Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 1.djvu/484

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472
DUSCHEK.
DURASTANTI.

took her part. She never appeared again in England, nor is she mentioned as having appeared subsequently on any other stage. She seems to have been an estimable and faithful artist, and her popularity in London only yielded, as it might well do, to the exceptional powers of Cuzzoni.

[ J. M. ]

DURCHFÜHRUNG—leading through, or taking through. Durchführung-satz is the German term for that portion of the first movement of a sonata or symphony—or other movement in similar form—which occurs between the double-bar and the reprise of the first subject; and in which the materials of the previous portion—with or without episodes, or other fresh matter—are led through such changes and varieties of treatment and contrivance as the genius and knowledge of the composer may dictate. In England this portion is often called the 'free fantasia' surely an unfortunate name, as 'fanttasia' suggests rather an entire movement than, a part of one. Perhaps 'development' or 'working out' would be a better term. [Form.]

D'URFEY, Thomas, the son of a French Huguenot father, who fled from Rochelle before the siege in 1628 and settled at Exeter, was born (as is supposed, of an English mother) in Exeter about 1649. He was educated for the law, but abandoned that profession for poetry and the drama. Between 1676 and his death he produced upwards of thirty plays, which were at first very popular, but were in the course of a few years afterwards banished from the stage on account of their licentiousness and indecency. The songs in a few of them still survive, being preserved through having had the good fortune to be allied to the music of Henry Purcell. These are in 'A Fool's Preferment,' 1688; 'Bussy d'Ambois,' 1691; 'The Richmond Heiress,' 1693; and the three parts of 'Don Quixote,' 1694–96. His comic opera, 'Wonders in the Sun,' 1706, was set by Giovanni Baptista Draghi. Much of his fame was owing to his songs and to the lively manner in which he himself sang them, which procured him the favour of Charles II, William III, and Queen Anne. In this he resembled Tom Moore, and like him he was particularly apt at adapting his verses to existing music. He published, between 1683 and 1685, three collections of songs written by himself, and set to music by the best composers of the period. About 1706 he collected and published, in four small volumes, a large number of songs by himself and others, many of them with the tunes prefixed, under the title of 'Wit and Mirth; or, Pills to purge Melancholy.' This he republished with variations and the addition of two more volumes in 1719–20. D'Urfey wrote several of the birth day and New Year's odes which were set to music by Purcell and Blow, and supplied the former with the words for his fine ode known as 'The Yorkshire Feast Song.' In the latter part of his life he was reduced to great distress, from which he was relieved by the profits of a performance of his own comedy 'The Fond Husband; or, The Plotting Sisters,' which the managers of the theatre generously gave for his benefit on June 15, 1713. D'Urfey died Feb. 26, 1723, and was buried at St. James's, Piccadilly, where, against the outer south wall of the tower of the church, may be seen a tablet with the simple inscription, 'Tom D'Urfey, Dyed Febry ye 26th, 1723.'

[ W. H. H. ]

DUSCHEK (Dussek), Franz, valued pianoforte teacher, performer, and composer, born Dec. 8, 1736, at Chotiborz in Bohemia. Count von Spork had him educated in the Jesuit's seminary at Königgratz, but after a fall which crippled him for life he gave up other studies and devoted himself to music. His patron sent him first to Prague and then to Vienna, where, under Wagenseil's instruction, he became an excellent pianist. On his return to Prague, he soon had numerous pupils, and exercised a powerful influence on the taste of his time. Reichardt, in his 'Briefe' (i. 116), speaks of him as one of the best pianists of that time (i773), 'who, besides his excellent reading of Bach, possesses a peculiarly pleasing and brilliant style of his own.' Among his best pupils may be numbered L. Kozeluch, Maschek, Wittassek, von Nostiz, and his own wife Josephine. He was also esteemed as a composer of symphonies, quartets, trios, pianoforte concertos, sonatas, Lieder, etc., of which only a small part were published. In his compositions is reflected the gentleness of character which made him universally beloved. He was a kind-hearted man, and all artists, whether his own countrymen or foreigners, were sure of a kind reception at his house. His friendship with Mozart is well known, and it was in his villa and garden near Prague that the great composer put the finishing touches to the score of 'Don Giovanni.' In this very villa Bertramka, at Koschirz near Prague, the present proprietor erected a bust of Mozart, which was solemnly unveiled on June 3, 1876. For further particulars of both husband and wife see Jahn's 'Mozart'; 'Jahrbuch der Tonkunst von Wien und Prag,' 1796; Cramer's 'Magazin für Musik'; and Mozart's Letters, edited by Nohl.

His wife Josephine, a celebrated singer, whose maiden name was Hambacher, was born at Prague 1756, and died there at an advanced age. Her husband taught her music, and she became a good pianist and composer, but above all a fine singer. Her voice was full and round, and according to Reichardt she sang with great expression, especially in recitative. She executed the most difficult bravura passages with ease, had a good portamento, and united grace and expression with force and fire. Mozart's father, however, was of a different opinion, as appears from a letter to his daughter (April 1786), whilst Schiller and Körner have recorded their unfavourable impression of her—the latter specially denying that she had expression (Schiller, 'Briefwechsel mit Körner,' i. pp. 280, 294). Mozart, from his first acquaintance with her in Salzburg in 1777, looked upon her as a true and sympathising friend, and wrote for her (Nov. 3,