and Hungary in 1848, he took no very active part in the field. In 1 849 he was pre- sented with the baton of a Field-Marshal, and honours of all kinds were showered upon him. He was present with his old companion Eadetsky in Italy during the war with Sardinia, and accompanied the Emperor of Austria in his unfortunate cam- paign against the French and Italians in 1859. Field-Marshal Nugent married the Duchess of Eiario Sforza, a descendant of Augustus III., King of Poland. He died on his estate in Croatia in August 1862, aged 84. ^ S4
Nugent, Thomas, LL.D., born in Ire- land probably early in the i8th century, was the author and translator of numerous works. Amongst the former may be men- tioned, The Grand Tour, 4 vols., 1756; History of Vandalia, 3 vols., i766-'73 •, Pocket Dictionary of French and English, 1767 (of which many editions have been published, still commanding a large sale) ; Travels in Oermany, 2 vols., 1 768. Perhaps the most important of his translations were Montesquieu's Spirit of Laws, and a Life of Benvenuto Cellini. In 1765 the degree of LL.D. was conferred upon him by the University of Aberdeen. He died in Gray's Inn lane, London, 27th April 1772. '* 349
O'Beime, Thomas Lewis, Bishop of Heath, was born in the County of Long- ford in 1747. He was intended for the Catholic priesthood, and was sent with his brother to St. Omer's ; but eventually joined the Established Church. Much of his success in life has been attributed to a chance meeting with Charles Fox and the Duke of Portland at an inn in England. He was appointed chaplain in the British fleet under Lord Howe ; and whilst in this service published a pamphlet in defence of his patron, the Admiral. In 1 782 he ac- companied the Duke of Portland, Lord- Lieutenant, to Ireland as his private secre- tary. He was in 1 79 1 collated to the rectory of Templemichael and vicarage of MohiU, in the diocese of Ardagh, where his brother was at the same time a parish priest. In 1795 he became chaplain to Lord Fitzwil- liam, who obtained for him the bishopric of Ossory, whence, in 1798, he was trans- lated to Meath. In his place in the Irish House of Lords he objected to the recall of Lord Fitzwilliam, and was one of those peers who voted against the Union and signed the Lords' Protest. As a preacher he was highly esteemed. " He was occa- sionally sublime, frequently pathetic, and always intelligible to his auditors. . . His person was of the middle size and
slight ; his face was thin and expressive." * Cotton gives a list of his niimerous ser- mons, charges, and pamphlets. He died at Ardbraccan, 17th February 1823, aged yS, and was there buried. During his episcopate fifty-seven churches and seventy- two glebe houses were built in his diocese.
6 iiS 154 265
O'Brien, Donongh, King of Munster, son of Brian Borumha, was away plunder- ing during the battle of Clontarf (23rd April 1014), but returning immediately afterwards, although the youngest surviving son of Brian, he assumed command of the Dalcassians, and prepared to return to Tho- mond. At Mullaghmaat Donough and his brother Teige were opposed by his relative Cian, one of the chiefs of the Eugenian line, who demanded that Donough should resign the crown. The difference was adjusted through the intervention of Donald, Chief of the O'Donoghues. The Dalcassians had not proceeded much farther on their way home, when they were attacked by FitzPatrick, Chief of Upper Ossory, who thought the death of Brian a favourable opportunity to renounce his dependency on Munster, and to demand hostages. According to legend this treachery so enraged Donough's army that even the wounded demanded to be tied to stakes interspersed amongst their comrades, to assist in opposing FitzPatrick's onset. This bold front so intimidated the men of Ossory that they refused to attack, and confined their hostilities to cutting off a few stragglers. Donough had scarcely settled at home when he was obliged to repel the incursions of the neighbouring chiefs. In 1016 Kincora and Killaloe were demolished by the men of Connaught. Some years later Donough and Teige fought between themselves ; the foi-mer was de- feated, and shortly afterwards, in 1023, procured the assassination of Teige. After Malachy's death, the same year, Donough advanced pretensions to the supreme power in Ireland, and the country was devastated by apparently aimless wars, in which Donough and his nephew Turlough, son of Teige, figured on opposite sides. Eventually Donough was defeated, and, according to the annals of Clanmacnoise, retired to Rome, where he died in 1064. -^^
O'Brien, Tnrlongh, King of Munster, nephew of preceding, was born about 1009, and upon the defeat of his uncle, Donough, assumed the sovereignty. In 1067 he and his allies marched against Connaught, but were caught in an ambush and defeated. Next year saw Turlough without a com- petitor, his cousin Murrough having been killed in a predatory excursion into Teffia.