AUSWAHL VORZÜGLICHER MUSIKWERKE, a collection of ancient and modern music in strict style, published with the countenance of the 'Königliche Akademie der Künste' of Berlin in 1840 (8vo. Trautwein). It contains:—
1. Fugue. 'Tu Bex.' Grann.
2. Do. 'Meine Zonge.' Fasch.
3. Do. from 4tett, F min. J. Haydn.
4. Do. 'Halleluja.' Handel.
5. Do. ' Di l'alimenta.' Naumann.
6. Do. for Org., G minor. Fr. Bach.
7. Fugue, 'Auf, dass wir.' C. P. E. Bach.
8. Do.'Lobet selnen Namen.' Fesca.
9. Do. for Piano, B♭. Kirnberger.
10. Canon, Kyrie. Fux.
11. Fig. Choral. Ich lame. J. B. [J. C.] Bach.
12. Fugue for Piano in F. Clementi.
13. Do. Gott ist offenbaret. Keiser.
14. Kyrie. Lotti.
15. Fugue for Piano. D m. Marpurg.
16. Do. 2 Choirs, 'Durch denselbigen.' J. C. Bach.
17. Christe. Graun.
18. Fugue for Piano, A min. Telemann.
19. Do. 'Christe.' Hasse.
20. Do. 'Quam ollm.' M. Haydn.
21. Do. for Piano in C. Mozart.
22. Motet, 'Was betrübst.' H. Schütz.
23. Fig. Choral, 'Ewiger Lob.'Zelter.
24. Fugue for Org. in C. Pachelbel.
25. Kyrie. F. Schneider.
26. Fugue. 'Lasst uns.' Spohr.
27. Do. for 4tett in C. Kelz.
28. Motet (a 6) 'Tu es Petrus.' Palestrina.
29. Canon, 'Sanctus' and 'Hosanna.' Horsley.
30. Fugue for Organ, in B♭. Pasterwitz.
31. Benedictus, etc. Salieri.
32. Fugue, 'Tu ad dexteram.' Rungenhagen.
33. Do. for Org., B♭. Albrechtsberger.
34. Motet, 'Hilf Herr.' Homilius.
35. Fugue. 'Tune imponent.' Jomelli.
36. Do. for 4tett, A min. Gassmann.
37. Do. 'Mai non turbarsi.' Marcello.
38. 'Ave Maria.' Klein.
39. Fugue, for 4tett In 0. Henning.
40. Do. 'Timentibus.' Vierling.
41. Do. 'Et in saecula.' Caldara.
42. Do. for Organ (4 subj.). Frescobaldi.
43. 'Eja mater.' Astorga.
44. Fughetta, 'Cum Sancto.' Reissiger.
45. Introd. and Fugue for Org. M. G. Fischer.
46. Motet, 'O d'immenso.' J. A. Perti.
47. Fugue. 'Halleluja.' G. Harrer.
48. Do. for Piano, in F. N. Le Begue.
Some copies have an Appendix:
Aria, 'Ingemesco.' Durante.
Do. Agnus. J. S. Bach.
Duet, 'Occhi perché.' Steffani.
'Salve Regina.' Pergolesi.
'O my Irene' (Theodora). Handel.
Chorus and Air (Israeliten). C. P. E. Bach.
Duet and Chorus (Morgengesang) Belchardt.
Solo and Chorus (Do.) Do.
Aria, 'Pieta Signore.' Hasse.
Scena (Davidde pen.). Naumann.
Trio, 'Dominus. Leo.
'Gratias' and 'Deus Pater.' F. Feo.
AUTHENTIC. Such of the ecclesiastical modes are called authentic as have their sounds comprised within an octave from the final. They are as follow, in order of the Gregorian system:—
|1||Dorian||D to D||D||A|
|3||Phrygian||E to E||E||C|
|5||Lydian||F to F||F||C|
|7||Mixolydian||G to G||G||D|
|9||Æolian||A to A||A||E|
|11||Ionian or Instian||C to C||C||G|
A mode, or tone, or scale, must be made up of the union of a perfect fifth (diapente) and a perfect fourth (diatessaron). In the authentic modes the fifth is below, and the fourth above. Thus in mode 1 from D to A is a perfect fifth, and from A to the upper D, or final, a perfect fourth. In mode 9, from A to E is a perfect fifth, and from E to the upper A, or final, a perfect fourth, and so on.
In all these the fifths and fourths are perfect; but no scale or mode could be made upon B in conformity with this theory, for from B to F is an imperfect fifth and from F to the upper B is a tritone or pluperfect fourth, both which intervals are forbidden in the ancient ecclesiastical melody. This may serve also to explain the irregularity of the dominant of the third mode. In all the other authentic modes the fifth note of the scale is the dominant; but in the third mode, the fifth being B, and consequently bearing forbidden relations with F the fourth below it and F the fifth above it, B was not used, but C the sixth was substituted for it as the dominant. It is to be borne in mind that melodic and not harmonic considerations lay at the foundation of all these rules, and that the 'dominant' then meant the prevailing or predominant sound in the melody of the tone or scale. The prefix hyper (or over) is often added to the name of any authentic mode in the sense of upper, to distinguish it from the corresponding plagal mode, to which the word hypo (under or lower) was prefixed. Thus while the authentic Dorian or hyperdorian scale ran from D to D, its plagal, the hypodorian, began on the A below and ran to its octave, the dominant of the authentic scale. 'Ein feste Burg' and 'Eisenach' are examples of 'authentic' melodies, and the Old 100th and Hanover of 'plagal' ones. [Gregorian Tones.]The meaning of the term 'authentic' is variously stated. It is derived from the Greek verb αυθεντέω, to rule, to assume authority over, as if the authentic modes ruled and had the superiority over their respective plagal modes. They are also called authentic as being the true modes promulgated by the authority of St. Ambrose; or as authentically derived from the ancient Greek system; or as being formed (as above stated) of the perfect diapente (or fifth) in the lower, and of the perfect diatessaron (or fourth) in the upper part of their scales, which is the harmonic division, and more musically authoritative than the arithmetical division which has the fourth below and the fifth above.
[ T. H. ]
[ F. G. ]
AVERY, John. A celebrated organ-builder, who built a number of instruments, ranging between 1775 and 1808. Nothing whatever is known of his life: he died in 1808, while engaged in finishing the organ of Carlisle Cathedral. The organs he is recorded to have built, are—St. Stephen's, Coleman-street, 1775; Croydon Church, Surrey, 1794 (destroyed by fire in 1866); Winchester Cathedral, 1799; Christ Church, Bath, 1800; St. Margaret's Church, Westminster, 1804; King's College Chapel, Cambridge, 1804 (some of the earlier work of Dallam's organ was, no doubt, incorporated in this instrument, but the case is the original one, erected by Chapman