Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 1.djvu/473

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DRAESEKE.
461
DRAGONETTI.

Carl Klindworth and Carl Tausig, was born in 1835 at Coburg. On leaving Weimar, Draseke settled at Dresden, and subsequently at Lausanne, as teacher of the pianoforte and harmony. In 1868 Von Bülow called him to Munich as a master of the new Conservatoire, but he returned to Switzerland soon after Von Bülow's departure from Munich early in 1869, and is at present residing at Dresden. Draseke has published a number of pianoforte pieces, remarkable for harmonic and rhythmic subtleties; 'Fantasiestücke in Walzerform,' op. 3; 'Deux valses de concert,' op. 4; a fine Sonata in E major, op. 6; several pieces for piano and violoncello; some vocal compositions and a symphony. An opera, for which he himself wrote the poem, is still in manuscript. Of his literary labours, the elaborate analysis of Liszt's Poemes symphoniques in Brendel's 'Anregungen,' and the recent essay on Peter Cornelius, in 'Die neue Zeitschrift für Musik,' as well as a treatise on 'Modulation,' are valuable.

[ E. D. ]

DRAGHI, Antonio, capellmeister to the court at Vienna, born at Ferrara 1635 (not 1642, as generally stated). In 74 he was invited to Vienna as Hoftheater Intendant to the Emperor Leopold I, and chapel-master to the Empress Leonore, and in 82 took up his abode there for life. He was a gifted dramatic composer, and most prolific, as may be seen by the list of his works performed at the court during 38 years, amounting to no less than 87 operas, 87 feste teatrali and serenades, and 32 oratorios. (See Köchel's life of Fux.) Some of his carnival operas have been several times revived. The scores of most of his works are in the imperial library, and some in the archives of the 'Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde.' His librettos, some of them illustrated, were printed in the imperial press by Cosmerow, and have nearly all been preserved. Occasionally he wrote librettos, which were set by other composers, Ziani, Bertali, and even the Emperor Leopold, who composed the complete opera 'Apollo deluso' (1669), and airs for others. Various mistakes have been made about the year of his death. Walther's Lexicon speaks of him as alive in 1703, and Fétis, followed by most modern biographers, says he went back to Ferrara and died there in 1707; but all doubts are set at rest by the register of deaths in Vienna, from which it appears he died there Jan. 18, 1700, aged 65. A son of his, Carlo, was court-scholar in 1688, court-organist in 1698, and died May 2, 1711.

[ C. F. P. ]

DRAGHI, Giovanni Baptista, was an Italian musician who settled in London in the middle of the 17th century, and who, during his long residence in this country, so completely adopted the English style of composition that he must be regarded as in effect an English composer. It has been conjectured that he was a brother of Antonio Draghi. The earliest notice of him is found in Pepys's Diary, under date of Feb. 12, 1667. The diarist there mentions having heard him (at Lord Brouncker's house) sing through an act of an Italian opera which he had written and composed at the instance of Thomas Killigrew, who had an intention of occasionally introducing such entertainments at his theatre. Pepys expresses in strong terms his admiration of the composition. It is extremely doubtful whether this opera was ever produced. Draghi however lived to witness the introduction into this country of the Italian opera at the commencement of the following century. He excelled as a player on the harpsichord, for which instrument he composed and published in England many lessons. He was music-master to Queen Anne, and probably also to her elder sister, Queen Mary. In 1675 he composed [App. p.618 "published; the opera was performed in 1673"] the act-tunes and some other instrumental music for Shadwell's opera 'Psyche': the remainder, including the whole of the vocal part, being composed by Matthew Lock. On the death of Lock in 1677 Draghi succeeded him as organist to Catherine of Braganza, wife of Charles II. In 1687, for the celebration of St. Cecilia's day, he composed music for Dryden's fine ode commencing 'From Harmony, from heavenly Harmony.' In 1706 he contributed part of the music to D'Urfey's comic opera, 'Wonders in the Sun; or, the Kingdom of the Birds,' produced at the Queen's Theatre in the Haymarket. Many songs by him are found in the collections of the period.

[ W. H. H. ]

DRAGONETTI, Domenico, one of the greatest known players on the double-bass, born at Venice 1755 [App. p.618 "the date of birth should probably be altered to April 7, 1763"]. As a boy he showed remarkable talent for music, teaching himself the guitar and violin, which however he soon exchanged for his own special instrument. On this he quickly outstripped his master Berini, and was admitted to the orchestra of the 'Opera bufia' at 13, and a year later to the 'Opera seria' at San Benedetto, and to all performances of importance. In his 18th year he was appointed to the post in the choir of St. Mark's, hitherto occupied by his master, who himself persuaded him to accept it. He had now attained to such perfection that nothing was too hard for him; he composed sonatas, concertos and capriccios for his instrument, and frequently played upon it the violoncello part in string-quartets. At Vicenza he played in the opera orchestra, and while there was fortunate enough to discover the marvellous double-bass, with which he never again parted, although often tempted by large offers of money. This instrument belonged to the convent of S. Pietro, and was made by Gasparo di Salò, master of the Amati. He tested its powers on the monks of S. Giustina at Padua, by imitating a thunderstorm and bringing them out of their cells in the dead of the night. Meantime his fame had spread beyond Italy, and he was offered an engagement at the Imperial Opera in St. Petersburg, upon which the Procurators of St.Mark's immediately raised his salary. Shortly after, however, he obtained a year's leave of absence, having been persuaded by Banti and Pacchierotti to accept an invitation to London, where he arrived in 1794, and was immediately engaged for the opera, and for the concerts at the King's Theatre. He made his first appearance