque. li pueri, si non fuerint maxime attenti, irata aqua et valido vento superabuntur et ita interficientur. . EXERCISE I. Where had the boys been before? They had been in school. . Where had Sextus been ? He had been in a field next to the river. . Who has been with Sextus to-day ? Cornelius has been with him. . Who says so.> Marcus. 5. If the wind has been suitable, the boys have been in the boat 6. Soon we shall sail with the boys. 7. There * will be no danger, if we are (shall have been) careful* LESSON XXXII THE PERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF THE FOUR REGULAR CONJUGATIONS . Meanings of the Perfect. The perfect tense has two distinct meanings. The first of these is equivalent to the English present perfect, or perfect with have, and denotes that the action of the verb is complete at the time of speaking ; as, / have finished my work. As this denotes completed action at a definite time, it is called the perfect definite. » Dative case. (Cf. § 109.) « Ablative of means. » The expletive there is not expressed, but the verb will precede the subject, as in English. • This predicate adjective must be nominative plural to agree with toe. The perfect is also used to denote an action that happened some- time in the past ; as, I finished my work. As no definite time is speci- fied, this is called the perfect indefinite. It corresponds to the ordinary use of the English past tense. a. Note carefully the difference between the following tenses : ^ { was finishing^ . ,. r c. s ^ius.^ to finish I '"y '""^ ('">Perfe«. S '34) I finished my work (perfect indefinite) / have finished my work (perfect definite) When telling a story the Latin uses the perfect indefinite to mark the different forward steps of the narrative, and the imperfect to describe situations and circumstances that attend these steps. If the following sentences were Latin, what tenses would be used? " Last week I went to Boston. I was trying to find an old friend of mine, but he was out of the city. Yesterday I returned home." . Inflection of the Perfect. We learned in § i86 that any per- fect is inflected by adding the endings of the perfect to the perfect stem. The inflection in the four regular conjugations is then as follows : CONJ. I amavi / have loved I have advised I have ruled I have taken I have heard I loved or / advised or / ruled or / took or / heard or did love did advise did rule did take did hear CONJ. II CONJ. Ill CONJ. IV monui rexi cepi audivi Perfect Stems amav- monu- rex- SlNGULAR cep- audiv- I. ama'vi mo'nui re'xi ce'pi audi'vi . amavis'ti monuis'ti rexis'ti cepis'ti audlvis'ti - ama'vit mo'nuit re'xit Plural ce'pit audl'vit I. ama'vimus monu'imus re'ximus ce'pimus audi'vimus . amavis'tis monuis'tis rexis'tis cepis'tis audi vis 'tis - amave'runt monue'runt re xe 'runt cepe'runt audlve'runt or amave're or monue're or rexe're or cepe're or audi ve 're . The first person of the perfect is always given as the third of the principal parts. From this we get the perfect stem. This shows ths absolute necessity of learning the principal parts thoroughly. . Nearly all perfects of the first conjugation are formed by adding -vi to the present stem. Like amavi inflect paravi, vocavi, curavi, laudavi. . Note carefully the changing accent in the perfect. Drill on it. . Learn the principal parts and inflect the perfects : Pres. Indic. Pres. Lnfin. Perf. Indic. d& dire dedi give deled delSre delevi destroy habe5 habere habui ■have moved movere mdvi move pared parere parui obey prohibed prohibere prohibui restrain^ keep from Tided videre vidi see died dicere dixi say discedo discedere discessi depart dQcd ducere diizi lead facid facere feci make, do mittd mittere misi send miinid miinire munivi fortify venid venire vSni cqme . Perseus and Andromeda {Continued) First learn the special vocabulary, p. 290. Cepheus, adversa fortuna maxime commStus, discessit et multis cum lacrimis populo Aethiopiae verba 6r§cull narrSvit. Fata Andro- medae, puellae pulchrae, a toto populo d^plSrabantur, tamen nullum erat auxilium. Deinde Cepheus cum pleno tristitiae animo caram suam filiam ex oppidi porta ad aquam duxit et bracchia eius ad saxa 5 dura revinxit. Tum amici puellae miserae longe discesserunt et diu monstrum saevum exspectSverunt. Tum forte Perseus, alis frgtus, super Aethiopiam volabat. Vidit populum, Andromedam, lacrimSs, et, magnopere attonitus, ad terram descendit. Tum CCpheus ei tOtSs cQras nirrSvit etita dixit : " PSrebO 10 verbis OrSculi, et pr6 patria filiam meam dabO ; sed si id mSnstrum interficies et Andromedam scrvabis, tibi {to you) eam dabO." LESSON XXXIII PLUPERFECT AND FUTURE PERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE PERFECT ACTIVE INFINITIVE . CoNj. I amo Perfect Stems amav- CONJ. II CONJ. Ill mone5 rego capio monu- rex- cep- Pluperfect Indicative Active ^ Tense Sign -era- SINGULAR I had loved I had advised I had ruled I had taken ama veram ama'veras ama'verat monu eram monu'eras monu'erat . amavera mus monuera mus . amavera'tis monuera 'tis . ama'verant monu'erant re xeram re'xeras re'xerat PLURAL rexera'mus rexera'tis re'xerant ce peram ce'peras ce'perat cepera mus cepera'tis ce'perant CONJ. IV audio audiv- / had heard audrveram audrveras audi'verat audivera'mus audivera'tis audi'verant Future Perfect Indicative Active Tense Sign -eri- / shall have loved / shall have advised singular / shall have ruled / shall have taken / shall Itave heard . . ama'veTO ama'veris ama'verit monu'ero monu'eris monu'erit re'xero re'xeris re'xerit PLURAL ce'pero ce'peris ce'perit audi'vero audl'veris audl'verit . 3. amave'rimus amave'ritis ama'verint monue'rimus monue'ritis monu'erint rexe'rimus rexe'ritis re'xerint cepe'rimus cepe'ritis ce'perint audive'rimus audive'ritis audl'verint

. Observe that these are all inflected alike and the rules for formation 

given in § 187. 2-4 hold good here. . In like manner inflect the pluperfect and future perfect indicative active of do, porto, deleo, moveo, habeo, dico, discedo, facio, venio, miinio. . The Perfect Active Infinitive. The perfect active infinitive is formed by adding -isse to the perfect stem. CONJ. Perfect Stem Perfect Infinitive I. amiv- amavis'se, /o have loved II. monu- monuis'se, to have advised III. (a) rex- rexis'se, to have ruled (d) cep- cepis'se, to have taken IV. audiv- audlvis'se, to have heard sum fu- fuis'se, to have been I. In like manner give the perfect infinitive active of d6, port5, deled, moved, habed, dic6, disced5, facio, veniS, miinid. . EXERCISES I. I. Habuisti, moverunt, miserant. 2. Vidit, dixeris, duxisse. 3. Misistis, paruerunt, discesseramus. 4. Munivit, dederam, misero. 5. Habuerimus, delevi, paruit, fuisse. 6. Dederas, muniveritis, v6nera- tis, misisse. 7. Veneras, fecisse, dederatis, portaveris. . Quem verba oracull moverant? Populum verba oraculi move- rant. 9. Cui Cepheus verba oraculi narraverit ? Perseo Cepheus verba oraculi narraverit. 10. Amici ab Andromeda discesserint. 1 1. Monstrum saevum domicilia multa deleverat. 12. Ubi monstrum vidistis ? Id in aqua vidimus. 13. Quid mOnstrum faciet ? Monstrum Andromedam interficiet. II. I. They have obeyed, we have destroyed, I shall have had. 2. We shall have sent, I had come, they have fortified. 3. I had de- parted, he has obeyed, you have sent {sing, and plur.). 4. To have destroyed, to have seen, he will have given, they have carried. 5. He had destroyed, he has moved, you have had {sing, and plur.). 6. I have given, you had moved {sing, and plur.), we had said. 7. You will have made {sing, and plur.) , they will have led, to have given. . Who had seen the monster ? Andromeda had seen it 9. Why had the men departed from * the towns ? They had departed because the monster had come, i o. Did Cepheus obey * the oracle • "i He did.

  • ex. What would ab mean } « Did . . . obey, perfect tense. » What

case ? LESSON XXXIV REVIEW OF THE ACTIVE VOICE . A review of the tenses of the indicative active shows the following formation : ' Present = First of the principal parts Imperfect = Present stem + -ba-m TENSES OF THE INDICATIVE _, , -i^w, Coni. 1 and II Future = Present stem + ^ r-bo, -a-ir m, Conj. Ill and IV Perfect = Third of the principal parts Pluperfect = Perfect stem + -era-m L Future Perfect = Perfect stem + -ero . The synopsis of the active voice of amo, as far as we have learned the conjugation, is as follows : Principal Parts amo, amare, amavi Pres. Stem ama- Perf. Stem amav- r Pres. amo f Perf. amavi Indic. Imperf. amabam Indic. < Pluperf. amaveram [ Fut. amabo |^ Fut. perf. amavero Pres. Imv. ama Pres. Infin. amare Perf. Infin. amavisse I . Learn to write in the same form and to give rapidly the principal parts and synopsis of parS, do, laud5, deleo, habeo, moveo, pareo, video, dico, discedo, duc6, mitto, capio, munio, venio.^ . Learn the following principal parts : ^ Pres. Indic Pres. Infin. Perf. Indic ' sum RREGULAR J ^, VERBS i esse abes'se dare fui a'fui dedi be be away give

Learn to give synopses rapidly, and not only in the first person singular 

but in any person of either number. 2 These are all verbs that you have had before, and the perfect is the only new form to be learned.

' contincS continSre continm hold in ^ keep doced docere docui teach eged egere e^ui need fave5 favere favi favor Conjugation , iubed iubere iussi order II noceS nocere nocui injure persuaded persuadere persuasi persuade respondeo respondere respond! reply sedeS sedere sedi sit studed studere studui be eager agS agere egi drive cr6d5 credere credidi believe fugi5 fugere fiigi flee Conjugation III iacio iacere ieci hurl interficio interficere interfeci kill rapio rapere rapui seize resis'tS resis'tere re'stiti resist Conjugation IV ^ rcpe'riS reperi're rep'peri find . Perseus and Andromeda (Concluded) First learn the special vocabulary, p. 290. Read the whole story. Perseus semper proelio studebat ^ et respondit,^ " Verba tua sunt maxime grata," et laetus arma sua magica paravit.^ Subito monstrum videtur; celeriter per aquam properat et Andromedae adpropinquat. Eius amici longe absunt et misera puella est s6la. Perseus autem sine mora super aquam volavit.* Subito descendit* et durO gladio 5 saevum mOnstrum graviter vubieravit.^ Diu pugnatur,' diQ proelium est dubium. Denique autem Perseus mOnstrum interfecit * et victOriam reportavit.* Tum ad saxum venit ^ et Andromedam llberavit * et eam ad Cepheum duxit* Is, nuper miser, nunc laetus, ita dixit * : " Tu6 auxilio, ml amice, cara filia mea est libera ; tua est Andromeda." DiQ Perseus 10 cum Andromeda ibi habitabat ^ et magnopere a tOto populO amabatur.* » See if you can explain the use of the perfects and imperfects in this passage. * The verb pugnatur means, literally, it is fought : translate freely, the battle is fought^ or the contest rages. The verb pugnd in I^tin is intransitive, and so does not have a personal subject in the passive. A verb with an inde- terminate subject, designated in English by //. is called impersonal. LESSON XXXV THE PASSIVE PERFECTS OF THE INDICATIVE • THE PERFECT PASSIVE AND FUTURE ACTIVE INFINITIVE . The fourth and last of the principal parts (§ 183) is the perfect passive participle. J^rom it we get the participial stem on which are for?ned the future active infinitive and all the passive perfects.

. Learn the following principal parts, which are for the first time given 

in full : CoNj. Pres. Indic. Pres. Infin. Perf. Indic. Perf. Pass. Part. I. amo ama'-re ama'v-i ama't-us This is the model for all regular verbs of the first conjugation. II. mo'neo mone'-re mo'nu-i mo'nit-us III. rego re'ge-re rex-i rect-us ca'pio ca'pe-re cep-i capt-us IV. au'dio audi'-re audiV-i audi't-us . The base of the participial stem is found by dropping -us from the perfect passive participle. . In English the perfect, past perfect, and future perfect tenses of the indicative passive are made up of forms of the auxiliary verb to be and the past participle ; as, / have been loved, I had been loved, I shall have been loved. Very similarly, in Latin, the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect passive tenses use respectively the present, imperfect, and future of sum as an auxiliary verb with the perfect passive participle, as Perfect passive, ama'tus sum, / have been or was loved Pluperfect passive, ama'tus eram, / had been loved Future perfect passive, ama'tus ero, / shall have been loved I. In the same way give the synopsis of the corresponding tenses of moneo, rego, capi5, and audi5, and give the English meanings. . Nature of the Participle. A participle is partly verb and partly adjective. As a verb it possesses tense and voice. As an adjective it is declined and agrees with the word it modifies in gender, number, and case. . The perfect passive participle is declined like bonus, bona, bonum, and in the compound tenses (§ 202) it agrees as a predicate adjective with the subject of the verb. ( Vir laudatus est, //le man was praised, or has been praised Examples in j Puella laudata est, the girl was praised^ or has been praised Singular j Consilium laudatum est, the plan was praised, or has been ^ praised ' Viri laudati sunt, the men werepraisedy or have been praised Puellae laudatae sunt, the girls were praised, or have been praised CSnailia laudata sunt, the plans were praised, or have been praised Examples in Plural I. Inflect the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect indicative passive of «im6, moned, regS, capio, and audi5 (§§ 488-492). . The perfect passive infinitive is formed by adding esse, the present infinitive of sum, to the perfect passive participle ; as, ama't-us (-a, -um) esse, to have been loved; mo'nit-us (-a, -um) esse, to have been advised. I . Form the perfect passive infinitive of reg5, capi5, audid, and give the English meanings. . The future active infinitive is formed by adding esse, the present infinitive of sum, to the future active participle. This parti- ciple is made by adding -firus, -a, -um to the base of the participial stem. Thus the future active infinitive of amC is am§t-fl'ru8 (-a, -um) esse, to be about to love. a. Note that in forming the three tenses of the active infinitive we use all three conjugation stems: Present, amare (present stem), to love Perfect, amavisse (perfect stem), to have loved Future, amStiinis esse (participial stem), to be about to Inte I. Give the three tenses of the active infinitive of Uud5, moneS, regS, capi5, audid„ with the English meanings. . EXERCISES I. I. Fabula Andromedae narrata est. 2. Multae fabulae a magis- tro narratae sunt. 3. Ager ab agricola valido aratus erat. 4. Agri ab agricolis validis arati erant. 5. Aurum a servo perfido ad domi- cilium suum portatum erit. 6. Nostra arma a legato laudata sunt. Quis vestra arma laudavit? 7. Ab ancilla tua ad cenam vocatae sumus. 8. Andromeda monstro non data est, quia monstrum a Perseo necatum erat. II. I. The provinces were laid waste, the field had been laid waste, the towns will have been laid waste. 2. The oracles were heard, the oracle was heard, the oracles had been heard. 3. The oracle will have been heard, the province had been captured, the boats have been captured. 4. The fields were laid waste, the man was advised, the girls will have been advised. 5. The towns had been ruled, we shall have been captured, you will have been heard. LESSON XXXVI REVIEW OF PRINCIPAL PARTS • PREPOSITIONS YES-OR-NO QUESTIONS . The following list shows the principal parts of all the verbs you have had excepting those used in the paradigms. The parts you have had before are given for review, and the perfect participle is the only new form for you to learn. Sometimes one or more of the principal parts are lacking, which means that the verb has no forms based on that stem. A few verbs lack the perfect passive participle but have the future active participle in -urns, which appears in the principal parts instead. Irregular Verbs sum esse absum abesse do ^ dare

do is best classed with the irregular verbs because of the short a in the 

present and participial stems. fui futunis de afui afuturus be away dedi datus give

Conjugation I ports porUre porUvi portatus cany So for all verbs of this conjugation thus far used. Conjugation II contined continere continui contentus hold in, keep deled delere delevi deletus destroy doced docere docui doctus teach cge6 egere egui lack faveS favere favi fautums favor iubeo iubere iussi iussus order moved movere mdvi mdtus ' move noced nocere nocui nociturus injure pared parere panii obey persuaded persuadere persuasi persuasus persuade ^from prohibed prohibere prohibui prohibitus restrain, keep responded respondere respond! respdnsus reply seded sedere sedi -sessus sit studed studere studui be eager Tided videre vidi visas see Conjugation III agd agere Sgi actus drive credd credere credidi creditus believe died dicere dixi dictus say discedd discedere discessi discessus depart ducd ducere duxi ductus lead facid 1 facere feci factus make fugid fugere fugi fugiturus flee iacid iacere ieci iactus hurl interficid interficere interfeci interfectus kill mittd mittere misi missus send rapid rapere rapui raptus seize resistd resistere restiti resist Conjugation IV munid munire munivi munitus fortify reperid repcrire rep 'peri repertus find venid ▼eniro veni vcntus come facid has an irregular passive which will be presented later. . Prepositions, i. We learned in §§ 52, 53 that only the accu- sative and the ablative are used with prepositions, and that preposi- tions expressing ablative relations govern the ablative case. Those we have had are here summarized. The table following should be learned. a or ahyfrom, by e or ex, out from, out of cum, with pro, before, in front of; for, in behalf of de, down from, conceTjiing sine, without . Prepositions not expressing ablative relations must govern the accusative (§ 52). Of these we have had the following: ad, to; apud, among; per, through There are many others which you will meet as we proceed. . The preposition in when meaning in or on governs the ablative; when meaning to, into, against (relations foreign to the ablative) in governs the accusative. . Fes-or-JVo Questions. Questions not introduced by some in- terrogative word like who^ why^ when, etc., but expecting the answer yes or no, may take one of three forms : . Is he coming? (Asking for information. Implying nothing as to the answer expected.) . Is he not coming f (Expecting the answer jk<?^.) . He isn^t coming, is he? (Expecting the answer «<?.) These three forms are rendered in Latin as follows :

. Venitne ? is he coming ? 

. Nonne venit? is he not coming? . Num venit? he isnU coming, is he? a. -ne, the question sign, is usually added to the verb, which then stands first. b. We learned in § 56. <^ that yes-or-no questions are usually answered by repeating the verb, with or without a negative. Instead of this, ita, vero, certe, etc, {so, truly, certainly, etc.) may be used for yes, and n5n, minime, etc. for fio if the denial is emphatic, as, by no means, not at all. . EXERaSES First Icam the special vcx:abulary, p. 290. I. 1. NOnne hab€bat Cornelia Omamenta auri? Hab^bat. 2. Num Sextus legatus scQtum in dextro bracchio gergbat? NOn in dextro, sed sinistrO in bracchiQ Sextus scutum gerebat. 3. FrQstra bella multa ab Gallis gesta erant 4. Ubi oppidum a perfido Sexto occupatum est, oppidan! miseri gladiS interfectl sunt. 5. Id oppidum erat ple- num frOmentl. 6. N5nne Sextus ab oppid^nls frumentum postul§vit ? VerO, sed ii recusaverunt frumentum dare. 7. Cur oppidum ab Sexto d^letum est? Quia frumentum recQsatum est. 8. Ea victoria non dubia erat 9. Oppidan! erant defess! et arm!s egebant. 10. Num fugam temptavgrunt ? Minimg. II. I. Where was Julia standing ? She was standing where you had ordered. 2. Was Julia wearing any ornaments ? She had many orna- ments of gold. 3. Did she not attempt flight when she saw the danger ? She did. 4. Who captured her? Galba captured her without delay and held her by the left arm. 5. She did n't have the lady's gold, did she ? No, the gold had been taken by a faithless maid and has been brought back. Fourth Review, Lessons XXVII-XXXVI, §§ 513-516 LESSON XXXVII CONJUGATION OF POSSUM • THE INFINITIVE USED AS IN ENGLISH . Learn the principal parts of possum, /am abh^ I can^ and its inflection in the indicative and infinitive. (Cf. § 495.) a. Possum, / catty is a compound of potis, abU^ and stun, / am. . The Infinitive with Subject Accusative. The infinitive (cf. i 173) is a verbal noun. Used as a noun, it has the constructions of a noun. As a verb it can govern a case and be modified by an adverb. The uses of the infinitive arc much the same in I^tin as in English. I. In English certain verbs of wishing^ commanding^ forbidding^ and the like are used with an object clause consisting of a substantive in the objective case and an infinitive, as, he commanded the men to flee. Such object clauses are called infinitive clauses, and the sub- stantive is said to be the subject of the infinitive. Similarly in Latin, some verbs of wishing^ commanding^ forbidding^ and the like are used with an object clause consisting of an infinitive with a subject in the accusative case, as. Is viros fugere iussit, he commanded the men to flee. . Rule. Subject of the Infinitive. The subject of the infini- tive is hi the accusative. . The Complementary Infinitive. In English a verb is often followed by an infinitive to complete its meaning, as, the Romans are able to conquer the Gauls. This is called the complementary infinitive, as the predicate is not complete without the added infinitive. Similarly in Latin, verbs of incomplete predication are completed by the infinitive. Among such verbs are possum, / am able, I can ; propero, maturS, I hasten ; tempto, I attempt; as Romani Gallos superare possunt, the Romans are able to (or cait) conquer the Gauls Bellum gerere maturant, they hasten to wage war a. A predicate adjective completing a complementary infinitive agrees in gender, number, and case with the subject of the main verb. Mali pueri esse boni non possunt, bad boys are not able to (or cannot) be good Observe that boni agrees with pueri. . The Infinitive used as a Noun. In English the infinitive is often used as a pure noun, as the subject of a sentence, or as a predi- cate nominative. For example. To conquer ( = conquering) is pleas- ing; To see (= seeing) is to believe (= believing). The same use of the infinitive is found in Latin, especially with est, as Superare est gratum, to conquer is pleasing Videre est credere, to see is to believe a. In the construction above, the infinitive often has a subject, which must then be in the accusative case, as Galb&m superare inimlcSs est gratum inultis,y^r Galba to conquer his enemies is pleasing to many b. An infinitive used as a noun is neuter singular. Thus, in the sen- tence superare est gratum, the predicate adjective gratum is in the neuter nominative singular to agree with superare the subject. . EXERCISES First learn the special vocabulary, p. 291. I. I. Magister ludi liberos cum dlligentia labQrare iussit. 2. Eg€re cibo et vino est viris molestum. 3. Viri armati vetuerunt Gallos castra ibi ponere. 4. Estne legatus in castello an in muro ? Is est pro porta. . Ubi nostri^ fugere inceperunt, legatus ab vestris^ captus est. . Galli castellum ibi oppugnaverant ubi praesidium erat infirmum. . Alii pugnare temptabant, alii portas petebant. 8. Feminae pro domiciliis sedebant neque resistere validis Gallis poterant. 9. Bellum est saevum, nee infirmis nee miseris fa vet. lo. Bed viri arma postu- labant et studebant Gallos de muris agere. 1 1. Id castellum ab Gallis occupari ROmanis non gratum erit. 12. Galli ubi a Romanis victi sunt, esse liberi^ cessaverunt. 13. Diu sine aqua vivere non potestis. II. I. The girl began daily to carry water from the river to the gates. 2. The Gauls had pitched their camp in a place suitable for a battle. 3. For a long time they tried in vain to seize the redoubt. 4. Neither did they cease to hurl weapons against * the walls. 5. But they were not able to (could not) take the town. . The Faithless Tarpe'ia Sabini 6lim cum R5m§nis bellum gerebant et multSs victorias re- portaverant. lam agrOs proximos muris vastabant, iam pppido adpro- pinquSbant ROmSnl autem in Capit5lium fOgerant et longe periculd

  • Supply men. nostrl, vestri, and sul are often used as nouns in this way.
  • Not children. The Romans used llb«rl either as an adjective, meaning//r^,

or as a noun, meaning the free^ thereby signilying their free-bom childrtn. The word was never applied to children of slaves. * in with the accusative. 96 EXERCISES aberant. Muris validis et saxis altis credebant. Frustra Sabini tela iaciebant, frustra portas duras petebant; castellum occupare non poterant. D^inde novum consilium ceperunt.^ Tarpeia erat puella Romana pulchra et superba. Cotidie aquam 5 copiis Romanis in Capitolium portabat. El^ non nocebant Sabini,

Latin for beginners (1911).djvu-118.png

TARPEIA PUELLA PERFIDA quod ea sine armis erat neque Sabini bellum cum feminis liberisque gerebant. Tarpeia autem maxime amabat omamenta auri. Cotidie Sabinorum omamenta videbat et mox ea desiderare incipiebat. Ei unus ex * Sabinis dixit, " Due copias Sabinas intra portas, Tarpeia, lo et maxima erunt praemia tua."

consilium capere, to make a plan. Why is the perfect tense used here and 

the imperfect in the preceding sentences ? Explain the use of tenses in the next paragraph. 2 Dative with nocebant. (Cf. § 154.) * ex, out of, i.e. from the number of; best translated of LESSON XXXVIII THE RELATIVE PRONOUN AND THE INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN . Sentences are simple^ compound, or complex. a. A simple sentence is a sentence containing but one statement, that is, one subject and one predicate : The Romans approached the town. b. A compound sentence is a sentence containing two or more independ- ent statements : The Romans approached the town and | the enemy fled. Note. An independent statement is one that can stand alone ; it does not depend upon another statement. c. A complex sentence is a sentence containing one independent state- ment and one or more dependent statements: When the Romans approcuhed the town the enemy fled. Note. A dependent or subordinate statement is one that depends on or qualifies another statement ; thus the enemy fled is independent, and when the Romans approached the town is dependent or subordinate. d. The separate statements in a compound or complex sentence are called clauses. In a complex sentence the independent statement is called the main clause and the dependent statement the subordinate clause. . Examine the complex sentence The Romans killed the men who were taken Here are two clauses : a. The main clause, The Romans killed the nun b. The subordinate clause, who were taken The word who is a pronoun, for it takes the place of the noun men. It also connects the subordinate clause who were taken with the noun men. Hence the clause is an adjective clause. A pronoun that connects an adjective clause with a substantive is called a relative pro- noun, and the substantive for which the relative pronoun stands is called its antecedent. The relative pronouns in English are who, whose, whom, which, what, that. . The relative pronoun in Latin is qui, quae, quod, and it is declined as follows : Singular Plural MASC. FEM. NEUT. MASC. FEM. NEUT. Norn. qui quae quod qui quae quae Gen. cuius cuius cuius qu5rum quarum quorum Dat. cui cui cui quibus quibus quibus Ace. quem quam quod quos quas quae AM. quo qua quo quibus quibus quibus I. Review the declension of is, § 114, and note the similarity in the endings. The forms qui, quae, and quibus are the only forms showing new endings. Note. The genitive ctiius and the dative cui are pronounced cooi'yoos (two syllables) and cooi (one syllable). . The Relative Pronoun is translated as follows : ^ Masc. and Fem. Neut. Norn. who, that which, what, that Gen. of whom, whose of which, of what, whose Dat. to or for whom to ox for which, to ox for what Ace. whom, that which, what, that Abl. from, etc., whom frotn, etc., which or what a. We see from the table above that qui, when it refers to a person, is translated by some form of who or by that; and that whea it refers to anything else it is translated by which, what, or that. . Note the following sentences : The Romans killed the men who were taken The Romans killed the womati who was taken Romani interfecerunt vir5s qui capti sunt Romani interfecerunt feminam quae capta est In the first sentence who (qui) refers to the antecedent men (viros), and is masculine plural. In the second, who (quae) refers to woman (feminam), and ^ feminine singular. From this we learn that the relative must agree

This table of meanings need not be memorized. It is inserted for refer- 

ence when translating. with its antecedent in gender and number. In neither of the sentences are the antecedents and relatives in the same case. Virds and feminam are accusatives, and qui and quae are nominatives, being the subjects of the subordinate clauses. Hence . Rule. Agreement of the Relative. A relative pronoun ynust agree with its antecedent in gender and number ; but its case is determined by the way it is used in its own clause, . Interrogative Pronouns. An interrogative pronoun is a pro- noun that asks a question. In English the interrogatives are who? which i whati In Latin they are quis? quid? (pronoun) and qui? quae? quod? (adjective). . Examine the sentences a. Who is the man ? Quis est vir ? b. IVhat man is leading them ? Qui vir eos diicit ? In a, who is an interrogative /r(t7«^tt«. In b, what is an interrogative adjective. Observe that in Latin quis, quid is the pronoun and qui, quae, quod is the adjective. TI. I . The interrogative adjective qui, quae, quod is declined just like the relative pronoun. (See § 221.) . The interrogative pronoun quis, quid is declined like qui, quae, quod in the plural In the singular it is declined as follows : Masc. and Fem. Neut. Nom. quis, who f quid, what ? which t Gen. cuius, whose? cuius, whose f Dat. cui, to ox for whom f cui, to ox for what or which t Ace. qaem, whom f quid, what f which f Abl. f^ffrom, etc., whom? <^^from^ etc., which or what? Note. Observe that the masculine and feminine are alike and that all the forms are like the corresponding forms of the relative, excepting quis and quid. . EXERCISES . I. Quis est aeger? Servus quern amO est aeger. 2. Cuius scQ- tum hab€s? Scutum habeO quod l^rgatus ad castellum misit. 3. Cui l€gatus suum scQtum dabit ? FiliO meO scQtiun dabit 4. Ubi German! antiqui vivebant ? In terra quae est proxima Rheno GermanI vive- bant. 5. Quibuscum^ GermanI bellum gerebant? Cum Romanis, qui eos superare studebant, German! bellum gerebant. 6. Qui viri castra ponunt ? li sunt viri quorum armis Germani victi sunt. . Quibus telis copiae nos- trae eguerunt ? Gladiis et pills nostrae copiae eguerunt . A quibus porta sinistra tenebatur.? A sociis porta sinistra tenebatur. 9. Quae provinciae a Romanis occu- patae sunt? Multae pro- vinciae a Romanis occu- patae sunt. 10. Quibus viris dei favebunt.? Bonis viris dei favebunt. II. I. What victory will you announce? 2. I will announce to the people the victory which the sailors have won. 3. The men who were pitching camp were 4. Nevertheless they were soon conquered by the 5. They could not resist our forces, GERMANI ANTIQUI eager for battle. troops which Sextus had sent but fled from that place without delay. . The Faithless Tarpeia (Concluded) ^ Tarpeia, commota ornamentis Sablnorum pulchris, diu resistere non potuit et respondit : " Date mihi * omamenta quae in sinistris brac- chiis geritis, et celeriter copias vestras in Capitolium ducam." Nee

cum is added to the ablative of relative, interrogative, and personal pro- 

nouns instead of being placed before them. ^ Explain the use of the tenses in this selection. • to me. Sablnl recQsaverunt, sed per durSs magnasque castelli port^ pro- peraverunt qu5 * Tarp€ia duxit et mox intra validos et altOs mQrOs stabant. Turn sine mora in* Tarpeiani 3cut^ grayiter igc^inrnt; nam scuta quoque in sinistris bracchiis gei*?baat It? perfida puella Tar- p€ia interfecta est ; ita Sablni CapitOlhira occupaveruHt, » • . 5 LESSON XXXIX THE THIRD DECLENSION • CONSONANT STEMS . Bases and Steins. In learning the first and second declen- sions w c saw that the different cases were formed by adding the case terminations to the part of the word that did not change, which we called the base. If to the base we add -ft in the first declension, and -0 in the second, we get what is called the stem. Thus porta has the base port- and the stem porta- ; servus has the base senr- and the stem servo-. 'I'hese stem vowels, -ft- and -o-, play so important a part in the formation of the case terminations that these declensions are named from them respectively the A- and (9-Declensions. . Nouns of the Third Declension. The third declension is called the Consonant or /-Declension, and its nouns arc classified according to the way the stem ends. If the last letter of the stem is a consonant, the word is said to have a consonant stem ; if the stem ends* in -i-, the word is said to have an -stem. In consonant stems the stem is the same as the base. In i-stems the stem is formed by adding -i- to the base. The presence of the i makes a difference in certain of the cases, so the distinction is a very important one. . Consonant stems are divided into two classes : I. Stems that add -8 to the base to form the nominative singular. II. Stems that add no termination in the nominative singular. » qn5 = whither, to the place where. Here qa5 is the relative adverb. We have had it used before as the interrogative adverb, whither t to what pUuef • upon. CLASS I . Stems that add -s to the base in the nominative singular are either masculine or feminine and are declined as follows : Basest P^'^ceps^^J'^f'^f^ OR ■'>'t).Tinc&)- . '. • '; : Stems J * miles, m.]^o Idler lapis, m., stone ,nmk'. lapid- Singular terminations M. AND F. Norn, princeps miles lapis -s Gen. prin'cipis militis lapidis -is Dat. prin'cipi mlliti lapidi -i Ace. prln'cipem mllitem lapidem -em Abl. prin'cipe milite Plural lapide -€ Norn, prin'cipes milites lapides -es Gen. prin'cipum milituni lapidum -um Dat. prlnci'pibus militibus lapidibus -ibus Ace. prin'cipes milites lapides -es Abl. prlnci'pibus militibus lapidibus -ibus Basest, rex, m., /&/«^ OR reg- Stems J iudex, m., Judge virtiis, f., manlmess iudic- virtut- Singular TERMINATIONS M. AND F. Norn, rex iudex virtus -s Gen. regis iudicis virtu'tis -is Dat. regi iudici virtu'ti -i Ace. regem iudicem virtu'tem -€m Abl. rege iudice Plural virtu'te -e Nom. reges iudices virtu'tes -es Gen. regum iudicum virtu'tum -um Dat. regibus iadicibus virtu'tibus -ibus Ace. reges iudices virtu 'tes -es Abl. regibus iudicibus virtQ'tibus -ibus . The base or stem is found by dropping -is in the genitive singular. . Most nouns of two syllables, like princeps (princip-), miles (milit-), ifidex (iiidic-), have i in the base, but e in the nominative. a. Upia is an exception to this rule. . Observe the consonant changes of the base or stem in the nominative: a. A final -t or -d is dropped before -s; thus miles for mllets, lapis for lapids, virtus for virtiits. d. A final -c or -g unites with -e and forms -x; thus iudec 4- s = iiidez, rtg + 8 = rex. . Review § 74 and apply the rules to this declension. In like manner decline dux, ducis, m., leader ; eques, equitis, m., horse- man : pedes, peditis, m.,foot soldier ; pes, pedis, m..,/oot. . EXERCISES First learn the special vocabulary, p. 29 1 . I. I. Neque pedites neque equites occupare castellum ROmanum poterant. 2. Summavirtutemurosaltoscotidieoppugnabant. 3. Ped6s mllitum lapidibus qui de muro iaciebantur saepe vulnerabantur. 4. Quod novum consilium dux cepit? 5. Is perfidam puellam pulchris Qmamentls temptavit. 6. Quid puella fecit ? 7. Puella commota auro milites per portas duxit. 8. Tamen praemia quae summo studio petl- verat non reportavit 9. Apud Romanes antiques Tarpeia non est laudata. II. I. What ship is that which I see? That (illud) ship is the Victory . It is sailing now with a favorable wind and will soon approach Italy. 2. The judges commanded the savages to be seized and to be killed. 3. The chiefs of the savages suddenly began to flee, but were quickly captured by the horsemen. 4. The king led the foot soldiers to the wall from which the townsmen were hurling stones with the greatest zeal. NAVIGIUM LESSON XL THE THIRD DECLENSION • CONSONANT STEMS (Continued) CLASS II . Consonant stems that add no termination in the nominative are declined in the other cases exactly like those that add -s. They may be masculine, feminine, or neuter. . PARADIGMS Masculines and Feminines consul, m., legio, f., ordo, m., pater, m., consul Bases-] OR ^consul- StemsJ legion legion- row ordin- SlNGULAR father patr- terminations M. AND F. Nom. consul legio rd5 pater . Gen. c5nsulis legionis ordinis patris -is Dat. cdnsuli legioni ordini patri -i Ace. consulem legionem ordinem patrem -em Abl. cdnsule legione ordine Plural patre -e Nom. consules legiones ordines patres -es Gen. consulum legio num ordinum patrum -um Dat. consulibus legionibus ordinibus patribus -ibus Ace. consules legiones ordines patres -es Abl. c5nsulibus legionibus ordinibus patribus -ibus . With the exception of the nominative, the terminations are exactly the same as in Class I, and the base or stem is found in the same way. . Masculines and feminines with bases or stems in -in- and -on- drop -n- and end in -o in the nominative, as legio (base or stem legi5n-), ordo (base or stem drdin-). . Bases or stems in -tr- have -ter in the nominative, as pater (base or stem patr-). . Note how the genitive singular gives the clue to the whole declension. Always learn this with the nominative. . EXERCISES First learn the special vocabulary, p. 291. I. 1. Audisne tubas, Marce? NOn s6lum tubas audio sed etiam ordines militum et carros impedlmentorum plenos videre possum. . QuSs legiones videmus? Eae legiones nuper ex Gallia venerunt. . Quid ibi fecerunt? Studebantne pugnare an sine virtute erant? . Multa proelia fecerunt * et magnas victorias et multos captivos re- portaverunt. 5. Quisest imperator earum legionum .-* Caesar, summus Romanorum imperator. 6. Quis est eques qui pulchram coronam gevitf Is eques est fratcr meus. Ei corona a consule data est quia summa virtute pugnaverat et a barbaris patriam servaverat. II. I. Who has seen my father to-day.? 2. I saw him just now (n&per). He was hastening to your dwelling with your mother and sister. 3. WTien men are far from the fatherland and lack food, they cannot be restrained * from wrong.* 4. The safety of the soldiers is dear to Caesar, the general. 5. The chiefs were eager to storm a town full of grain which was held by the consul. 6. The king forbade the baggage of the captives to be destroyed. LESSON XLI THE THIRD DECLENSION • CONSONANT STEMS (Concluded) . Neuter consonant stems add no termination in the nominative and arc declined as follows : flumen, n., tempus, n., opus, n.. caput, n. » river time work head Basks ^ OR ^fl&min- tempor- oper- capit- SlNGULAR TERMINATIONS Nom. flumen , tempus opus caput

Gen. fluminia temporis operis capitis -is Dat. flu mini tempori operi capili -i Ace. flumen tempus opus caput — Abl. flumine tempore opere capite -«  ^ proeliom facere : = tojigkt a battU. s contineo. Cf. S 180. • Abl. Iniilrii. Plu RAL TERMINATIONS Nom. flumina tempora opera capita -a Gen. fluminum temporum operum capitum -um Dat. fluminibus temporibus operibus capitibus -ibus Ace. flumina tempora opera capita -a Abl, fluminibus temporibus operibus capitibus -ibus . Review § 74 and apply the rules to this declension. . Bases or stems in -in- have -e- instead of -i- in the nominative, as flumen, base or stem flumin-. . Most bases or stems in -er- and -or- have -us in the nominative, as opus, base or stem oper-; tempus, base or stem tempor-. . EXERCISES First learn the special vocabulary, p. 292. I. I. Barbari ubi Romam ceperunt, maxima regum opera dele- verunt. 2. Roman! multas calamitates a barbaris acceperunt. 3. Ubi erat summus terror apud oppidanos, anim! dubil eorum ab oratore claro confirmati sunt. 4. Roma est in ripis fluminis magnl. 5. Ubi Caesar imperator milites suos arma capere iussit, ii a proelio continerl non- potuerunt. 6. Ubi proeHum factum est, imperator reperiri non potuit. . Imperator sagitta in capite vulneratus erat et stare non poterat. . Eum magno labore pedes ex proelio portavit. 9. Is bracchiis suis imperatorem tenuit et eum ex periculis summis servavit. 10. Virtu te sua bonus miles ab imperatore coronam accepit. II. I. The consul placed a crown on the head of the victor. 2. Be- fore the gates he was received by the townsmen. 3. A famous orator praised him and said, " By your labors you have saved the father- land from disaster." 4. The words of the orator were pleasing to the victor. 5. To save the fatherland was a great task. CORONA LESSON XLII REVIEW LESSON . Review the paradigms in §§233, 236, 238; and decline all nouns of the third declension in this selection. Terror Cimbricus* Olim CimbrI et TeutonCs, popull Germaniae, cum feminis liberisque Italiae adpropinquSverant et copias Romanas maximS proeliO vicerant. Ubi fuga legiSnum nuntiataest, summus erat terror totius Romae,et Ro- mani, gi-aviter commoti, sacra crebra dels faciebant et salutem petebant. Turn Manlius Qr§tor animSs populi ita confirmavit : — " Magnam 5 calamitatem accepimus. Oppida nostra a Cimbris Teutonibusque capiuntur, agricolae interficiuntur, agri vastantur, copiae barbarorum Romae adpropinquant. Itaque, nisi novis animis proelium novum faciemus et Germanos ex patria nostra sine mora agemus, erit nulla salus feminis nostris liberisque. Servate liberos 1 Servate patriam ! 10 Antea superati sumus quia imperStores nostri fuerunt infirml. Nunc Marius, clarus imperator, qui iam multas alias victorias reportavit, legiones ducet ct animos nostros terrore Cimbrico liberare maturabit." Marius tum in Africa bellum gerebat. Sine mora ex Africa in Italiam vocatus est. Copias novas non solum toti Italiae sed etiam 15 prOvinciis sociOrum imperavit* Disciplina autem dura labOribusque perpetuis milites exercuit. Tum cum peditibus equitibusque, qui iam proelio studebant, ad Germanorum castra celeriter properavit. Diu et Scriter pugn§tum est.* Denique barbari fuggrunt et multi in fugS ab equitibus sunt interfectl. Marius pater patriae vocatus est. 20

  • About the year 100 B.C. the Romans were greatly alarmed by an invasion

of barbarians from the north known as Cimbri and Teutons. They were travel- ing with wives and children, and had an army of 300,000 fighting men. Several Roman armies met defeat, and the city was in a panic. Then the Senate called upon Marius, their greatest general, to save the country. First he defeated the Teutons in Gaul. Next, returning to Italy, he met the Cimbri. A terrible battle ensued, in which the Cimbri were utterly destroyed ; but the terror Cimbricus continued to haunt the Romans for many a year thereafter. * He made a ievy (of troops) upon, imperftvit with the ace. and the dat * Cf. % 200. n. 2. LESSON XLIII THE THIRD DECLENSION • /-STEMS . To decline a noun of the third declension correctly we must know whether or not it is an i-stem. Nouns with i-stems are

. Masculines and f eminines : 

a. Nouns in -es and -is with the same number of syllables in the genitive as in the nominative. Thus caedes, caedis, is an i-stem, but miles, militis, is a consonant stem. b. Nouns in -ns and -rs. c. Nouns of one syllable in -s or -x preceded by a consonant . Neuters in -e, -al, and -ar. . The declension of i-stems is nearly the same as that of con- sonant stems. Note the following differences : a. Masculines and feminines have -ium in the genitive plural and -is or -es in the accusative plural. b. Neuters have -i in the ablative singular, and an -1- in every form of. the plural. . Masculine and Feminine /-Stems. Masculine and feminine i- stems are declined as follows : caedes, f., hostis, m. , urbs, f., cliens, m., slaughter enemy city Tetainer Stems caedi- hosti- urbi- clienti- Bases caed- host- urb- SlNGULAR client- TERMINATIONS M. AND F. Norn. caedes hostis urbs cliens ^ -s, -is, <7/--es Gen. caedis hostis urbis clientis -is Dat. caedi hosti urbi clienti -i Ace. caedem hostem urbem clientem -em (-im) AbL caede hoste urbe clientc -«(-i)

Observe that the vowel before -ns is long, but that it is shortened before 

-nt. Cf. §12.2,3.

Plural TERMINATIONS M. AND F. Norn. caedSs hostCs urb€s clientCs -«s Gen. caedinm hostium urbium clientium -ium Dat. caedibus hostibus urbibus clientibus -ibus Ace. caedis, -Ss hostis, -Ss urbis, -Ss clientis, -8s -is, -€S Abl. caedibus hostibus urbibus clientibus -ibus . avis, civis, finis, ignis, navis have the ablative singular in -i or -e. . turris has accusative tunim and ablative turri or turre. . Neuter /-Stems. Neuter i-stems are declined as follows : insigne, n., animal, n., calcar, n., decoraticn animal spur Stems insigni- animali- caldri- Bases insign- SlNGULAR calcar- TERMINATIONS Norn. Tnsigne animal calcar -^or — Gen, insignis animalis calciria -is Dat, Insigni animali calcari -i Ace. Tnsigfne animal calcar -tor— Abl. Insigni animali Plural calcari -i Norn. insignia animalU calcaria -ia Gen. Tnsignium animalium calcarium -ium Dat. Insignibus animalibus calcaribus -ibus Ace. insignia animalia calcaria -ia Abl. insignibus animalibus calcaribus -ibus I. Review § 74 and see how it applies to this declension. . The final -i- of the stem is usually droi ped in the nominative. If not dropped, it is changed to -e. . A long vowel is shortened before final -1 or -r. (Cf. § 12. 2.) . EXERCISES First learn the special vocabulary, p. 292. I. I . Quam urbem videmus t Urbs quam videtis est RQma. 2. ClvCs KomanI urbem suam turribus altis et mflris longis mOnlverant. . Venti nSvis longSs prohibebant finibus hostium adpropinqu§re. . Imperator a clientibus suis calcaria auri et alia insignia accgpit. . MilitSs Roman! cum hostibus bella saeva gessarunt et eOs caede magna superaverunt. 6. Alia animalia terram, alia mare amant. 7. Naves longae quae auxilium ad imperatorem portabant igni ab hostibus deletae sunt. 8. In eo mar! avis multas vidimus quae longg a terra volaverant. 9. Nonne vidistis navis longas hostium et ignis quibus urbs nostra vastabatur? Certe, sed nee caedem civium nee

Latin for beginners (1911).djvu-132.png

NAVES LONGAE fugam clientium vidimus. 10. Aves et alia animalia, ubi ignem vide- runt, salutem fuga petere celeriter inceperunt. 11. Num iudex in peditum ordinibus stabat ? Minime, iudex erat apud equites et equus eius insigne pulchrum gerebat. II. I. Because of the lack of grain the animals of the village were not able to live. 2. When the general ^ heard the rumor, he quickly sent a horseman to the village. 3. The horseman had a beautiful horse and wore spurs of gold. 4. He said to the citizens, " Send your retainers with horses and wagons to our camp, and you will receive an abundance of grain." 5. With happy hearts they hastened to obey his words.'^

Place first. 2 jsjot the accusative. Why ?  

LESSON XLIV IRREGULAR NOUNS OF THE THIRD DECLENSION • GENDER IN THE THIRD DECLENSION . PARADIGMS vis, i., force iter, n., march Bases vi- and vir- Singular iter- and itiner- Norn. vis iter Gen. VIS (rare) itineria Dat. vT (rare) idneri Ace. vim iter Abl. VI Plural itinere Norn. vTrJs itinera Gen. virium itinerum Dat. vlribus itineribus Ace. vTris, or -es itinera Abl: vlribus itineribus . There are no rules for gender in the third declension that do not present numerous exceptions.* The following rules, however, are of great service, and should be thoroughly mastered :

. Ifasculine are nouns in -or, -Os, -er, -«8 (gen. -itis). 

a. arbor, tree^ is feminine ; and iter, march^ is neuter. . Feminine are nouns in -0, -is, -x, and in -s preceded by a con- sonant or by any long vowel but 0. a. Masculine are collis (/////), lapis, xslIvoSa {month), 6rd6, pes, and nouns in -nis and -guia — as ignis, sanguis {blood) — and the four monosyllables dins, a tooth ; m6ns, a mountain pOns, a bridge; fSns, a fountain . Neuters are nouns in -e, -al, -ar, -n, -ur, -tts, and caput.

Review § 60. Words denoting males are, of course, masculine, and those 

denoting females, feminine. . Give the gender of the following nouns and the rule by vvhich it is determined : animal calamitas flumen lapis navis avis caput ignis legio opus caedes eques insigne mare salus calcar finis labor miles urbs . EXERCISES First learn the special vocabulary, p. 292. I. The First Bridge over the Rhine. Salus sociorum erat semper cara Romanis. Olim Galli, amici Romanorum, multas iniurias ab Germanis qui trans flumen Rhenum vivebant acceperant. Ubi legatl ab iis ad Caesarem imperatorem Romanum venerunt et auxilium postulaverunt,

Roman! magnis itineribus ad hostium finis properaverunt. Mox ad 

ripas magni fluminis venerunt. Imperator studebat copias suas trans fluvium ducere, sed nulla via ^ poterat. NuUas navis habebat. Alta erat aqua. Imperator autem, vir clarus, numquam adversa fortuna commotus, novum consilium cepit. lussit suos^ in® lato fliimjne facere [o pontem. Numquam antea pons in Rheno visus erat. 'Hostes pbi pon- tem quem Roman! fecerant viderunt, summo terrore commoti, sine mora fugam parare inceperunt. II. I. The enemy had taken (possession of) the top of the moun- tain. 2. There were many trees on the opposite hills. 3. We pitched our camp near (ad) a beautiful spring. 4. A march through the ene- mies' country is never without danger. 5. The time of the month was suitable for the march. 6. The teeth of the monster were long. 7. When the foot soldiers* saw the blood of the captives, they began to assail the fortifications with the greatest violence.^ ^ Abl. of manner. 2 suSs^ used as a noun, his men. ^ We say bttila a bridge over; the Romans, make a bridge on. * Place first. Fifth Review, Lessons XXXVU-XLIV, §§ 517-520 LESSON XLV ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION • /-STEMS . Adjectives are either of the first and second declensions (like bonus, aeger, or liber), or they are of the third declension. . Nearly all adjectives of the third declension have i-stems^ and they are declined almost like nouns with i-stems. . Adjectives learned thus far have had a different form in the nominative for each gender, as, bonus, m. ; bona, f. ; bonum, n. Such an adjective is called an adjective of three endings. Adjectives of the third declension are of the following classes : I. Adjectives of three endings — a different form in the nominative for each gender. II. Adjectives of two endings — masculine and feminine nominative alike, the neuter different. III. Adjectives of one ending — masculine, feminine, and neuter nominative all alike. . Adjectives of the third declension in -er have three endings ; those in -is have two endings ; the others have one ending. CLASS I . Adjectives of Three Endings are declined as follows : icer , icris, acre, keen, eager Stem icri- Base icr- SlNGULAR Plural MASC FEM. NEUT. MASC. FEM. NBUT. Nom. acer icris acre acr«8 acrSa acria Gen. icria icris acria aoium acriam acrium Pat. acri acri acri aoibna acribua acribua Aci. acrem acrem acre acrii, -te acris, -Ss acria Abl. icri ftcri acri acribuf acribua acribua CLASS II . Adjectives of Two Endings are declined as follows : omnis, omne, every ^ all^ Stem oinni- Base omn- Singular Plural MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. Norn. omnis omne omnes omnia Gen. omnis omnis omnium omnium Dat. omni omni omnibus omnibus Ace. omnem omne omnis, -es omnia Abl. omni omni • CLASS III omnibus omnibus . Adjectives of One Ending are declined as follows : par, equal Stem pari- Base par- Singular Plural MASC AND FEM. NEUT. MASC AND FEM. NEUT. Nom. par par pares paria Gen. paris paris parium parium Dat. pari pari paribus paribus Ace. parem par paris, -es paria Abl. pari pari paribus paribus . All i-stem adjectives have -i in the ablative singular. . Observe that the several cases of adjectives of one ending have the same form for all genders excepting in the accusative singular and in the nominative and accusative plural. . Decline vir acer, legi5 acris, animal acre, ager omnis, sciitum omne, proelium par. . There are a few adjectives of one ending that have consonant stems. They are declined exactly like nouns with consonant stems.

omnis is usually translated every in the singular and all in the plural.  

. EXERCISES First learn the special vocabulary, p. 293. I. The Romans invade the Enemy's Country. Olim pedites RQmani cum equitibus velocibus in hostium urbem iter faciebant. Ubi non longe afu€runt, rapuerunt agricolam, qui eis viam brevem et facilem demonstravit. lam RomanI moenia alta, turns validas aliaque opera urbis videre poterant. In moenibus stabant mult! principes. Principes 5 ubi viderunt Romanes, iusserunt civis lapides aliaque tela de muris iacere. Tum milites fortes contineri a proelio non poterant et Seer imperator signum tuba dari iussit. Summa vi omnes properaverunt. Imperator Sexto legato impedimenta omnia mandavit. Sextus impe- dimenta in summo colle conlocavit. Grave et acre erat proelium, sed 10 hostes non pares Romanis erant. Alii interfecti, alii capti sunt. Apud captivos erant mater sororque regis. PaucI Romanorum ab hostibus vulnerati sunt. Secundum proelium Romanis erat gratum. Fortuna fortibus semper favet. II. I. Some months are short, others are long. 2. To seize the top of the mountain was difficult. 3. Among the hills of Italy are many beautiful springs. 4. The soldiers were sitting where the bag- gage had been placed because their feet were weary. 5. The dty which the soldiers were eager to storm had been fortified by strong walls and high towers. 6. Did not the king intrust a heavy crown of gold and all his money to a faithless slave? Yes, but the slave had never before been faithless. AQUILA LEGIONS LESSON XLVI THE FOURTH OR J7-DECLENSI0N . Nouns of the fourth declension are either masculine or neuter. . Masculine nouns end in -us, neuters in -u. The genitive ends in -us. a. Feminine by exception are domus, house; manus, hand ; and a few others. PARADIGMS adventus, m., arrival comu, n., horn Bases advent- corn- SlNGULAR TERMINATIONS MASC. NEUT. Nom. adventus comu -US -u Gen. adventus comijs -US -us Dat. adventui (u) comu -ui (u) -u Ace. adventum cornu -um -u AM. adventu comu Plural -u -u Nom. adventus comua -us -ua Gen. adventuum cornuum -uum -uum Dat. adventibus comibus -ibus -ibus Ace. adventus cornua -us -ua AM. adventibus cornibus -ibus -ibus . Observe that the base is found, as in other declensions, by dropping the ending of the genitive singular. . lacus, lake, has the ending -ubus in the dative and ablative plural ; portus, harbor, has either -ubus or -ibus. . comu is the only neuter that is in common use. . EXERCISES First learn the special vocabulary, p. 293. I. I. Ante adventum Caesaris veloces hostium equites acrem impetum in castra fecerunt. 2. Continere exercitum a proelio non facile erat. 3. Post adventum suum Caesar iussit legiones ex castris duci. 4. Pro castris cum hostium equitdtQ pugn^tum est 5. Post tempus breve equitatus trans flumen fugit ubi castra hostium posita erant. 6. Tum victor imperator agros vastavit et vicOs hostium cre- mSvit. 7. Castra autem n5n oppugnSvit quia mllitgs erant defessl et locus difficilis. 8. Hostes non cessaverunt iacere tela, quae paucis nocuerunt. 9. Post adversum proelium principes Gallonim legStos ad Caesarem mittere studebant, sed populo persuadere non poterant. II. 1. Did you see the man-of-war on the lake? 2. I did not see it {fern.) on the lake, but I saw it in the harbor. 3. Because of the strong wind the sailor forbade his brother to sail. 4. Caesar didn't make an attack on the cavalry on the right wing, did he? 5. No, he made an attack on the left wing. 6. Who taught your swift horse to obey? 7. I trained my horse with my (own) hands, nor was the task difficult. 8. He is a beautiful animal and has great strength. LESSON XLVII EXPRESSIONS OF PLACE • THE DECLENSION OF DOMUS . We have become thoroughly familiar with expressions like the followmg : Q^y^ ^^ ^^^ .^-^ oppidum properat Galba ab (dc or ex) oppid5 properat Golba in oppid5 habitat From these expressions we may deduce the following rules : . Rule. Accusative of the Place to. 77/^ place to which is expressed by ad or in with the accusative. This answers the question Whither? . Rule. Ablative of the Place from. The place from which is expressed by a or ab, de, i or ex, with the separative ablative. This answers the question Whence ? (Cf . Rule, § 1 79.) . Rule. Ablative of the Place at or in. The place at or in which is expressed by the ablative with in. This answers the question Where f a. The ablative denoting the place where is called the locative ablative (cf. locus, place). . Exceptions. Names of towns, small islands,^ domus, home, rus, country, and a few other words in common use omit the prepo- sitions in expressions of place, as, Galba Athenas properat, Galba hastens to Athens Galba Athenis properat, Galba hastens fro7n Athens Galba Athenis habitat, Galba lives at (or in) Athens Galba domum properat, Galba hastens home Galba riis properat, Galba hastens to the country Galba dom5 properat, Galba hast etis from home Galba rure properat, Galba hastens from the country Galba ruri (less commonly riire) habitat, Galba lives in the country a. Names of countries, like Germania, Italia, etc., do not come under these exceptions. With them prepositions must not be omitted. . The Locative Case. We saw above that the place-relation ex- pressed by at or in is regularly covered by the locative ablative. How- ever, Latin originally expressed this relation by a separate form known as the locative case. This case has been everywhere merged in the abla- tive excepting in the singular number of the first and second declen- sions. The form of the locative in these declensions is like the genitive singular, and its use is limited to names of towns and small islands, domi, at home, and a few other words. ^68. Rule. Locative and Locative Ablative. To express the place in which with names of towns and small islands, if they are sin- gular and of the first or second declension, use the locative; otherwise use the locative ablative without a prepositio7i ; as, Galba Romae habitat, Galba lives at Rome Galba Corinthi habitat, Galba lives at Corinth . Galba domi habitat, Galba lives at home ' Small islands are classed with towns because they generally have but one town, and the name of the town is the same as the name of the island. Here R5mae, Corinthi, and domi arc locatives, being singular and of the first and second declensions respectively. But in Galba Athenis habitat, Galba lives at Athens, Galba Pompeiis habitat, Galba lives at Pompeii Athenis and Pompeiis are locative ablatives. These words can have no locative case, as the nominatives Athenae and Pompeii are//«nz/and there is no plural locative case form. . The word domus, home, house, has forms of both the second and the fourth declension. Learn its declension (§ 468). . EXERCISES First learn the special vocabulary," p. 293. I. I. Corinthi omnia insignia auri a ducibus victoribus rapta erant. 2. Caesar Genavam exercitum magnis itineribus duxit. 3. Quern pon- tem hostes cremaverant? Pontem in Rheno hostes cremaverant. 4. Pompeiis multas Romanorum demos videre poteritis. 5. Roma cOnsul equ5 veloci rus properavit. 6. Domi consulis homines multi sedebant. 7. Imperator iusserat legatum Athgnas cum multis nSvibus longis navigare. 8. Ante moenia urbis sunt Ordines arborum altarum. . Propter arborcs altas ncc lacum nee portum reperire potuimus. . Proeliis crebris Caesar legiones suas quae erant in Gallia ex- ercebat, 11. Cotidig in loco idoneo castra ponebat et muniebat II. 1. Caesar, the famous general, when he had departed from Rome, hastened to the Roman province on a swift horse.* 2. He had heard a rumor concerning the allies at Geneva. 3. After his arrival Caesar called the soldiers together and commanded them to join battle. 4. The enemy hastened to retreat, some because * they were afraid, others because* of wounds. 5. Recently I was at Athens and saw the place where the judges used to sit.* 6. Marcus and Sextus are my brothers ; the one lives at Rome, the other in the country. » Latin says " by a swift horse." What construction ? * Distinguish be- tween the English conjunction because (quia or quod) and the preposition because ^(propter). * mc-: A- sit, express by the imperfect

Latin for beginners (1911).djvu-142.png

DAEDALUS ET ICARUS . Daed'alus and Ic'arus Creta est Insula antiqua quae aqua alta magni maris pulsatur. Ibi 6lim Min5s erat r€x. Ad cum venit Daedalus qui ex Graecia patria fugiSbat. Eum Minos rex benignis verbis accepit et ei domicilium in Creta dedit. ^ Quo in loco Daedalus sine cur5 vivebat et regl multa et clara opera faciebat. Post tempus longum autem Daedalus patriam 5 caram desiderare incepit Domum properare studebat, sed regi per- suadere n6n potuit et mare saevum fugam vetabat. LESSON XLVIII THE FIFTH OR JF-DECLENSION • THE ABLATIVE OF TIME . Gender. Nouns of the fifth declension are feminine except digs, day^ and meridiSs, midday^ which are usually masculine. . paradigms dies, m. , day res, f., thing Bases di- r- SlNGULAR TERMINATIONS Norn. dies fit •«8 Gen. diei I^ -ii Dat. difi re! ^ Ace. diem rem -em Abl. die Plural ' -€ Norn. diis rSs -€8 Gen. dierum rSmm -erum Dat. diebus ribns -ebus Ace. diSs res -«8 Abl. diibus rSbus -fbus ^ And in thii place ; quo does not here introduce a subordinate relative clause, but establishes the connection with the preceding sentence. Such a relative is called a connecting relative^ and is translated by and and a demon- strative or personal pronoun. . The vowel e which appears in every form is regularly long. It is shortened in the ending -ei after a consonant, as in r-ei; and before -m in the accusative singular, as in di-em. (Cf . § 1 2. 2.) . Only dies and res are complete in the plural. Most other nouns of this declension lack the plural. Acies, line of battle, and spes, hope, have the nominative and accusative plural. . The ablative relation (§ 50) which is expressed by the prep- ositions at, in, or 071 may refer not only to place, but also to time, as at noon, in summer, on the first day. The ablative which is used to express this relation is called the ablative of time. . Rule. The Ablative of Time. The ti7ne when or within which anytlmig happens is expressed by the ablative without a preposition. a. Occasionally the preposition in is found. Compare the English Next day we started and On the next day we started. . EXERCISES First learn the special vocabulary, p. 294. I. Galba the Farmer. Galba agricola run vivit. Cotidie prima luce laborare incipit, nee ante noctem in studio suo cessat. Meridie lulia filia eum ad cenam vocat. Nocte pedes defessos domum vertit. Aestate filii agricolae auxilium patri dant. Hieme agricola eos in ludum mittit. lb; magister pueris multas fabulas de rebus gestis Caesaris narrat. Aestate filii agricolae perpetuis laboribus exercentur nee grave agri opus est iis molestum. Galba sine ulla cura vivit nee res adversas timet. II. I. In that month there were many battles in Gaul. 2. The cav- alry of the enemy made an attack upon Caesar's line of battle. 3. In the first hour of the night the ship was overcome by the billows. 4. On the second day the savages were eager to come under Caesar's pro- tection. 5. The king had joined battle, moved by the hope of victory. 6. That year a fire destroyed many birds and other animals. 7. We saw blood on the wild beast's teeth. . Daed'alus am. h arus (Continued) Turn Daedalus gravibus curis commOtus filiOsuS icar5 ita dixit: " Animus meus, Icare, est plenus tristitiae nee ocull lacrimis egent. I )iscedere ex Creta, Athcnas proper§re, maxime studeo ; sed rex re- t Cisat audire verba mea et omnem reditus spem eripit. Sed numquam rebus adversis vincar. Terra et mare sunt inimica, sed aliam fugae s viam reperiam." Turn in artis ighotas animum dimittit et mirum capit consilium. Nam pennas in Qrdine ponit et v€ras alas fadt. LESSON XLIX PRONOUNS CLASSIFIED • PERSONAL AND REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS . We have the same kinds of pronouns in Latin as in English. They are divided into the following eight classes : . Personal pronouns, which show the person speaking, spoken to, or spoken of; as, ego, /; t% you ; is, he. (Cf. § 279, etc.) . Possessive pronouns, which denote possession; as, meus, tuus, 8UU8, etc. (Cf. § 98.) . Reflexive pronouns, used in the predicate to refer back to the subject ; as, he saw himself. (Cf. § 281.) . Intensive pronouns, used to emphasize a noun or pronoun ; as, I myself saw it. (Cf. § 285.) . Demonstrative pronouns, which point out persons or things ; as, is, this, that. (Cf. i 112.) . Relative pronouns, which connect a subordinate adjective clause with an antecedent ; as, qui, who. (("f. § 220.) . Interrogative pronouns, which ask a question; as, quia, who^ (Cf. § 225.) . Indefinite pronouns, which point out indefinitely ; as, some one, any one, some, certain ones, etc. (Cf . The demonstrative pronoun is, ea, id, as we learned in § 115, is regularly used as the personal pronoun of the third person (he, she, it, they, etc.). . The personal pronouns of the first person are ego, I; nos, we; of the second person, tu, thou or you ; vos, ye or you. They are declined as follows : Singular first person second person Nam. ego, / tu, you Gen. mei, of me tui, of you Dat. mihi, to or for me tibi, to ox for you Ace. me, me te,you AM. me, with^from^ etc., me te, with, from, etc., you Plural Nom. n5s, we vos, you Gen. nostrum or nostri, of us vestrum or vestri, of you Dat. nobis, to ox for us v5bis, to ox for you Ace. nos, us vos, you AM. nobis, with, from, etc., us vobis, with, from, etc., you . The personal pronouns are not used in the nominative excepting for emphasis or contrast. . The Reflexive Pronouns, i. The personal pronouns ego and tu may be used in the predicate as reflexives ; as, video me, / see myself videmus nos, we see ourselves vides te, you see yourself videtis vos, you see yourselves . The reflexive pronoun of the third person {himself, herself, itself themselves^ has a special form, used only in these senses, and declined alike in the singular and plural. Singular and Plural Gen. sui Ace. se Dat. sibi AM. se Examples- Puer se videt, the boy sees hiynself Puella se videt, the girl sees herself Animal se videt, the animal sees itself li se vident, they see themselves a. The form se is sometimes doubled, sese, for emphasis. . Give the Latin for / feacA myself We teach ourselves You teach yourself You teach yourselves He teaches himself They teach themselves . The preposition cum, when used with the ablative of ego, tfl, ex 8ui, is appended to the form, as, mecum, with me; tecum, with you ; nSbiscum, with us; etc. . EXERCISES First learn the special vocabulary, p. 294. I. I. Mea mater est cara mihi et tua mater est cara tibi. 2. Vestrae litterae erant gratae nobis et nostrae litterae erant gratae vobls. 3. Nuntius rggis qui nobiscum est nihil respondebit. 4. Nuntii pacem amicitiamque sibi et suis sociis postulaverunt. 5. Si tu arma sumes, ego regnum occupabo. 6. Uter vestrum est civis Romanus .'* Neuter nostrum. 7. Eo tempore multi supplicium dederunt quia regnum petierant. 8. Sume supplicium, Caesar, de hostibus patriae acribus. 9. Prima luce alii metu commoti sese fugae mandaverunt; alii autem magna virtute impetum exercitus nostri sustinuerunt. 10. Soror regis, ubi de adverso proelio audivit, sese Pompeiis interfecit. II. I. Whom do you teach? I teach myself. 2. The soldier wounded himself with his sword. 3. The master praises us, but you he does not praise. 4. Therefore he will inflict punishment on you, but we shall not suffer punishment. 5. Who will march (i.e. make a march) with me to Rome ? 6. I will march with you to the gates of the city. 7. Who will show us ^ the way ? The gods will show you * the way. Daed'alus and Ic'arus {Concluded) . Puer Icarus una * stabat et mirum patris opus videbat. Post- quam manus ultima* alis imposita est, Daedalus eSs tempt§vit et similis avi in auras volavit. Tum alas umeris fili adligavit et docuit eum volare et dixit, " Te veto, mi fili, adpropinquare aut s5li aut mari. Si fluctibus adpropinquaveris,* aqua alis tuis nocSbit, et si s6li adpropinquaveris,* 5

  • Not accusative. * Adverb, see vocabulary. * manna nltima, the

finishing touch. What literally ? * Future perfect. Translate by the present.

  1. The words in parentheses are English words related to the Latin. When the words are practically identical, as causa, cause, no comparison is needed.
  2. The u in nūntiō is long by exception. (Cf. §12.2.)
  3. Words like to, for, by, from, in. etc., which define the relationship between words, are called prepositions.
  4. Observe that in English the indirect object often stands without a preposition to to mark it, especially when it precedes the direct object
  5. 5.0 5.1 'ā and ē are used only before words beginning with a consonant; ab and ex are used before either vowels or consonants.
  6. Pick out the adjectives in the following: "When I was a little boy, I remember that one cold winter's morning I was accosted by a smiling man with an ax on his shoulder. ’My pretty boy,’ said he, ’has your father a grindstone?’ — ’Yes, sir,’ said I. — ’You are a fine little fellow,’ said he. ’Will you let me grind my ax on it?’"
  7. Note that the relation expressed by the dative case covers that to which a feeling is directed. (Cf. §43.)
  8. Compare the declension of domina and of dominus.
  9. habitat is here translated does live. Note the three possible translations of the Latin present tense:
    habitat
    he lives
    he is is living
    he does live
    Always choose the translation which makes the best sense.
  10. Observe that the verb parō means not only to prepare but also to prepare for, and governs the accusative case.
  11. 11.0 11.1 See footnote 1, p. 33. Remember that cūrat is transitive and governs a direct object
  12. Not the dative. (Cf.§43.)
  13. Est, beginning a declarative sentence, there is.
  14. Dative with finitimus. (See §43.)
  15. In this selection note especially the emphasis as shown by the order of the words.
  16. orbis terrārum, of the world.
  17. Tiberim, the Tiber, accusative case.
  18. est, before its subject, there is; so sunt, there are.
  19. Quae, what kind of, an interrogative adjective pronoun.
  20. What are the three possible translations of the present tense?
  21. Not the dative. Why?
  22. Here the adjectives sick and wretched are used like nouns.
  23. Where should sunt stand? Cf. I. 2 above.