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sent as acting Military Governor to Shingking, replacing his brother who had died that year. In 1878 he proceeded as Ambassador to St. Petersbnrg, and negotiated the Treaty of Livadia, by which a large portion of Hi was ceded to Russia. In 1880 he was denounced by Li Hung-chang and Tso Tsnng- t*ang| nominally for returning without leave; and also by the then Censor Chang Chih-tung for having exceeded his powers. He was cashiered and arrested ^ and finally sentenced to death. For some time it was feared that he would lose his head. The foreign Ministers did all in their power to effect his release, but in vain. At length Queen Victoria interposed on his behalf; and in response to her letter he was pardoned, upon which he retired into private life. He died in 1893, of creeping paralysis; and in 1894 his rank was restored, less two grades. He was extremely courteous to foreigners, and was much liked by all foreign officials with whom he was thrown into contact.
525 Ch'ung Li . The God of Fire (see Chu Jung). Also explained as two separate personages, ruling over the elements wood and fire, and entrusted with the administration of heaven and earth, respectively.
Ch'ung Ti. See Liu Ping.
Confucius. See K'ung Ch'iu.
Fa Hsien . 4th and 5th cent. A.D. A native of Wn- yang in Shansi, who became a novice in the Buddhist priesthood at the age of three, exchanging his family name of J|[ Eung for the religious designation above. On reaching manhood he was ordained, and proceeded to Ch'ang-an to make a thorough study of the Buddhist religion. Finding that there was a lack ofmaterial for this purpose, and full of seal and faith, he set oat