characteristic in all these is the alternation of a strong and a light beat in the movement of 6-8 time—Chopin s alone being in 12-8—with a triplet figure pervading the entire composition, the object being perhaps to convey the idea of the rise and fall of the boat, or the regular monotonous strokes of the oars. The autograph of Bennett's barcarole is actually marked 'In rowing time.' The tempo of the barcaroles quoted above differs somewhat, but is mostly of a tranquil kind. The 'Gondoletta' entitled 'La Biondina,' harmonised by Beethoven, and given in his '12 verschiedene Volkslieder' (Nottebohm's Catalogue, p. 176), though of the same character as the boatmen's songs, is by Pistrucci, an Italian composer.
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BARDELLA, Antonio Naldi, called 'Il Bardello,' chamber-musician to the Duke of Tuscany at the end of the 16th and beginning of the 17th centuries, and, according to Arteaga, inventor of the Theorbo. Caccini states that he was an admirable performer on that instrument.BARDI, Giovanni, Count of Vernio, a Florentine noble, lived in the end of the 16th century, an accomplished scholar and mathematician, member of the academy Della Crusca, and of the Alterati in Florence, maestro di camera to Pope Clement VIII. Doni attributes to him the first idea of the opera, and it is certain that the first performances of the kind were held in his house by his celebrated band of friends, Vicenzo Galilei, Caccini, Strozzi, Corsi, Peri, and Rinuccini, and that he himself composed the words for more than one such piece, e.g. 'L'amico fido,' and 'Il combattimento d'Apollino col serpente.'
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BARGAGLIA, Scipione, a Neapolitan composer and contrapuntist, mentioned by Cerreto, lived in the second half of the 16th century. According to Burney the word 'Concerto' occurs for the first time in his work 'Trattenimenti … da suonare' (Venice, 1587).
BARGIEL, Woldemar, son of a teacher of music at Berlin, and step-brother of Mme. Clara Wieck-Schumann (his mother being the divorced wife of Friedrich Wieck), was born at Berlin, Oct. 3, 1828. He was made to play the piano, the violin, and organ at home, and was instructed in counterpoint by Dehn. As a youth of 18, and in accordance with the advice of his brother-in-law, Robert Schumann, he spent two years at the Conservatorium of Leipzig, which was then (1846) under Mendelssohn's supervision: and, before leaving it, he attracted general attention by an octet for strings, which was performed at one of the public examinations.
After his return to Berlin, in 1850, he commenced work as a teacher, and increased his reputation as a composer by the publication of various orchestral and chamber works, as well a pianoforte pieces. In 1859 he was called to a professorship at the Conservatorium of Cologne, which, in 1865, he exchanged for the post of Capellmeister, and director of the school of music at Rotterdam. Latterly (1874), he has found a field still more fit for his powers, at the Königliche Hochschule für Musik, which is now flourishing under the leadership of Joachim, at Berlin.As a composer, Bargiel must be ranked among the foremost disciples of Schumann. He makes up for a certain lack of freshness and spontaneity in his themes by most carefully elaborated treatment. Besides his pianoforte pieces, op. 1–5, and his trios for pianoforte and strings, two overtures for full orchestra, 'Zu einem Trauerspiel,' and 'Medea,' and the 23rd Psalm for female voices should be particularly mentioned.
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