Page:A Compendium of Irish Biography.djvu/127

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excellence of his heart, and the strength of his understanding. Obliged on account of the weakness of his voice to abandon the intention of becoming a Presbyterian clergyman, he turned his attention to law, and finally adopted medicine, qualifying himself at Glasgow and Edinburgh Universities. In 1779 he went to London and published the first edition of the work by which he gained so much celebrity. He settled in the metropolis, was elected a member of the Royal Society, and was, amongst other appointments, made Physician to St. Thomas's Hospital. In 1788 he published a corrected and improved edition of his work, entitled Experiments and Observations on Animal Heat, and the Inflammation of Combustible Bodies, being an attempt to resolve these Phenomena into a General Law of Nature. His reputation as a philosopher was now established, and procured him the notice of the most distinguished men of science in the kingdom. He was also rising into great eminence as a medical practitioner, when incessant application to study and to philosophical pursuits undermined a constitution naturally weak, and he died at Lymington, 29th July 1795, aged about 47. Several references to the value of his researches regarding animal heat will be found scattered through the pages of the Encyclopædia Britannica, 8th Edition. 124

Creagh, Richard, Archbishop of Armagh, was born in Limerick about 1525. Having an earnest desire to enter the Church, he early abandoned the business to which he was apprenticed, crossed over to Belgium, and entered on a course of theology at Louvain. After being ordained, he returned to Limerick about 1555; burning with zeal to spread religion. His success in the instruction of youth, and his high reputation for learning, attracted the attention of the Nuncio, David Wolfe, who arrived in Limerick in August 1560, specially charged with the duty of providing for the vacant sees. The Nuncio commanded him to proceed to Rome, where he arrived in January 1563, and on St. Patrick's Day 1564, he was consecrated Archbishop of Armagh by Pius IV. In July he set out homewards, but was wrecked on the French coast, and did not reach his diocese until far on in the winter. In the act of celebrating mass, he was arrested by agents of the Government, sent to London, and committed to the Tower. After a confinement of several months, he managed to escape to Belgium, whence he proceeded to Spain, returning to his diocese in August 1566. Shane O'Neill was then in the height of his power, and the Archbishop preached before him and Hugh O'Donnell in the Cathedral at Armagh. He was again taken prisoner in Connaught, whither he had retired, and although, upon trial in Dublin, acquitted of any crime, he was retained in prison. Once more he escaped; but a considerable reward having been offered for his apprehension, he was retaken by the retainers of Gerald, Earl of Kildare. In 1567 he was sent over to London, and committed to the Tower, where after an imprisonment of eighteen years, borne with fortitude and resignation, he died in 1585. He wrote two works in Latin, one on the Origin of the Irish Language, the other, Controversies of Faith, besides a Catechism in Irish. 74

Creagh, Peter, Archbishop of Dublin, grand-nephew of preceding, was born in Limerick the middle of the 17th century, and was educated on the Continent; he entered the priesthood, and officiated for some time in Dublin. Appointed clerical agent at the court of Rome, he was by Clement X. consecrated Bishop of Cork. For two years, during the persecution consequent on the Gates plot, he was obliged to secrete himself in different parts of his diocese under various disguises, suffering untold hardships. He was ultimately betrayed, and imprisoned for two years in Limerick and Dublin. About 1686, he was translated to the Archdiocese of Tuam. He joined James II. in France after the surrender of Limerick. In 1693 he was appointed Archbishop of Dublin, but was never able to discharge the duties of the office in person. The latter part of his life was spent at Strasbourg, where he died in July 1705. 12 74

Croghan, George, Colonel, was born in Ireland, probably early in the 18th century. He emigrated to Pennsylvania, where in 1746 he entered upon a course of Indian trading—learning the languages of the tribes and gaining their confidence. He was a captain in Braddock's expedition of 1755, was employed in the defence of the western frontier next year, and was made agent for the Pennsylvanian and Ohio Indians. In 1763 he went to Great Britain to confer with the Ministry relative to an Indian boundary-line. In 1765, while on his way to pacify the Illinois Indians, he was attacked, wounded, and taken prisoner, being, however, soon released, and then permitted to accomplish his mission. In May 1766 he made a settlement four miles above Fort Pitt, continuing to render valuable service in pacifying the Indians, and reconciling them to British power. During the early

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