Notes on the churches in the counties of Kent, Sussex, and Surrey/Kent/Notes on the Churches
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NOTES TO KENT.
1. Addington. — This place is presumed to be intended by "Athington" in (A.D. 1291.) — The following Brasses are mentioned as existing in the church: Richard Charlis (in armour), 1378; William Snayth (do.) and wife Alicia, 1409; Robert Walton (do.), wife Alicia, and two children, 1470. Two others of men in armour, with neither names nor dates. (Thorpe's Registrum Roffense.)
On the wall of the church is stated to be this inscription: —
"In fourteen hundred & none
Here was neither stick nor stone;
In fourteen hundred & three
The goodly building which you see."
"It appears by the endowment of the vicarage of Hadlow, in this county, in the year 1287, that the rector of that parish had been used, beyond memory, to pay yearly the sum of eighteen pence to the rector of the church of Adintone; which payment the vicar of Hadlow was enjoined to pay in future." (Hasted's History of Kent.)
2. Adesham. — (A.D. 1291), "Ecclia de Adesham cum capella"; the latter most probably Staple, that being united in (Valor Ecclesiasticus), commonly called The King's Books, being the valuation of benefices for the purpose of ascertaining the king's tenths, taken in the 26th year of K. Henry VIII, a.d. 1535. The union of Adesham and Staple still continues. That of Adesham is a cross church with a central tower. (Hasted.)
3. Aldington.— (A.D. 1291), "Ecclia de Aldinton cum capella": Smeeth, still joined with Aldington, is annexed to it in (Val. Eccl.) Brass: John Weddeol and wife, 1475. (Hasted.) To this manor were attached three fisheries, but of small value, "iii piscariæ de xxi denariis; of twenty-one pence." (D. B.) (Val. Eccl.) describes a park as existing here.
4. Alkham.— This church is of mixed dates, but contains some interesting portions, particularly an E.E. chancel on the north side, with a trefoil-headed arcade, and a two-light window, with shafts between the lights, and at the sides. In the main chancel is an altar-tomb, with a Lombard inscription on the slab; and in the pavement of the south aisle are the remains of another slab, with an inscription in similar characters. In the chancel are three plain stalls and a piscina. Alkham is united with Capel-le-Ferne.
5. Allhallows.—In (A.D. 1291) styled a chapel, "Capella omnium sanctorum," to Hoo.
6. Allington.—At Longsole in this parish was formerly a chapel, to which, as a free chapel, Stephen Fynamour was licensed, 24th of K. Edward III, A.D. 1351. In 1422, an official inquiry was instituted, whether the chapel of St. Laurence of Longsole was situated in Allington, or in Aylesford. (Reg. Roff.) There are still extensive remains of the castle. In December, 1847, an ancient interment of a remarkable character was discovered in a large stone quarry in this parish, about a mile north-west from Maidstone, where "a cavity was fallen in with, about four feet six inches long, by three feet broad, and five feet deep from the surface of the ground. The cavity itself being about eighteen inches high where the head and chest of the skeleton were laid, and the height at the other end about twelve inches. The body was deposited nearly north-west and south-east. The manner of forming the cist, which was constructed in a way extremely unusual, was as follows:—The pit having been dug of the dimensions as above stated, the bottom and lower parts of the sides were worked and prepared in the same way as clay is tempered for making pottery or bricks. When this had been sufficiently done, fuel was introduced and a strong fire made, which burnt into a solid substance of brick the bottom and lower parts of the sides; and thus the cist was in part formed and the work so far advanced. When this had been thus made and had become cool, the ashes were cleared out, and the corpse was placed in, along (as is conjectured by impressions on the interior lining of the cist) with a quantity of moss, which was strewed on and about the body. It appears from the nature of the cavity the head must have been inclined on the chest, and the knees slightly raised and bent. A dome was then made over the corpse, composed of rods of wood, in diameter from an inch to half an inch, stretched across from side to side, crossed at about the distance of six or seven inches (as was judged) by other rods, two or three together, some impressions of which have been preserved. This having been prepared for a support, the dome of tempered clay was then made over it, fuel introduced, and a very strong fire again made, which burnt the dome into a complete vaulting of brick over the corpse; and after this a layer of large stones was placed over the dome, about a foot thick; and afterwards the pit filled up with common earth, and so left." See the remainder of the description of this curious discovery, by the Reverend Beale Poste (in the Journal of the British Archæological Association, No. 13, 31st May 1848, 65-68.) Since that account was written it has been ascertained, that similar sepulchral cavities have been met with in the neighbourhood of Aylesford.
7. All Saints, in Thanet.—This church is totally destroyed.
8. Alnoitone.—Named as in the hundred of Eyhorne. In the parish of Hollingbourne was an old manor, called Elnothington, which Hasted styles "eminent" and states to have extended into the adjoining parish of Bersted. He deems it identical with the "Alnoitone" of (D. B.), which it probably is; and, if its limits reached as far as Hasted mentions, the church might have been provided for the district, which is now the parish of Bersted, because (D. B.) notices a church as then existing at Hollingbourne. It is however said, that the last existing manor-house of Elnothington stood near Hollingbourne church.
9. Apledore. This church consists of chancel, nave, south aisle with chancel, south porch, an addition projecting like a transept from the east end of the north side of the nave, with what is now the vestry on its eastern side, and a square western, not high, tower. From the flat buttresses at the angles the tower appears to be Norm., with battlements, quatrefoils, and Perp. windows added. The projection on the northern side also is at least Norm., the coign stones resembling those in the Norm, tower of Northiam church, Sussex. The vestry is E.E. The stones in the angles of the transept are laid in a manner approaching to "long and short work." The nave is very wide; probably because a north aisle has been thrown into it, as at Withyham, Sussex. In the south chancel are a trefoil ogée-headed piscina, and a Dec. tomb under an arch in the south wall. There are some good Dec. and late Dec. or Perp. screenwork, and a few small fragments of coloured glass. The church has been greatly altered. The stones in the angles of the northern projection being totally different from those in the Norm. tower, it appears as if those two portions could not have been erected at the same period; but the character of the former certainly seems not to claim a later date than that of the other. Upon the whole, I conceive this portion of the building to be deserving of some study, though exhibiting little or nothing to guide one in forming an opinion. Similar stone to that in the above-named projection was observed in the tower of Northiam church, Sussex.
Eleven rights of fishing are stated to have been annexed to this manor, but valued only at three shillings and fourpence, "xi piscariæ de iii solidis et iiii denariis." (D. B.) Similar entries continually occur in the survey of Kent, a few being described as fisheries of herrings, many more as of eels, and others being merely named generally. Of these fisheries a few only have been noticed here.
About a mile from the church, north-westward, on the border of Appledore Heath, lies Home Farm, of which the house must formerly have been a mansion of considerable importance. The present dwelling is not modern; but attached to the back of it is the chapel of the ancient mansion. It is a stone building, and still exhibits the frames of three rich windows, besides that of a later and plainer one at the west end. The southern window has been enlarged into a door; the eastern was large. The remaining mullions of all three are very slender, and the interior hoods of somewhat peculiar pattern. The details are early Perp., if not late Dec. The two entire windows are walled up. The roof, which seems in sound condition, is of similar construction to those of Swanborough chapel, in Iford, and Denton church, both in Sussex; an example may be seen in Glossary of Architecture, plate 78, third ed., from Godshill church, Isle of Wight, and supposed to date about A.D. 1450. The brackets on which the wall-pieces rest are carved; which carving, as well as the stonework of the windows, retains its edges as sharp as if fresh from the mason's hand. Beneath the chapel is a cellar, now vaulted with brick, but possibly that is only a facing of comparatively recent date. This building is an interesting relic, and would not perhaps have been suspected to exist in such a locality. A floor has been erected to convert the place into a store-room, but the alteration has caused less injury than might have been anticipated. The following is Hasted' s account of "Hornes Place, or Farm: The mansion was for a great length of time the residence of the family of that name, and till they removed to Kenardington, in the reign of K. Henry VII." The family ended in a female in 1565, soon after which the property was forfeited for recusancy. Note (g), 120. "This estate is now called Great Home, to distinguish it from Little Home, in Kenardington. The chapel is 24 feet long by 12 in breadth." (Hist, of Kent, III, 119, 120, fol., 1790.) See the quotation from the Saxon Chronicle in the Note on Limpne.
10. Ash, near Sandwich.—This was a chapel-of-ease to Wingham till 1282, when it was made a separate parish. It has a cross church, with a central tower and tall spire. Effigies: cross-legged, Leverick, and Goshall (wife below); man and woman, Harflete, alias Septvans. On a flat stone, Jane Keriell. Brasses: Septvans, alias Harflete, 1602; do. and wife, 1612; Harflete and wife, 1612. In this parish were chapels, at Fleet, Overland, and Richborough. (Hasted.) The last is named in (Val. Eccl.) as "Russheborough." The land called " Fletes" is valued (D. B.) under Wingham. (A.D. 1291), "Capella de Esse cum capellis (note), aliis, cidem annexis:" referring, doubtless, to some or all of those above mentioned.
The castle of Richborough, well known as a ruined specimen of Roman construction, stands within this parish.
11. Ash, near Wrotham.—Brass: Richard Galon, rector, 1465. (Reg. Roff.)
A college was founded here by Sir (John, according to Dugdale—or Robert, Kilburne) Fogge, knight of the shire, &c., temp. Edward IV. (Lambarde's Perambulation of Kent.) The college is not noticed after A.D. 1503. (Dugdale's Monasticon, VI, 1454. Lond., 1830.)
13. Ashurst.—This small church consists of chancel, nave, south porch, and a wooden bell-turret over the west end. Of the chancel, the east and north windows are Dec., the southern Perp. On each side of the nave is a single-light ogée-headed Dec. window ; but they are insertions. Instead of a chancel arch, there is a tie-beam, with a king-post. This, like the sandstone churches generally, so far as I have examined them, seems to have been greatly altered externally by repairs. The north wall is the oldest, being of coarse irregular masonry. The east window retains a very few fragments of coloured glass. The porch is of stone, dated 1621. Before it is an ancient graveslab, forming a step, much worn, but having no traces of a cross. The interior of the church was not seen. In or near the valley of the Medway, a short distance below the church, was formerly an iron-foundry, and in a wood southwards from the church are pits, whence ore was obtained.
14. Audintone. Now merely a farm, called Aldington, in the parish of Thornham, and the original endowment of Audintone is attached to that church. It continued a separate parish till united to Thornham, 24th August 1583, by agreement between Henry Brockhull, lord of the manor and patron, and William Merrick, vicar of Thornham; which agreement was confirmed by authority the following year. (Hasted.)
In (A.D. 1291) appears "Ecclia de Tornham Aldinton:" the latter is also mentioned, together with Thornham, in (Val. Eccl.) In the (Clergy List) we still find "Thornham, R., with Ailingham, V;" the last name no doubt signifying Aldington.15. Aylesford. The church of Aylesford is named in a deed of K. Henry I. (Textus Roffensis. E codicibus MSS. descripsit ediditque Tho. Hearnius, Oxonii, 1720, 169.) Brass: John and Sarra Cosyngton, 1426. (Reg. Roff.) At Cosington, or Codington, in this parish, a chapel was standing in A.D. 1293, it being named as the chapel of Dominus Stephen Cosingtone, miles. (Reg. Roff.) Cosington chapel is mentioned in a document without date, but perhaps earlier than the above. (Text. Roff. 229, 231.) There was another chapel, annexed to Tottington, an estate here, founded by Richard, Lord Poynings, 2d of K. Richard II. (Harris.) A house of Carmelite friars was established at Aylesford, by Richard, Lord Grey, of Codnor, temp. K. Henry III. (Lambarde.)—A.D. 1240, 25th K. Henry III: said to have been the first Carmelite foundation in England. (Monast., VI, 1571.) In the Domesday description of the royal manor of "Elesford," this entry occurs : "The bishop of Rochester also, in exchange for the ground on which the castle stands, holds as much of the estate as is worth seventeen shillings and four pence. Episcopus etiam de Rovecestria pro excambio terre in qua castellum sedet tantum de hac terra tenet quod xvii solidos et iiii denaria valet." (D. B.) I am informed that there are, or were lately, at Aylesford, the remains of a Norm, keep or tower, with walls about eight or ten feet high, and used as a dog kennel. It is possible, certainly, that the notice in (D. B.) may refer to this building, and if any choose so to apply it, there seems to be no positive proof to the contrary; still the internal evidence of the passage appears to point rather to the castle of Rochester.
Near Aylesford took place, A.D. 455, a grand battle between the Britons, under King Vortigern, and the Angles, or Saxons, under Hengest and Horsa, after the latter, invited over from Germany by Vortigern, to assist him against the Picts, had determined on taking advantage of the degeneracy of their allies to assume possession of so rich and tempting a country. In this engagement Catigern, son of Vortigern, was slain by Horsa, and his soldiers dispersed, after which Horsa himself was killed, and his troops put to flight, by an attack of Catigern's brother, Gortimer. (Lappenberg's Hist. of England under the Anglo-Saxon Kings. Thorpe's translation, I, 73.) The ancient funereal monument on Boxley Hill, between Maidstone and Rochester, but in this parish, usually called "Kit's Cotty House," is considered to mark the spot of Catigern's interment, whence the name. Horsa was buried at a place (in Chatham parish, Kilburne) still called Horsted. (Hasted.) A somewhat curious Perp. doorway, belonging to a hospital in Aylesford, is alluded to by Mr. Bloxam (Goth. Archit. 246.) For a notice of Roman remains discovered and vestiges of the Romano-British town of Aiglessa, or Eccles, in the vicinity of Aylesford, consult the Journal of the Brit. Archæol. Association, No. 13; 81, 82.
16. Badlesmere.—"Ibi æcclesia—et piscaria de xii denariis. There is a church, and a fishery of twelve pence." (D. B.) The situation of this place, on a chalky soil, remote from any water, might appear to require the term, "piscaria" being rendered by its proper meaning, "a fish market." Ducange, however, in his Glossary, attributes the same sense to piscaria, piscatio, and piscatura, namely, "jus piscationis, a right of fishing;" which signification consequently we may assume as the general usage of mediæval Latin writers. Piscaria is the word commonly, so far as my experience extends, employed in (D. B.) to describe a fishery; and Doddington, that is, "Dodeham," at no very great distance from Badlesmere, and in a still more unlikely situation, is positively stated to be entitled to "half a fishery of three hundred herrings." We may therefore suppose, that to the manor of Badlesmere was attached a right of fishing elsewhere; but at what spot we have no means of even conjecturing, no memorial of that right now existing in any outlying portion belonging to the parish.
The Domesday description of this place affords incontrovertible evidence (if any were wanting) of St. Augustin's Abbey, Canterbury, being a Saxon foundation: viz. "The abbot of St. Augustin's claims this manor as its proprietor in the time of the Confessor, and the hundreds bear testimony to him, &c.—Hoc mauerium reclamat Abbas Sancti Augustini quia habuit tempore Regis Edwardi (T. R. E.) et hundreda attestantur ei." (D. B. fol. 10.) A subsequent entry (fol. 12, p. 2), at the end of the account of the possessions of St. Augustin's, records the decision of the dispute. "The shire testifies, that Badlesmere belonged to St. Augustin's in the time of King Edward, &c.—Scyra testificat quod Bedenesmere fuit Sancti Augustini, T. R. E., et de illo qui earn tenebat habuit abbas sacam et socam." (D. B.) "K. Edward II, in his thirteenth year, gave licence to Bartholomew de Badlesmere, that he might, in his manor of Badlesmere, which was held of him in capite, found a house of canons regular, &c." But, though the licence was confirmed by K. Edward III, the intention appears never to have been executed. (Tan. Mon. 225, quoted by Hasted, and Dugdale's Monast. VI, 522). In the deed of Edward III, the church of Northfield, in Kent, is mentioned, but the place signified it has not yet been possible to identify.
17. Bapchild.—The church consists of chancel, nave, a narrow north aisle, with a much wider chancel, a tower on the south side of the west end of the chancel, and a south porch of brick, comparatively modern, but not recent, the bonding being English, not Flemish, as now commonly practised. The nave, chancel, aisle, and tower, seem to be Norm.; the north chancel Tr. Norm., approaching to E.E. At the east end of the main chancel were three round-headed windows, two below, and one above, which have been replaced by a three-light Perp. one. In the south wall of the chancel are three lancets, the most western lower than the others, and the middle one retaining hooks for interior shutters. At the east end of the north chancel is a four-light Perp. window, and three smaller ones in the north wall. The piscina here is worked in the engaged pier. On the northern side is an arcade not reaching to the east wall. Of the tower, terminated by a light shingled spire, the windows appear to have been altered. Two arches, in the east and west walls, indicate a different arrangement from that now subsisting; in fact, the position of the tower is such, that it may have formed a south transept. A piscina in the eastern arch induces the supposition, that it may have been covered externally by an apse, to afford space for the altar, there placed. Two very small roundheaded windows still remain in the western part of the church, and that end had probably three or more, the frames of two being visible on each side of the present three-light Tr. Dec. or Perp. window. There are several pieces of coloured glass, but in great disorder. Nearly opposite the south door is an elegant ogée-canopied niche. The church contains two old benches and a Perp. screen. The door is ancient, retaining an old lock and some good ironwork. "Near the wayside here was formerly a chapel or oratory; whose ruins (Philpot saith) were visible in his time; where such pilgrims, as visited the shrine of Thomas Becket of Canterbury, used to offer up their devotions, before they advanced any farther in their journey." (Harris). Who also mentions another "Free Chapel," at Radfield (in this parish, though near Linsted, which adjoins), whereof the ruins still (then) existed, and that it was suppressed by K. Edward VI. This appears in (Val. Eccl.) as a "Free Chapel." According to Hasted it was named so early as A.D. 1190. From personal knowledge of the locality I strongly suspect that Dr. Harris's two chapels are one and the same, Radfield lying by " the wayside." A.D. 694, Wihtred, King of Kent, summoned a great council, at a place called Baccancelde, at which he was present, with Brihtwald, Archbishop of Canterbury, Tobias, Bishop of Rochester, Abbots and Abbesses, and many wise men, to consult about repairing the churches of God which were in Kent. (Gib. Chron. Sax. 48.) Evidently the spot was in Kent. Gibson, in his explanation of the names of places, suggests Beckenham; Hasted, with greater probability, prefers Bapchild. So late as in (Val. Eccl.) the name of this parish is spelled "Bacchyld." In a recital of the proceedings of the synod above mentioned, the place is written "Bachancild." (Cod. Dipl. V, 37.)
18. Barfreston.—This remarkable Norm, church is a well-known object of curiosity, which has recently been thoroughly and judiciously repaired; when it was discovered that one of the mullions of the circular window was of oak, not stone, though it was deemed part of the original work. There was also found, imbedded in the mortar of the wall, a pair of small scissors, not acting upon a rivet, as do those of the present day, but formed in one piece, with a bow at the end, like sheepshears. Barfreston church affords strong indications that it was not from the first intended for the situation it occupies, as the design of it appears not to be complete in itself, but as if it was to have been connected with other buildings. "Here is a poor woman paying threepence halfpenny.—Ibi una paupercula mulier reddens iii den. et i ob." (D. B.)
19. Barham.—Annexed to Bishop's Bourne, which see. Brasses: a priest; a knight in armour, and lady. (Hasted.)
20. Barming.—The portion of the parish where the church stands was formerly called East Barming, to distinguish it from West Barming, which also possessed a church at the spot now known as Barnjet. "Some part only of the ruines of the church (of West Barming) is remaining, but that there was such a church and a churchyard to the same (neer the Court lodge there) is yet visible." (Kilburne, about A.D. 1659.) Hasted states, that West Barming, or Barnjet, originally only a chapel, afterwards deemed a parish, was united to Nettlested 2d of K. Henry VII. (Reg. Roff.) says, p. 142, in A.D. 1508, at p. 162, &c., in 1486. The rector of Nettlested is still inducted thereto with the rectory of West Barming annexed. The "capella de Bermynget" is named in (Val. Eccl.) See Nettlested. Not a vestige of West Barming church now exists. Compare the list of churches in the diocese of Rochester, at the end of the Note on that place.
21. Benenden.—A church of chancel, nave, north and south aisles, with chancels shorter than the central, south porch, and large square west tower with battlements and stair turret. Both aisles also have battlements and stair turrets. The body of the church seems to have been, partially at any rate, rebuilt. There are some Dec. portions; the windows are chiefly Perp. and debased Perp. All the interior arches have been Grecianised. Kilburne describes this church as having a wooden spire of remarkable construction, standing separate from the church. I conceive he must have written from memory, because the existing tower was certainly erected before his time. His description might be intended for Brookland, to which it would still apply (in part assuredly); and he makes no observation on the peculiarity of that church.
22. Bersted.—Collins (Peerage, II, 1, Ed. 1779), deduces this name from the Berties ("Bertie stad or sted, in Saxon town"); one of which family, he states, came over in the first Saxon invasion, and settled here. As his authority for the assertion, Collins refers to Philpott's Survey of Kent; but, in his account of Bersted, Philpott says nothing of the kind; while, in his (Etymology &c. of Names, as they are derived from some Saxon radix,) he expressly observes of Berested, "I might derive it from Bury or Bere, old English for the Lord's court or dwelling, &c. ; if you consider the soil, you may call it Barren sted." In (A.D. 1291) this place is written "Berwestede," which rather militates against Collins's origin of the name. Philipott (description of Bersted) deems that parish, not Brasted, to be the "Briestede" of (D. B.); from which opinion I must, with deference, dissent. The manor appears to be given as in the hundred of Axtane, that immediately preceding "Briestede" being Orpington; of which last manor, however, a portion occurs elsewhere under the hundred of Rokesley, to which it now belongs, while Brasted is in that of Codsheath, a name not occurring in (D. B.) Very probably the estate, spoken of under the title of Orpington in the hundred of Axtane, was Nockholt (which see), close to Brasted; while the Orpington in the hundred of Rokesley, where the two churches are given, was the existing parish, and one of the others its dependents. The surveyors would hardly jump from Orpington, or Nockholt, to Bersted; though certainly there is a difficulty with regard to the place next mentioned in the Domesday record. See the Note on Olecumbe below.
23. Bethersden. There was once a chapel at Hacchesden, now called Eytchden, in the north-east part of this parish, which is mentioned in a document temp. K. Richard I. The name was anciently written Haccesdene, Hechindenne, Hatchwelden, and Hathwoldindene. Brasses: Wil. Lovelace, citizen of London, 1459; Thomas, son of William Lovelace, 1591, ætat. 28. The figure being that of an old man, it must have been originally intended for some one else. (Hasted.) See the note on Godeselle. (Val. Eccl.) describes a chantry at Bethersden, of the clear yearly value of £6 10s. 8d.
24. Betshanger. Over the south door of this church is a circular arch, with a figure of our Saviour in the spandril. (Hasted.)
25. Bexley. Brass: Tho. Sparrow, 1513; and an alabaster effigy of Sir John Champenee's wife, Meriell, 1556. (Reg. Roff.) For an early mention of the church of Bexley, see end of Note on Rochester.
26. Bicknor. See the Note on Frinsted.
27. Bidborough. This church, it is stated, was founded A.D. 1219, because the parishioners of Leigh, residing in the hamlet of Bidborough, were inconvenienced by their distance from Leigh church, as well as the "frequent inundations," by “Galfridus de Gaspernasse, capellanus, rector primus ecclesie de Betbergh. Quia parochiani de Lega manentes in hameletto de Betbergh predicto multociens erant laborati et gravitati per longitudinem et profunditatem itineris versus Legh et de Legha, eundo et redeundo, et inundacione aquarum, que sepius contingebat, impediti, cupientes exonerari et alleviari a predictis laboribus, gravaminibus et impedimentis, consilio peritorum accesserunt ad patronum et ad rectorem,” &c. (Reg. Roff., 166.) Hence it appears that, originally, Bidborough was part of the parish of Leigh; the river Medway intervening between the two places. However, although Bidborough may have been first constituted a distinct parish at the period above mentioned, a chapel must have existed there previous to A.D. 1219. Of this fact the first evidence is, that the chapel of “Bettebergh” is named in a document dated in that year. (Text. Roff., 231.) The building now standing is another witness, the south door arch being Norm., consequently constructed before 1219, with a Perp. one inserted below it. And, lastly, the foundation deed itself, quoted from above, testifies conclusively that the church was not then first erected; for, after reciting the inconveniences caused by separation from the parish church, the concluding prayer of it is, that the residents at Betbergh may have “cantariam in capella sua” and “capellanum celebrantem.” The former of these expressions seems to imply the previous possession of a chapel, though it intimates farther, that the edifice was used only for some occasional, and probably imperfect, service. From its connection here we may, almost must, understand the word “cantaria,” primarily signifying “a place for singing” to mean the full and entire celebration of Divine service, as then regularly performed in parish churches, of which, indeed, chanting formed an integral portion. Unluckily, the deed alluded to does not contain the names of the patron and rector of Leigh, so as to afford the opportunity of comparison with a similar document relating to Penshurst, only twenty years later in date.
Among Anthony Wood’s collection in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford, is preserved the following deed, relating to the church of this place, though therein it is styled a chapel. It is endorsed by A. Wood’s own hand, “Capella de Witteberg,” although in the body of the document the name is distinctly written Bitteberge.:—
“Omnibus Christi fidelibus ad quos presens scriptiun pervenerit, Ricardus Canutus, persona ecclesie beate Marie de Legha, salutem in Domino. Noverit universitas vestra me divine pietatis intuitu, dedisse et concessisse et hac presenti carta mea confirmasse Galfrido clerico, filio Benedicti de Teppehese, cum assensu Johannis Canuti, militis, ejusdem ecclesie patroni, capellam de Bitteberge, habendam et tenendam cum omnibus pertinenciis suis, in puram et perpetuam elemosinam, quamdiu vixerit, reddendo inde annuatim matrici ecclesie quatuor solidos sterlingorum ad festum Sancti Laurencii. Sustinebit autem predictus Galfridus clericus omnia honera capelle predicte tarn in libris quam in ornamentis et aliis necessariis. Et ut hec donacio et concessio rata et firma permaneat huic scripto, cum sigillo prefati Johannis Canuti, sigillum meum apposui. Hiis testibus, Willielmo Capellano de Speldherst Magistro Holland de Rog’ Willielmo fratre suo Willielmo de Rog Roberto de Nortune Capellano Edwardo Capellano Ricardo persona de Penesherst,” &c.
“To all the faithful (servants) of Christ to whom this present writing shall come, Richard Canutus, parson of the church of St. Mary of Leigh (wishes) health in the Lord. Know all of you, that I, by the inward motion of divine piety, have given and granted, and by this my present deed have confirmed to Walter, clerk, son of Benedict de Teppehese, with consent of John Canutus, knight (?), patron of the same church, the chapel of Bidborough, to be possessed and held, with all its appurtenances, in pure and perpetual alms, as long as he shall live, by paying therefrom, yearly, to the mother church four shillings of sterling money at the festival of St. Laurence. But the said Walter, clerk, shall sustain all the burdens of the said chapel, as well in books as in ornaments and other necessaries. And that this donation and grant may remain good and firm, I have to this writing set my seal, with the seal of the aforesaid John Canutus. These being witnesses,” &c. &c.
This seems to be the nomination, by the parson, that is, the rector, of Leigh, with the consent of the patron, of a certain Galfridus, or Walter, to the chapelry of Bidborough. The deed is not dated; but, from comparing the names occurring therein with those mentioned in connection with the first institution of a rectory (see above), as well as with the foundation of a chapel at Penshurst, as related in the Note on that place, it appears to belong to the early part of the thirteenth century; the parties concerned being the same who were engaged in the two transactions just alluded to. Probably this is the first appointment of the Galfridus de Gaspernasse, already noticed as the first rector of Bidborough, in which case the deed will date prior to A.D. 1219. In the hypothesis of the identity conjectured with regard to these persons, there certainly are two difficulties; but to neither of them can much weight be allowed. In the first place, the Galfridus of A.D. 1219 is styled de Gaspernasse, whereas, the Galfridus in the nomination to the chapelry is declared to be the son of Benedict de Teppehese; but it must be remembered, that the custom of permanent family names was not introduced till long subsequent to 1219, so that if Bened. de Teppehese had had a dozen sons, each of them might have received a different appellation, either from their places of residence, or from various other causes, and not one might have borne his father's designation. Secondly, the patron of the church of Leigh is called John Canutus in Anthony Wood’s deed, while in that of A.D. 1239, relating to Penshurst, the patron of the same church is named John Canucus. This variation, however, is very slight, considering the period wherein it may have occurred, when accuracy in such matters was utterly disregarded; beside that a letter may have been mistaken in reading one of the original ancient MSS.; and it actually happened, that, in the copy given to me from the Ashmolean Museum, the name was first written Canucus, the error being afterwards detected on collation. Whatever may be deemed the value of the foregoing suppositions, we shall scarcely be wrong in pronouncing Richard Canutus, parson of Leigh, to be, if not son, yet, kinsman of John Canutus, the patron. We perceive, likewise, that while the rectory, including of course the principal emoluments derived from the parish, was held by a member of the patron’s family, another individual (Alan) had been placed in the vicarage. See the Note on Penshurst.
28. Biddenen.—The church comprises chancel, nave, north and south aisles, south porch, and square west tower, with battlements and stair turret. There are E.E., Dec., Perp., and late Perp. portions. The font is octagon, with pointed arches, slightly sunk in the sides, on a stem of eight small columns, the latter recently renewed, badly. The pier and capital of the arch opening from the chancel to the south aisle are concave. Under the tower arch is part of a Dec. screen, probably from the chancel arch; here is also a perfectly plain oak lectern. There was formerly a door at the west end of the south aisle. Over the west door in the tower are three square Weald marble blocks, hollowed out, as if for niches, but resembling small boxes placed on end; two are mutilated, one is tolerably perfect. Standen, in this parish, a timber and plaster house, was erected in 1578, according to a date on the chimney-piece of the (present) kitchen. In the lintel over the front door is cut “Blessed are they that hear the word of God and keepeth it,” and another sentence in the parlour on the right of the entrance. From the size of the building, the existing portion is perhaps only part of the original. Several doors are original, ornamented, and the timber, generally, is extremely strong. The chimney-pieces are of Weald marble, (which abounds in that district), susceptible of a high polish. On the north side of the house is a very massive stack of chimnies, but plain.
29. Bilsington.—A Priory for Black Canons was founded here 31st of K. Henry III, A.D. 1253, by John Mansell, clerk. (Lambarde, Harris, Hasted.) John Mansell was provost of Beverley. The date of the foundation charter is, as above, 1253; but Matt. Paris says 1258. (Monast. VI, 492, 493.) Many vestiges were visible in the farm-house standing on the site of the priory in Hasted’s time, who conceived the house to have been the priory chapel. He mentions also four stalls in the parish church, two on each side of the western end of the chancel.
30. Birchington.−This is annexed, as a curacy, to Monkton. Effigies of man and woman; arms, Cryspe and Scott. Brasses: John Felde, 1404; John Quek and child, 1449; Rich. Quek, 1459; Alys, wife of John Cryspe, 1518; John Heynys, vicar (elevating the host), 1523; inscription and fifteen children of John Cryspe and wife Agnes, 1533; Margaret, wife of John Cryppys, 1533; man in a gown. (Hasted.) “Gorend is in this parish, and antiently had a church standing at the sea-side, but the decay of the Cliffe nere thereunto ruinated the same, and forced the inhabitants to build the church now standing, which was called All Saints. Antiently this parish was called sometimes Birchington in Gorend, and at other times Gorend in Birchington, but now they are all one, and most usually called Birchington.” (Kilburne.) Wood, or Wood Church, formerly a separate parish, is now attached to this.
31. Bircholt.−Under the hundred of this name, or which is clearly intended for this name, (D. B.) describes “a ville, which is called St. Martin, and belongs to Sturry, and is situated in the hundred itself: villain quae vocatur S. Martinus, et pertinct ad Estursete, et jacet in ipso hundredo.” If this means the spot now called Bircholt, which it seems necessary to suppose, the designation, “St. Martin,” is presumptive evidence of the existence of a church there at the period of the survey, though none is specified. However, while standing within the boundary of Bircholt hundred, the church might be that of the parish of Aldington, which is dedicated to St. Martin. See note (3) of the preface.—Bircholt church was in being A.D. 1518, but in 1578 the return made at the Visitation was, that no church was then standing (Hasted), (and but two dwellings in the parish; Harris), though part of the walls remained in Hasted's time. It was a rectory. The rector of Bircholt, glebe, tithes, and oblations are mentioned, though not the church, in (Val. Eccl.), compiled not very long before the church was declared to be then demolished. “Bircholt, R. (ch. in ruins)” still appears in the (Clergy List.)
32. Birling.—Brass: Water Mylys, 1522. This church was granted to the monks of Bermondsey in Surrey, temp. K. Henry II. (Reg. Roff.)
33. Blackmanstone.—This place is an instance of the reverse of the usual practice, namely, of a name derived from the proprietor of the place, it being expressly declared in (D. B.), that “Blacheman held it in the time of King Edward,” the Confessor. The church is stated to have been destroyed in 1530. However, the parson of Blackmanstone is mentioned in (Val. Eccl.), though the church itself is not named, consequently it is not stated to have been in ruins when that survey was taken, 26th of K. Henry VIII (A.D. 1535), as Hasted asserts. The name is still retained as a rectory, with a population of ten.
34. Bogelei.—This manor is pronounced by Hasted to be that which is now known as Bewley, in the parish of Boughton Malherb; and, the place being described with others unquestionably in that vicinity, I see no reason to doubt the correctness of Hasted’s opinion; though we shall then, apparently, have two Domesday churches in Boughton Malherb, beside a third, at Merlea, hereafter mentioned, in another part of this same manor of Bogelei. How far, and in what direction, the manor might extend I know not, but clearly it was of considerable size; and if we are unwilling to suppose the church to have stood near the mansion, wherever that might be, though no record nor vestige thereof should now remain, possibly it may have been the type of the church of some neighbouring parish, for Adam, the occupant under the proprietor, Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, held a wide tract of country here, comprising many contiguous parishes. The evidence of (Reg. Roff.) fully confirms the identification of Bogelei. It is there (116) stated, that temp. Archb. Anselm, Lanfranc's successor, Eudo the sewer, "dapifer," gave the tithe of "Buggele" and "Merile" to the church of Rochester; and elsewhere (410) "Buggeli" is said to be in the parish of "Boctune," i.e. Boughton. We also find the "cantaria de Burley" in Boughton Malherb mentioned in (Val. Eccl.); though a chantry in the parish church only may be thereby intended; and the result of my researches induces the conjecture, that in other instances, as well as possibly in this, a manorial chapel was, in process of time, removed to a neighbouring church, of course usually, if not always, that of the parish, and merged in a private chapel or chancel there. For which matter see the Note on Poynings, Sussex.
35. Borden.—Under the title of Borden (Val. Eccl.) contains the following entry: "Item, a chappell and xii acres of glebe land in the same parish, called Chesilheld." With the last name I am totally unacquainted, neither is any information respecting it to be obtained in the place. It is known that a property once existed in Borden under the above appellation, but the situation of it cannot be ascertained. At Button Barn or Baron (Sutton Bam, according to Hasted,) foundations of two Roman buildings and 35 Roman coins were discovered in the autumn of 1846; Roman bricks having been found there in 1695, by Dr. Plot, to whom the estate then belonged. See (Journal of Brit. Archæol. Association, No. 13, 68, 69.)
36. Boresfield.—This church has utterly vanished, and the parish is now incorporated in that of Otterden.
37. Boughton-under-the-Blean.—(A. D. 1291), "Ecclia de Bocton cum capella." Herne Hill was originally but a chapelry to this Boughton, and in the same record we have "vicarius Ecclie de Harnehelle ;" so that the first entry may, most probably, refer to one of the chapels named below, not to that of Herne Hill. Formerly there were two chapels here, one near the west end of Boughton-street (which is at some distance from the church, A. H.) dedicated to the Holy Trinity, mentioned in a will of 1489, which "was pulled down within memory to mend the road," and the site of which is that of the (old) poor-house. The other was in "South-street," where was a house called "Chapel House." An hospital for lepers was founded in this village, (by Tho. at Hurst; Harris,) 8th of K. Richard II (Hasted). A saltpan and a fishery of ten-pence here are spoken of: "Piscaria de x denariis; salina de xvi denariis." (D. B.)
38. Boughton Malherb.—Hasted considers the Boughton, held in the time of William I by Hugo, grandson of Herbert, to be Boughton Monchensy; and that another manor of the name, held under the archbishop, was Boughton Malherb. This opinion receives some countenance, I admit, from the statement (of Kilburne), that the manor of Boughton Malherb formerly belonged to the archbishop; but among four places in the county bearing the same appellation, it is not very difficult to mistake, and I think the testimony, to be gathered from (D. B.) is against Hasted's notion. Both Boughtons, Malherb and Monchensy, are in the same hundred, Eyhorne, and are so stated in (D. B.), where one is described as held of the archbishop (being part of the lands of his military retainers, "milites) no other property being mentioned in the same paragraph. The other was held of the bishop of Bayeux by Hugh. nephew of Herbert, who has possession likewise of Godeselle (which see below), in Great Chart to the south, Wichling, and East Selve in Lenham, to the north, of Boughton Malherb, then to Boughton Monchensy, which lies at a distance of several miles from either of the places above named. Of the latter benefice the dean and chapter of Rochester are patrons, but "the liberties of St. Austin and of the dean and chapter of Canterbury claim here," (Harris); which circumstance may perhaps serve, in some degree, to connect it with the see of Canterbury. Boughton Malherb, on the contrary, without being in the same jurisdiction, is in private patronage, and notwithstanding Kilburne's assertion, there seems to be evidence of the principal estates being in lay hands in early times (Harris's History); which would be the case if in 1086, the manor was among the private possessions of Bp. Odo. On the other hand, the Boughton held under the archbishop is stated to be included in Hollingbourne manor, which certainly applies best to Boughton Malherb.
There is a cross-legged effigy, in armour, with a female at the side, in Boughton Malherb church. This parish once contained
39. Bourne, Beke's.—In (A.D. 1291) called "Lyvingsburne;" in (Val. Eccl.) "Bekesborne, alias Lyvvyngesborne." The last appellation, no doubt (as remarked by Hasted), was derived from Levine, mentioned in (D. B.) as the Saxon proprietor under King Edward: "Leuine tenuit de rege Edwardo." The Saxon Chronicle (Gibson's, 172) notices the death of Leofwine, brother of Harold, at the battle of Hastings, which is also represented in the Bayeux tapestry, where the name is spelled " Lewine."
Thos. Goldstone, prior of Christ Church, about A.D. 1500, built a chapel at the manor house of this parish, which was consecrated by John Thornton, suffragan bishop of Dover, A.D. 1508. (Harris.) This was the second Thos. Goldstone, prior from 1495 to 1517. (See Willis's History of Canterbury Cathedral, 125.) This parish is a member of the Cinque Ports, (Kilburne.)
40. Bourne, Bishop's.—(A.D. 1291), "Ecclia de Bissopesburne cum capella." In (Val. Eccl.) Berham (Barham) is stated to be "thereunto annexed," and the benefices so continue at the present day. Barham therefore must be the chapel of (A.D. 1291), not being otherwise mentioned in that valuation.
41. Bourne, Little.—(D. B.) states, that the Bishop of Bayeux had a moiety of this manor in his park, having exchanged for it his own estate of Warwintone with the abbot of St. Augustin's, to whom Little Bourne belonged; we thus learn the locality of bishop Odo's park.
There was a chapel at the mansion of Garwinton (the "Warwintone" of D. B.) in this parish. (Hasted.) See also the Notes on Hardres and Ickham.
42. Bourne, North.—Named in (Val. Eccl.) together with the chapel of Shaldon (Sholdon). It has a cross church, with, apparently from Hasted's description, Norm, portions.
43. Bourne, Patricks.—In (Val. Eccl.) "Ecclia de Patryksborne cum capella de Bregge" (Bridge), which connection still subsists. The church of Patricksbourne is partly, at least, Norm., having a door with carving, "much like that at Barfreston" ("like the west door of Rochester Cathedral," Harris); another with figures over it, and other circular arches and windows. (Hasted.) In the 7th year of K. Edward I this church had been appropriated to Merton Priory, in Surrey. A priory here, belonging to that of Beaulieu, in Normandy, was suppressed 2d of K. Henry V (Harris) ; at which period the alien priories in this kingdom were generally abolished. Tanner says, that the manor was given about A.D. 1200 by John de Pratellis to his recently erected priory of Beaulieu. It was alienated to Merton Priory in the first year of K. Henry IV. (Monast. VI, 1012.)
44. Boxley.—Was given to Rochester Cathedral by K. Henry I. (Reg. Roff.)
The abbey here was founded A.D. 1146, and called "own daughter, filia propria," of Clareval; but in the Chronicles of Rochester it is stated to have been founded by Will, de Ipre, in 1144, for White Monks. (Lambarde). Dugdale (Monast. V, 460) says A.D. 1144 or 1146, by Will, de Ipre, Earl of Kent. The foundations only of the abbey church are now to be traced in the garden belonging to the residence styled Boxley Abbey. (Hist, of Maidstone College, 144.)—This parish comprises that part of Penenden Heath, on which stands the county hall, where the general county meetings are held, and where, till within a few years, executions took place; the building, however, is very small, little more than a shed. Lambarde says that the name Penenden, in Domesday Book "Pinnedene," is derived from "pinian," "to punish" thus implying the place of execution.
45. Brabourne.—United with Monk's Horton. Against the south wall of the chancel of this church is what, but for its height, which is about three feet from the ground, and the pattern cut into it, might be deemed a stone seat; and which yet might have been such, if (which is stated not to be the case) any traces existed that a step, on which the feet were intended to rest, had been chiselled off. The back is an arched canopy with much ornament between buttresses, and under the canopy is a large shield, of which the surface is plain, but it bears marks of having been painted. The upper slab, which is of Weald marble—similar to that known as Pufbeck or Petworth, except that in Kent it is usually perhaps more brown—has channeled on it in the centre a circle containing a cross, and, right and left, three sides of a parallelogram, which cavities may originally have contained brass. Date, the fourteenth century. This erection has been pronounced " a credence-table" (Archæol. Journal, III, 83); but the composition of it does not seem adapted to that object. As it is certainly too high for a seat, and its ornamentation is of a monumental character, it may not improbably, as has been suggested to me, have been constructed to contain or to cover the heart of some individual of importance, who was connected with the parish, and who may have died at a distance from the place.
Stone effigy (mutilated) of a knight. Brasses : Eliz. Poynings, 1510; Sir Wil. Scott, kn. 1546. The last is preserved, with other fragments, at the vicarage.
46. Brasted.—A church of chancel, north and south transepts, south aisle and porch, and square west tower. The building is sadly dilapidated, and has been vastly patched at various periods; but efforts are now making for its restoration. The tower, in particular, has received the addition of several buttresses, of which one, very massive, in the centre of the western face, forms a porch, with a ribbed roof, to the entrance on that side. The masonry is rubble. For the windows, &c., the stone found below chalk has been used, and it has decayed greatly. In the north wall of the nave a small Norm, window has recently been reopened. The north wall of the chancel contains an E.E. window, one or two others are Dec., the remainder Perp. and debased. The porch appears unusually long, because the width of the aisle has been reduced. The east window is under an E.E. arch; also at the side of it is a Dec. window within an earlier arch. An E.E. sedile, below a window, is four feet four inches wide. There is an ambry in the south-east angle of the chancel, and another opposite in the north wall. The church has no chancel arch. In the chancel pavement is a grave slab with a Longo-bardic inscription, the brasses, a bust and a cross fleurée, having disappeared. The entrance to the roodloft from the south transept remains perfect. The piers and arches between nave and aisle, with the tower arch, are E.E. There is some portion of a Dec. and some of a Perp. screen. The porch is Perp.
47. Bredgar.—This church comprises western tower, nave, north and south aisles, with a chancel to each, that to the nave extending much beyond the others, and a south porch. It is partly Dec. and partly Perp., with a Norm, doorway re-inserted under the tower. It contains a small brass of Tho. Coly, custos of the College of the Holy Trinity, Bredgar, 1508. In the wall, which is of flint, are a few fragments of bricks, apparently Roman. Kilburne states that the church was made collegiate about A.D. 1400. Dugdale says (Monast. VI, 1390) that the college, which he styles "small," was founded by certain persons in the sixteenth year of K. Richard II. There is a house near the church still called "the chantry house" as well as lands in the parish, known as "chantry lands," which are held under lease from the archbishop of Canterbury. In (Val. Eccl.) the chantry is asserted to pay twenty-two pence to the parish church for rent: but that document mentions two chantries.
48. Bredhurst. A very small church, though with more population than might have been expected, in a remote situation, among or on the border of the woods, which extend from near the tops of Debtling and Boxley hills to within a short distance of Chatham northwards, and almost to the Medway westward. On the south side of the chancel is a small chapel, of very good E. E. workmanship. It is separated from the church, and the door kept locked, but the windows are open to the birds and the weather. The windows appear not to have been intended to receive glass, but to have had shutters on the interior. Bred hurst is a curacy, in the gift of the rector of Hollingbourne. "Almost adjoining to the churchyard eastward there is a wood, where the inhabitants have a report there was once a village, called 'Bredhurst Town' Several wells are yet remaining in it." (Hasted.) Brass : William Norwood, in armour, and four sons. (Harris.)
49. Brenchley. There can be little, if any, doubt (see below, from Hasted), that here was one of the two churches described in (D. B.) as at "Hallinges" (Yalding), though it might stand at Bockinfield, not on the site of the present parish church. The free chapel of Bokenfeld is mentioned in (Val. Eccl.) as deriving its revenue partly from the benefice of Brenchley. (Reg. Roff.) notices, that a chapel was founded at Bockinfield, in Brenchley, without stating the date, except that it was in the time of Hamon de Crevecceur (K. Henry III), and that it was named 21st of K. Edward I, about A.D. 1293. Bokinfold was a large estate, in old records called in this parish, though nearly, if not quite, the whole of the existing manor of that name is considered to be in other parishes. The only house upon it is in Yalding. The chapel was desecrated at the general dissolution of religious houses. Richard de Clare gave Yalding Church, with this chapel, to his recently founded priory at Tonbridge. (Hasted.) With this statement compare that from (Reg. Roff.) in the Note on Yalding. That document seems to be Hasted's authority, but it will be perceived that he has not quoted it correctly; neither have I discovered in Reg. Roff. any mention of the desecration of Bokinfold chapel.—Brasses in Brenchley church: Tho. Roberts, three wives, and eleven children. (Reg. Roff.)
50. Brenzet.—This church consists of chancel, nave, north aisle, with a later and wider chancel, south porch, south aisle from the west end of the nave to the porch, and a spire-like bell turret over the west end of the nave. The building seems to be Tr. Norm., altered, probably when repaired, at an early period. The south aisle at the west end only must produce a curious and awkward effect. The porch entrance may be formed of stones from an arch of the destroyed portion of the south aisle. The north chancel has a trefoil-headed piscina. Of the windows some are E.E., some Dec. The nave roof extends over both aisles. All the chancel, but a small part at the south-west angle, has been rebuilt. The church was not entered.
51. Bridge. Annexed to Patricksbourne, of which it is styled a chapel in (Val. Eccl.)
52. Bromfield.—Was given by Rob. de Crevecœur to the priory of Leeds on his founding the same; "after which it appears to have been considered a chapel to Leeds." (Hasted.) Which accounts for it being omitted in (A.D. 1291.) It is described (in Val. Eccl.) as being served by authority of the above priory. It remains a perpetual curacy, attached to that of Leeds. The principal portion of Leeds Castle stands in this parish. (Kilburne.)
53. Bromley.—Is regarded "in the nature of a chapel," therefore is not in the King's Books. (Harris.) The body of this church has been rebuilt upon an enlarged scale, when the old tower was preserved. Of this (which stands at the west end, is square, with battlements and a stair turret) the lower portion looks older than the upper, which last, with the windows inserted, is Perp. The churchyard is entered by a lychgate.
54. Brooke.—Among the lands of the monks of the archbishop, that is, of Christ's Church, Canterbury, (D. B.) mentions a manor, retained by the archbishop himself, on which a church was then standing; but no other description is given, than that the manor was in the hundred of Wye. Hasted assigns reasons, with which I concur, for believing that place to be Brooke, where accordingly I have assigned the church. "Ibi æcclesia et unum molinum de ii solidis, et ii servi, et vii acræ prati, silva x porcorum.—There is a church, and a mill of two shillings, and two serfs, and seven acres of meadow, a wood of ten hogs." (D. B.)
55. Brookland.—The tower is detached from the church. "The font is of cast lead having on it two ranges of emblematical figures, twenty in each range." In the chancel are "a confessionary" (stone seat?) and a piscina. (Hasted.) Fora detailed description of the curious Norm, font, above mentioned, consult (Archæol. Journal, V, 159 &c.): see also the Note on Benenden above.
56. Buckland, near Dover.—Is regarded as a chapel, therefore not named in the King's Books. (Harris.) An hospital for lepers was commenced here about 1141, but every trace has now disappeared. (Hasted).
57. Buckland, near Faversham.—"The steeple, which was a spire, was standing in 1719. The north and south walls of the church are now standing, and the west end, where was formerly the steeple, in which was one bell. The east end is quite down, and the whole roof of the church fallen in, and the inside a heap of rubbish." (Hasted).
- This is Hasted's translation of "nepos," which is erroneous, because Herbert is in the account of Dover styled the "avunculus" (uncle) of Hugo.