was made a Censor. But finding himself in opposition to the powerful Wang An-shih, he thought it desirable to apply for a provincial appointment, and served in Shensi and (in 1075) in Honan. Soon afterwards he retired to Lo-yang, and devoted himself to study and teaching until his death. He was the author of the (Chinese characters) and was tutor to the great Chu Hsi. Posthumously ennobled as Earl, he was canonised as (Chinese characters), and in 1241 admitted to the Confucian Temple.
Ch'êng Hsiang (Chinese characters) (T. (Chinese characters)). A.D. 1006-1090. A279 native of Lo-yang in Honan, and father of the (Chinese characters) Two Ch'êngs — Ch'êng Hao and Ch'êng I. The descendant of officials, he himself held office as Magistrate in Kiangsi, Kuangsi, and Kiangsu; but his unflinching opposition to the innovations of Wang An-shih brought him into trouble, and he retired into private life. In 1530 his tablet was admitted to the Temple of Confucius.
Ch'êng I (Chinese characters) (T. (Chinese characters). H. (Chinese characters)). A.D. 1033-1107.280 The second and more famous of the two sons of Ch'êng Hsiang (see Ch'êng Hao). Born at Lo-yang in Honan, he studied as a youth under Chou Lien-ch'i, and graduated as chin shih in 1057. Declining to take office, he remained at home engaged upon his great commentary upon the Canon of Changes, afterwards published under the title of (Chinese characters). But in 1086, just after his brother's death, the influence of Seǔ-ma Kuang caused him to be made tutor to the young Emperor Chê Tsung, who was then mounting the throne. He made many enemies at Court; among others, the poet Su Tung-p'o. In 1097 he was sent to a post in Ssǔch'uan, from which he was recalled in 1101, to be re-instated in the Imperial Academy. In 1103 he was again in trouble, and this time retired finally into private life, devoting himself to his booksuntil overtaken by his last sickness. He was canonised as (Chinese characters),