of the revolution in 1830, and has now become the national air of Belgium.
[ M. C. C. ]
CAMPIOLI, Antonio Gualandi, detto, born in Germany, of Italian parents. He learnt to sing in Italy and returned to Germany, where his lovely contralto voice created a great sensation. He appeared first at Berlin in 1708. In 1720 he was engaged at Wolfenbüttel. Six years later he visited Hamburg; and, after travelling in Germany and Holland, returned to Dresden, where he sang in Hasse's 'Cleofida' in 1731. At the end of that year he appeared in London in Handel's 'Poro.' On Feb. 19, 1732, he sang in the new opera 'Sosarme,' and in revivals of 'Flavio' and 'Acis,' all by the same master. He passed the remainder of his life in Italy.
[ J. M. ]
CAMPION or CAMPIAN, Thomas, M.D., a physician by profession, was a poet, dramatist, composer, and writer on music in the earlier part of the 17th century. [App. p.576 adds that "he published his 'Poemata' in 1595."] In 1602 he published 'Observations on the Art of English Poesie,' and in 1607 wrote and invented a masque performed at Whitehall on Twelfth Night in honour of the marriage of Lord Hayes [App. p.576 "Hay"] with the daughter of Lord Denny, for two of the songs in which he also furnished the music. In 1610 he produced 'Two Bookes of Ayres [App. p.576 says "the date of publication of the first two books is probably 1613, as the second contains a song apparently lamenting the death of Prince Henry"]. The First contayning Divine and Morall Songs: The Second Light Conceits of Lovers. To be sung to the Lute and Viols, in two, three and foure Parts; or by one Voyce to an Instrument.' This was followed, in 1612 [App. p.576 says "Books 3 and 4 should probably be dated 1617, as they are dedicated to Sir Thomas Monson, who was implicated in the murder of Sir Thomas Overbury, and pardoned Feb. 22, 1617. Campion alludes to 'the clouds that lately overcast' Monson's 'fortune being disperst.' The lines to his patron's son, John Monson, also show that the publication must have been about this year."], by 'The Third and Fourth Booke of Ayres. Composed by Thomas Campian so as they may be expressed by one Voyce with a Violl, Lute or Opharion,' the words as well as the music being of his production. In 1613 he wrote 'Songs of Mourning bewailing the untimely death of Prince Henry,' which were set to music by John Coprario; and also devised and wrote the entertainment given by Lord Knowles at Cawsome [Caversham] House, near Reading, to Queen Anne in her progress towards the Bath on April 27 and 28; the Masque presented in the Banqueting House at Whitehall on St. Stephen's night, 1613, on the marriage of the Earl of Somerset and Lady Frances Howard; the Masque of Flowers presented by the gentlemen of Gray's Inn in the same place on Twelfth Night, 1613, in honour of the same marriage; and the Lords' Masque presented in the Banqueting House on the marriage of Frederick, the Elector Palatine, with the Princess Elizabeth on Feb. 13, 1613, for one song in which he also composed the music. Some lines by Campion are prefixed to Alfonso Ferrabosco's Ayres, 1609, and others to Ravenscroft's 'Briefe Discourse of the true (but neglected) use of Charact'ring the Degrees by their Perfection, Imperfection, and Diminution in Measurable Musicke,' 1614. Campion's treatise, 'A New Way of making Fowre parts in Counter-point, by a most familiar and infallible Rule,' was first published without date, but probably about 1618; the second edition, with annotations by Christopher Sympson, was published in 1655 under the title of 'The Art of Setting or Composing of Musick in Parts by a most familiar and easie Rule'; and another edition called 'the last' appeared in 1664, with the word 'Setting' in the title changed to 'Descant.' The later editions were appended to the first eight or nine editions of John Playford's Introduction to the Skill of Musick.'
Dr. Campion died in 1619, and was buried on March 1 in that year in the church of St. Dunstan in the West, Fleet Street.
[ W. H. H. ]
CAMPORESE, Violante, was born at Rome, 1785. She belonged to a good family, and had cultivated music only as an amateur; but, having married a gentleman of the noble family of Giustiniani, she found herself compelled by circumstances to practise it as a profession. She appeared at first only in concerts. Possessed as she was of a very good soprano voice and great facility of execution, she was already a talented singer, when she was engaged for the private concerts of Napoleon in Paris, where she so profited by the lessons of Crescentini as to become an admirable artist. Ebers, while in Paris in the autumn of 1816, was introduced to Mme. Camporese at the house of Paer, and gives a good account of her voice, style, and appearance. She possessed a fine-toned voice of more than two octaves, from C in alt. to A below; but her best notes were from C to F. She 'cultivated a pure, chaste, and expressive style, was a handsome and elegant woman of 31, with dark hair, eyes, and complexion, a tall, slender figure, a fine Roman countenance full of tragic dignity, and features rather strongly marked.' The purity and force of her singing, and the exquisite quality of her voice, were united to an execution refined, polished, and free from any effort at display. From Paris she went to Milan, where she sang at La Scala to crowded and enthusiastic houses. While there, she is said to have given up an evening engagement in order to visit a poor insane musician in the hospital, whom she soothed by singing to him. She was as kind and charitable as she was talented. In 1817 she was engaged for the King's Theatre in London, and made her début on Jan. 11, in Cimarosa's 'Penelope.' She was not accustomed to the stage, and was therefore at first nervous and embarrassed, and made little effect. A critic of the day said, 'Her intonation is generally good, and her science is indisputable. It is alike manifest in what she does and in what she declines. She never attempts in the way of ornament what she cannot perfectly execute. Catalani takes her hearers by storm; Camporese wins by more quiet, more regular, but not less certain approaches.' As Susanna in 'Le Nozze di Figaro,' she established her reputation, and this success was followed by another when she played Donna Anna in 'Don Giovanni.' In May she appeared as Agnese in Paer's opera of that name, taken from Mrs. Opie's 'Father and Daughter,' in which she delighted the critics by her pure and tasteful singing. Ambrogetti's acting, however, was so strongly and painfully dramatic, that the piece