but, unless the work be registered at Stationers' Hall, no protection can at any future time be obtained for it. The period within which a work must be registered is specified in the Order of Council announcing in the London Gazette the terms of each copyright treaty when made; and the terms may vary in every treaty. Foreign musicians who contemplate introducing their works into England ought therefore to consult a qualified adviser immediately upon the completion of their work; or, for want of this precaution, they may find their productions public property at the moment that they might have become remunerative. The opera of 'Faust' has experienced this fate; not having been registered within the three months specified in the Order of Council, its performance is open to all Her Majesty's subjects.
[App. p.597 "COPYRIGHT. The following changes have been made since the publication of the first volume:—
1. Domestic copyright. Certain speculators having bought up the copyright of popular songs with the object of levying penalties upon persons innocently singing them at charitable concerts and penny readings, an Act was passed in 1882 providing that the proprietor of any musical composition who shall be desirous of retaining in his own hands exclusively the right of public performance or representation of the same shall cause to be printed upon the title-page of every published copy a notice that this right is reserved.
2. International Copyright. By the Convention of Berne, executed Sept. 9, 1886, the following States entered into an International Copyright Union:—Great Britain (including all the Colonies), Germany, Belgium, Spain, France, Haiti, Italy, Liberia, Switzerland, Tunis. This treaty will supersede all existing copyright-agreements between Great Britain and the States enumerated. The second article of the treaty is as follows:—'Authors of any of the countries of the Union shall enjoy in the other countries for the works, whether published in one of those countries or unpublished, the rights which the respective laws do now or may hereafter grant to natives.' The term of protection is not, however, in any case to exceed in length the term of protection in the country of origin. Thus, a German who has complied with the formalities and conditions required for copyright in Germany, will possess, in England, the same copyright privileges in his work as an Englishman; but these will not last longer than the term of protection which the law of his own country gives to his work. It is expressly stated that Article ii. applies to the public representation of dramatic or drnmatico-musical works, and to the public performance of unpublished musical works, and of published musical works in which the author has declared on the title-page that he forbids the public performance."]
[ C. A. F. ]
COR ANGLAIS. (Ital. Oboe di Caccia; and Corno Inglese; Germ. Englisches Horn.) A tenor oboe, standing in the key of F, and therefore speaking a fifth lower than the ordinary oboe. It has the same scale and compass as the latter instrument, from E or E♭ in the bass, to about A or B♭ above the treble clef. It bears the same relation to the oboe that the bassethorn does to the clarinet, hence frequent confusion between the two instruments. It is probably similar in many respects to the 'oboe di caccia' found in Bach's scores, and perhaps to the 'chalumeau' of Glcck's operas; although the former was made in the form of a bassoon or alto-fagotto, and the latter may have been a kind of clarinet.
Beethoven has written a fine trio, Op. 29, for two oboes and cor anglais, and variations on 'La ci darem,' which though performed at Vienna on Dec. 23, 1797, are still in MS. Rossini employs it to represent the alpenhorn in the overture to 'William Tell' [App. p.597 "Oboe di Caccia, vol. ii. p. 489"]; Meyerbeer, Wagner, Halévy, Ambroise Thomas, and other modern composers frequently introduce it in their operas. It has a peculiar wailing and melancholy tone, which is very effective, but it is difficult and somewhat treacherous in the orchestra.
[ W. H. S. ]
CORBET, Francisque, whose real name was Francesco Corbetti, born at Pavia about 1630, died in Paris about 1700; the best player of his time on the guitar. After travelling in Italy, Spain, and Germany, he settled for a time at the court of the Duke of Mantua, who sent him to Louis XIV. He stayed for a few years in the French court, and then came to England, where Charles II appointed him to an office in the Queen's household, with a large salary, and provided him with a wife. The Revolution of 1688 drove him back to France. His best pupils were De Vabray, De Visé, and Médard, who wrote a curious epitaph on him.
[ M. C. C. ]
CORBETT, William, an eminent English violinist at the commencement of the 18th century, was one of Queen Anne's band of music, and leader of the band at the Opera House in the Haymarket on its first opening in 1705. On the production of Handel's 'Rinaldo' in 1711 a new set of instrumentalists was introduced into the opera orchestra, and Corbett, quitting his position in the Queen's band, went to Italy, and resided for many years at Rome, making occasional visits to Venice, Milan, Florence, Cremona, Bologna, Naples, etc., amassing during the time a large collection of music, and a most valuable assemblage of Italian violins, etc. Those acquainted with his circumstances were at a loss to account for his ability to make these purchases except by the supposition that he was a government spy, employed to watch the movements of the Pretender. Corbett returned to England in 1740, and seems to have resumed his position in the royal band. [App. p.597 "he made two journeys to Italy; the first, as stated in the Dictionary, about 1711, from which he returned and gave a concert at Hickford's Rooms in 1714 (April 28). It was at this time that he was appointed to the Royal band, his name appearing on the list of musicians from 1716 to 1747."] He died, at an advanced age, in 1748 [App. p.597 "March 7, 1747–8"]. By his will he bequeathed his collection of instruments to Gresham College, providing also for the stipend of a person to show them, and for their care. The college authorities, however, rejected the gift on the ground that there was no room in the college for its reception, and the instruments were consequently sold by auction 'at the Great Room over against Beaufort Buildings, in the Strand, formerly the Hoop Tavern,' on Saturday, March 9, 1751. Corbett's collection of music was also sold by auction at his house in Silver Street, Golden Square. Before quitting England Corbett published several sets of sonatas for violins, flutes, oboes, etc.; some concertos for orchestra; and instrumental music for 'Henry IV,' 1700; 'As you find it,' 1703; and Love Betray'd, or, The Agreeable Disappointment,' 1703. After his return he published 'Concertos, or Universal Bizzarries composed on all the new Gustos during many years' residence in Italy,' containing thirty-five concertos in seven parts, professing to exhibit the different styles of various countries and cities. [App. p.597 "The last sentence should run:—After his return he published 'Concertos, or Universal Bizzaries composed on all the new Gustos in his travels through Italy,' containing 36 concertos, in two books, the first in four parts, the second in seven, professing to exhibit, etc. (Dict. of Nat. Biog.)"]
[ W. H. H. ]
CORDIER, Jacques, better known under the name of Bocan, born in Lorraine about 1580; dancing-master and performer on the violin and rebec in the reign of Louis XIII. He was unable to read music, but had great power of execution, and Mersennus mentions his gift of modulating the tones of the violin. He was dancing-master to Henrietta Maria, Queen of Charles I, and came with her to England. The King took great delight in hearing him play the violin. He returned to Paris when the Civil War broke out, and his tomb at St. Germain l'Auxerrois was restored in 1843. Chancy's 'Tablature de Mandore' (Paris, 1629), contains a graceful 'branle' by Cordier.
[ M. C. C. ]
CORELLI, Arcangelo, a great violinist and composer, born at Fusignano, Imola, 1653. He learnt counterpoint from Matteo Simonelli, and the violin from G. B. Bassani. Of the earlier part of his life but little is known. He appears to have travelled in Germany, and to have stayed for some time at Munich, attached to the court of the Elector of Bavaria. It is also related that he went to Paris in 1672, but soon left it again, owing to Lulli's jealousy. This however, according to Fétis, is very doubtful. In 1681 he returned to Italy and settled at Rome, where he published his first work, a set of twelve sonatas. He soon made a great