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A Chinese Biographical Dictionary 193

to the monastery. Shortly afterwards, Koo Tzu-hsing at the head of a large force attacked and took ? Hao-chou and burnt the monastery. The priests all fled for their lives, and with them Chu; but the latter soon returned to the city with a View of offering his services to Kuo Tzfi-hsiug. As a Mongol army was close at hand, he was at first taken for a spy and nearly lost his life. He managed however to obtain an interview with Kuo Tzn-hsing, and so impressed the Generalissimo, as he styled himself, with his military bearing, that his offer was readily accepted. He did good work under Kuo Tzu-hsing, winning victories wherever he fought; and when Kuo died in 1355, and Han Lin-érh was set up at Hao- chou, he was appointed Assistant Generalissimo. Declining the post, he crossed the Yang-tsze; and after recovering all the left bank of the river, proclaimed himself Prince of Wu in 1364. Within the next two years he became master of Kiangsi and parts of Chehkiang. In 1367 he sent his generals northwards, and in 1368 he mounted the throne as first Emperor of the Great Ming dynasty, with the year title £13 Hung VVu, by which he is commonly known to foreigners. In the same year he conquered Fuhkien, Kuangtung, Kuangsi, and Shansi; and in 1369 Shensi was reduced. In 1370 the Mongol Emperor Shun Ti died at Karakorum, and all hopes of a re-establishment of the Mongol power were at an end, though Mongol invasions continued periodically throughout the reign. In 1371 Ssuclfuan and Liao- tung were added to his dominions, and Yünnan in 1381. Meanwhile the new Emperor, in addition to his military genius, showed almost equal skill in the administration of the empire and also became a liberal patron of literature and education. He organised the present system of examinations; restored the dress of the T‘ang dynasty; published a Penal Code; abolished such punishments as mutilation; drew up a kind of Domesday Book