characteristic in all these is the alternation of a strong and a light beat in the movement of 6-8 time—Chopin s alone being in 12-8—with a triplet figure pervading the entire composition, the object being perhaps to convey the idea of the rise and fall of the boat, or the regular monotonous strokes of the oars. The autograph of Bennett's barcarole is actually marked 'In rowing time.' The tempo of the barcaroles quoted above differs somewhat, but is mostly of a tranquil kind. The 'Gondoletta' entitled 'La Biondina,' harmonised by Beethoven, and given in his '12 verschiedene Volkslieder' (Nottebohm's Catalogue, p. 176), though of the same character as the boatmen's songs, is by Pistrucci, an Italian composer.
[ W. H. C. ]
BARCROFTE, Thomas, said to have been organist of Ely Cathedral circ. 1535. Nothing is known of his biography. A Te Deum and Benedictus (in F), and two anthems, are ascribed to him in Tudway's MS. Collection. The former are dated 1532, a date much too early for an English setting of these hymns. It seems much more probable that the author of these compositions was George Barcrofte, A.B., vicar-choral and organist of Ely Cathedral in 1579. The latter died in 1609. The service above mentioned, and one of the anthems, 'Almighty God,' were printed by the Motett Society.
[ E. F. R. ]
BARDELLA, Antonio Naldi, called 'Il Bardello,' chamber-musician to the Duke of Tuscany at the end of the 16th and beginning of the 17th centuries, and, according to Arteaga, inventor of the Theorbo. Caccini states that he was an admirable performer on that instrument.
BARDI, Giovanni, Count of Vernio, a Florentine noble, lived in the end of the 16th century, an accomplished scholar and mathematician, member of the academy Della Crusca, and of the Alterati in Florence, maestro di camera to Pope Clement VIII. Doni attributes to him the first idea of the opera, and it is certain that the first performances of the kind were held in his house by his celebrated band of friends, Vicenzo Galilei, Caccini, Strozzi, Corsi, Peri, and Rinuccini, and that he himself composed the words for more than one such piece, e.g. 'L'amico fido,' and 'Il combattimento d'Apollino col serpente.'
[ M. C. C. ]
BARGAGLIA, Scipione, a Neapolitan composer and contrapuntist, mentioned by Cerreto, lived in the second half of the 16th century. According to Burney the word 'Concerto' occurs for the first time in his work 'Trattenimenti … da suonare' (Venice, 1587).
BARGIEL, Woldemar, son of a teacher of music at Berlin, and step-brother of Mme. Clara Wieck-Schumann (his mother being the divorced wife of Friedrich Wieck), was born at Berlin, Oct. 3, 1828. He was made to play the piano, the violin, and organ at home, and was instructed in counterpoint by Dehn. As a youth of 18, and in accordance with the advice of his brother-in-law, Robert Schumann, he spent two years at the Conservatorium of Leipzig, which was then (1846) under Mendelssohn's supervision: and, before leaving it, he attracted general attention by an octet for strings, which was performed at one of the public examinations.
After his return to Berlin, in 1850, he commenced work as a teacher, and increased his reputation as a composer by the publication of various orchestral and chamber works, as well a pianoforte pieces. In 1859 he was called to a professorship at the Conservatorium of Cologne, which, in 1865, he exchanged for the post of Capellmeister, and director of the school of music at Rotterdam. Latterly (1874), he has found a field still more fit for his powers, at the Königliche Hochschule für Musik, which is now flourishing under the leadership of Joachim, at Berlin.
As a composer, Bargiel must be ranked among the foremost disciples of Schumann. He makes up for a certain lack of freshness and spontaneity in his themes by most carefully elaborated treatment. Besides his pianoforte pieces, op. 1–5, and his trios for pianoforte and strings, two overtures for full orchestra, 'Zu einem Trauerspiel,' and 'Medea,' and the 23rd Psalm for female voices should be particularly mentioned.
[ E. D. ]
[App. p.530 adds that "he is at the head of one of the three 'Meisterschulen für musikalische Composition' connected with the Academy of Arts. To the list of his important works should be added:—Overture to Prometheus, op. 16; Symphony in C, op. 30; 13th Psalm, for chorus and orchestra, op. 25; and for pianoforte the Suites, op. 7 and 13, and a Sonata, op. 34."]
[ M. ]
BARITONE, the name usually applied to the smaller bass saxhorn in B♭ or C. It stands in the same key as the euphonium, but the bore being on a considerably less scale, and the mouthpiece smaller, it gives higher notes and a less volume of tone. It is almost exclusively used in reed and brass bands, to the latter of which it is able to furnish a certain variety of quality.
[ W. H. S. ]
BARKER, Charles Spackman, was born at Bath Oct. 10, 1806. Left an orphan at five years old, he was brought up by his godfather, who gave him such an education as would fit him for the medical profession. But Barker, accidentally witnessing the operations of an eminent London organ-builder, who was erecting an organ in his neighbourhood, determined on following that occupation, and placed himself under the builder for instruction in the art. Two years afterwards he returned to Bath and established himself as an organ-builder there. About 1832 the newly-built large organ in York Minster attracted general attention, and Barker, impressed by the immense labour occasioned to the player by the extreme hardness of touch of the keys, turned his thoughts towards devising some means of overcoming the resistance offered by the keys to the fingers. The result was the invention of the pneumatic lever, by which ingenious contrivance the pressure of the wind which occasioned the resistance to the touch was skilfully applied to lessen it. Barker offered his invention to several English organ-builders, but finding them indisposed to adopt it, he went to Paris, where he arrived about the time that Cavaillé-Col was building a large organ for the church of St. Denis. To that eminent builder he addressed himself, and Cavaillé, seeing the importance of the invention, immediately adopted it. Barker afterwards took the direction of the business of Daublaine