for pianoforte, and orchestral dance music. He died Jan. 17, 1868, while at work on an opera by Pushkin, called 'Kamenyi gost' (Don Juan), and, besides the operas named, left an immense number of orchestral works. His melodies are noble and poetical, but his composition is more distinguished for grace than force. As a pianist he was remarkable for the facility with which he accompanied at sight.
[ M. C. C. ]
DASH. The sign of staccato, written thus (symbol characters), and placed under or over a note to indicate that the duration of the sound is to be as short as possible, the value of the note being completed by an interval of silence; for example—
A round dot (symbol) is also used for a similar purpose, but with this difference, that notes marked with dots should be less staccato than those with dashes, being shortened about one half, thus—
This distinction, which is enforced by all the most celebrated teachers of modern times, such as Clementi, Czerny, and others, is, strange to say, often ignored by modern editors of classical compositions, and it is remarkable that in such valuable and conscientious editions of Beethoven's works as those of Von Bülow ('Instructive Ausgabe'; Cotta, Stuttgart), Pauer (Augener & Co. London), and others, only one sign should have been employed for the two effects. That Beethoven himself considered the distinction of importance is proved by various corrections by his hand of the orchestral parts of the 7th symphony, still extant, and also by a letter written in 1825 to Carl Holz, in which he expressly insists that ' and is not a matter of indifference.' See Nottebohm's 'Beethoveniana,' No. xxv, in which extracts are given from several of Beethoven's works, with the signs of staccato as originally marked by himself. And there can be no doubt that every effort ought to be made, at any rate in the case of Beethoven, to ascertain what were the intentions of the composer on a point so essential to correct phrasing.
[ F. T. ]
DAUBLAINE ET CALLINET. Organ builders established in Paris in 1838 as Daublaine & Cie. In 39 the firm was joined by Louis Callinet, member of an old Alsatian family of organ builders. But he brought bad fortune to the house, for in 43 or 44, in a fit of rage, excited by some dispute, Callinet destroyed all the work which he and his partners had just added to the organ at St. Sulpice. After this feat he retired to Cavaillé's factory as a mere journeyman. Barker then took the lead at Daublaine's and under him the S. Eustache organ was built, to be destroyed by fire in 45. The same year the firm became Ducroquet & Cie; they built a new organ at S. Eustache, and exhibited at Hyde Park in 51, obtaining a council medal and the decoration of the Legion of Honour. In 55 Ducroquet was succeeded by a Société anonyme, and that again by Merklin, Schütze, et Cie. The business is now carried on by Merklin alone, whose principal factory is at Lyons, with a branch in Paris.
[ V. de P. ]
DAUGHTER OF ST. MARK, THE. An opera in 3 acts, founded on 'La reine de Chypre,' words by Bunn, music by Balfe; produced at Drury Lane Nov. 27, 1844.
DAUNEY, WILLIAM, son of William Dauney of Falmouth, Jamaica, was born at Aberdeen in the year 1800. He commenced his education at Dulwich, and completed it at the University of Edinburgh. On June 13, 1823, he was called to the Scottish bar. He found in the Advocates' Library at Edinburgh a MS. collection of music, written between 1614 and 1620 and known as the Skene Manuscript. It consists of 114 English and Scottish ballad, song, and dance tunes, written in tableture. This manuscript Dauney deciphered and published in 1838 in a 4to vol. under the title of 'Ancient Scottish Melodies from a manuscript of the reign of James VI.' He accompanied it with a long and ably written 'Dissertation illustrative of the history of the music of Scotland,' and some interesting documents. The work is valuable as showing the (probably) earliest versions of such tunes as 'The flowers of the forest,' 'John Anderson my jo,' 'Adieu, Dundee,' etc. Shortly after 1838 Dauney quitted Scotland for Demerara, where he became Solicitor General for British Guiana. He died at Demerara, July 28, 1843.
[ W. H. H. ]
DAUVERGNE, ANTOINE, violin-player and composer, born at Clermont-Ferrand in 1713. He was a pupil of his father, leader of the band at Clermont. In 1739 he went to Paris to complete his studies, and very soon played with success at the Concert spirituel and entered the band of the King and of the Opera. It is however more as a composer of operas than as a violin-player that Dauvergne claims our attention. Up to his time an opéra comique meant merely a vaudeville, a comic play interspersed with couplets. In his first opera, 'Les Troqueurs,' Dauvergne adopted the forms of the Italian intermezzi, retaining however spoken dialogue in place of recitative, and thereby introduced that class of dramatic works, in which French composers have ever since been so eminently successful. Dauvergne wrote 15 operas in all. Fétis also enumerates 15 motets of his composition, trios for two violins and bass (1740), sonatas for the violin, and two sets of symphonies in four parts (1750).
In 1755 Dauvergne bought the appointment of composer to the king and the next presentation as master of the band. From 1751 he conducted the Opera, and from 1762 the Concert spirituel; and finally, with some interruptions, became manager of the Open. He