418 Chou Kung (Duke of Chou). Died B.C. 1105. The title ander which ^ Tan, fourth son of Wdn Wang and younger brother to Wu Wang, is generally known in history, though sometimes spoken of as j||^ ^ Duke of Chi. ki the death of his father he was left counsellor and assistant to his elder brother, and by his wise advice aided materially in establishing the dynasty of Chou. He drew up a legal code, purified the morals of the people, and devoted himself wholly to the welfare of the State. He was so energetic that he could hardly take a bath without rushing forth several times in the middle of it, holding his long wet hair in his hand, to consult with some ofiGicial on matters of public importance. Several times during every meal he would put the food out of his mouth for the same purpose. He is said to have had a wrist like a swivel, on which his hand could turn completely round. Tradition also assigns to him the invention of a wonderful '^south-pointing chariot,'* which he devised in order to assist some tribute-bearing envoys from Tongking back to their own country; and on the strength of this, the discovery of the marioer's compass has been loosely credited to the Chinese. Ennobled as Prince of Lu.
419 Chou Liang-kung (T. 7C 4^- H. ;^|1). A.D. 1612—1672. A celebrated public servant and scholar under the reign of the Emperor E'ang Hsi. Author of ^ /Jn gQ Notes on the Province of Fuhkien , and of f[J ^ "^ Biographies of Seal- engravers.
420 Chou Pi-ta (T. ^^ ^. H. -f- %). A.D, 1126- 1204. A native of Lu-ling in Eiangsi, who graduated while still a mere boy, and soon attracted the notice of the Emperor Eao Tsung. He held high oflSce under the Emperor Hsiao Tsung, but is chiefly renowned for his writings and erudition. Author of theBE ^ 7^ ^E) memoranda of his official experience, dwelling at