decorated with orders from the sovereigns of Germany, Turkey, the Netherlands, Würtemberg, Italy, etc., in recognition of his talent and position. He has been since 1871 'director of the music, composer, and conductor' at Her Majesty's Opera. His services in those capacities will not soon be forgotten in London. [App. p.600 "date of death, April 29, 1884."]
[ J. M. ]
COSTANTINI, a seconda donna, who played Matilda in Handel's 'Otho' in 1726, which had been Anastasia Robinson's part in 1723. She also appeared as Armira in 'Scipio' in the same year, after which her name does not occur.
[ J. M. ]
COSTANTINI, Fabio, born in Rome about 1570, chapel-master to the confraternity of the Rosary at Ancona, and afterwards at the cathedral of Orvieto. His compositions include motets for 2, 3, and 4 voices (Rome 1596); 'Motetti … e Psalmi e Magnificat' (Ib. 1618); and 'Condette amarose,' a series of canzone and madrigals (Orvieto 1621). He also published 'Selectae cantiones excellentissimorum auctorum' (Rome 1614), a collection of 8-part motets by Palestrina, the Nanini, the Aneril, Marenzio, Locatello, Giovanelli, and others beside himself; and another collection of airs and madrigals called 'Ghirlandetta amorosa' (Orvieto 1621).
COSTANZI, Juan, known as Gioannino di Roma, because he was born there; was for some time in the household of Cardinal Ottoboni, and was appointed in 1754 chapel-master of St. Peter's, which he retained till his death in 1778. He composed an opera 'Carlo Magno' (Rome 1729); a fine 'Miserere'; motets in 16 parts for 4 choirs, offertoriums, and other church music.
COSTE, Gaspard, chorister in the cathedral of Avignon about 1530, composer of songs and madrigals, preserved in the following collections; 'Trente-cinq livres des chansons à quatre parties' (Paris 1539–1549); 'Le Parangon des chansons' (Lyons 1540–1543); 'Motetti del Fiore' (Ib. 1532–1539); 'Sdegnosi ardori; Musica di diversi authori sopra un istesso sogetto di parole' (Munich 1575); and 'Ghirlanda di Fioretti musicale' (Rome 1589).
COSTELEY, William, a Scotch musician, born 1531, settled in France, and was organist to Henri II and Charles IX. Author of a treatise called 'Musique' (Paris 1579); songs in the 'Chansons à 4 et 5 parties' published by Le Roy and Ballard (Ib. 1567). Some pieces of his are in the library at Orleans. Costeley was one of the society called 'Puy de musique en honneur de Ste. Cecile' (1571) at Evreux, and sometimes entertained the members at his own house in Evreux [App. p.600 "correct the statement that the society founded by him was called 'Puy de Musique, etc.,' that title referring to a musical contest established by the guild in 1575, at which Orlando de Lassus carried off the first prize, a silver harp"]. He died there in 1606 [App. p.600 "Feb. 1"].
COSYN, Benjamin, was probably a son of John Cosyn, who in 1585 published sixty psalms in six parts in plain counterpoint. He was eminent as a composer of lessons for virginals. Many of his pieces are extant. He flourished in the first half of the 17th century.
[ W. H. H. ]
COTILLON (i.e. 'a petticoat'). Originally a simple French dance of the age of Louis XIV, which, according to some authors, resembled the Branle, but, according to others, was a variety of quadrille. The modern cotillon is simply a species of quick waltz, of great length and elaborate contrivances, but with no special music: for the different varieties of it, waltzes, polkas, mazurkas, and galops, are employed.
[ E. P. ]
COTTAGE PIANO (Fr. Piano droit; Ital. and Ger. also Fr. Pianino). An upright pianoforte usually about four feet high, invented early in this century, nearly at the same time as the Cabinet piano, but less thought of for some years, until the more convenient height and better action of the lower instrument, combined with cheaper construction, found appreciation, and brought about the displacement of the Cabinet and the once familiar Square. To Robert Wornum the younger, whose patent (No 3419) for an upright, with diagonal strings, was taken out in 1811, is due the invention and earliest manufacture of oblique and vertical cottage pianofortes in England. In the year 1815 Ignace Pleyel, founder of the house of Pleyel, Wolff, et Cie., employed Henri Pape, an ingenious mechanician, to organise the introduction of the construction of these instruments in Paris (Pape, Sur les Inventions, etc.; Paris, 1845), from which beginning arose the important manufacture of French cottage pianos. In Germany and America upright pianos have not made much way. [See Pianoforte, also Cabinet Piano, Oblique, and Piccolo.]
[ A. J. H. ]
COTUMACCI, or CONTUMACCI, Carlo, born at Naples 1698, died there 1775; pupil of A. Scarlatti, succeeded Durante at S. Onofrio; organist and prolific composer of church music. He wrote 'Regole dell' accompagnamento' and 'Trattato di contrapunto,' works which have remained in MS, excepting some 'Partimenti,' published by Choron in his 'Principes de composition des écoles d'Italie' (Paris 1808).
COUAC (French for 'quack'), a sudden horrible noise to which any clarinet is liable when the reed is out of order and the wind not quite under control. Called also 'the goose.' (See a good story in Spohr, Selbstbiographie, i. 167.)
COUNTERPOINT is 'the art of combining melodies.' Its name arose from the ancient system of notation by points or 'pricks.' When one set of points was added to another, to signify the simultaneous performance of various melodies agreeing in harmony, it was called 'point against point'—i.e. contrapunctum, or counterpoint. Counterpoint is usually divided into two kinds—plain and double—and each of these is subdivided into various orders or species. There are very stringent rules about the use of different intervals in plain counterpoint, which are more or less relaxed in modern music; when, however, they are fully observed, the piece is said to be written in 'strict counterpoint.' It is usual to take some fragment of an old chant or chorale as the 'canto fermo' or plain-chant, to which other parts or melodies are added as accompaniments according to the rules above referred to. This is called 'adding a counterpoint to a given subject.'