Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 1.djvu/500

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488
ENGLISH OPERA.
ELY CATHEDRAL.

voice parts, and 4 of organ parts. The number of compositions is over 580, and includes some of large dimensions, as Handel's Utrecht Te Deum and Jubilate for voices and orchestra, Croft's ditto, ditto. A catalogue of these works was prepared by the Rev. W. E. Dickson, Precentor of the cathedral, and published for the Dean and Chapter by Deighton, Bell, & Co., 1861.

EMBOUCHURE. The part of a musical instrument applied to the mouth; and hence used to denote the disposition of the lips, tongue, and other organs necessary for producing a musical tone.

To the embouchure are due, not only the correct quality of the sound produced, but also certain slight variations in pitch, which enable the player to preserve accurate intonation. In many instruments, such especially as the French horn and the Bassoon, almost everything depends upon the embouchure.

[ W. H. S. ]

EMPEROR CONCERTO, THE, a title, like 'Jupiter Symphony' and 'Moonlight Sonata,' gratuitously bestowed on Beethoven's P. F. Concerto in E♭ (op. 75 [App. p.627 "op. 73"]). Such titles are unnecessary, and the only excuse for them is that they enable non-professional persons to refer to musical works without using musical nomenclature.

EMPEROR'S HYMN, THE. A hymn written in 1796 by Lorenz Leopold Hanschka during the patriotic excitement caused by the movements of the French revolutionary army, set to music for 4 voices by Haydn, and first sung on Feb. 12, 1797, at the Emperor's birthday. He afterwards employed it as the theme for 4 variations in his well-known quartet (op. 76, No. 3). (See A. Schmid, 'J. Haydn und N. Zingarelli,' Venice [App. p.627 "Vienna"] 1847.)

ENCORE—the French for 'again'—the cry in English theatres and concert-rooms when a piece is desired to be repeated. It has taken the place of the 'altra volta' of last century. The French and Germans use the Italian [App. p.627 "Latin"] term 'Bis,' and the French have even a verb, 'bisser.' 'Le public anglais est grand redemandeur, et exprime son vœu par un mot français, comme nous par un mot latin' (A. Adam, Souvenirs, xxvii.). [App. p.627 "An anonymous ballad, circa 1740, entitled 'Encore,' and beginning 'When at my nymph's devoted feet,' shows the term to have been in use much earlier than is implied in the article."

ENFANT PRODIGUE, L', opera in 5 acts; words by Scribe, music by Auber; produced at the Academic Dec. 6. 1850; in Italian, as 'Il Prodigo,' at her Majesty's June 12, 1851. [App. p.627 "it was given in English as 'Azael the Prodigal' at Drury Lane, on Feb. 19, 1851. See Prodigal Son."]

ENGEDI. See Mount of Olives.

ENGLAND, George, and George Pike (his son), organ-builders. The former nourished between 1740 and 1788, and married the daughter of Richard Bridge; the latter between 1788 and 1814. The elder England built many noble organs. Of Bridge little is known; he is believed to have been trained by Harris the younger, and to have lived in Hand Court. Holborn, in 1748. His best organ was at Christ Church, Spitalfields, 1730.

[ V. de P. ]

ENGLISH HORN. The tenor oboe in F, intermediate between the ordinary oboe and the bassoon. It seems in great measure to have superseded an older instrument, the Corno di caccia, which occurs in the scores of Bach, and which was curved back on itself like a bassoon, or at an obtuse angle. [See Cor Anglais.]

[ W. H. S. ]

ENGLISH OPERA. An English opera may be defined as a regular drama, the most important parts of which are set to music and sung, the subordinate parts being spoken as ordinary dialogue, as in German and French operas. It differs from a musical play in the fact that in most cases the musical pieces may be omitted from the play without interrupting the progress of the action, whilst in an opera they form integral and essential portions of it. The exceptions from this rule will be noticed presently.

The earliest instances of the alliance of music with the English drama are probably to be found in the mysteries, or miracle-plays, anciently performed at Coventry, Chester, and other places. As the drama became developed, the association of music with it became closer and more frequent. In several of Shakspere's comedies the songs, etc., are absolutely essential to the piece, and cannot be omitted. Witness particularly 'The Tempest,' 'As You Like It,' 'Twelfth Night,' and 'A Midsummer Night's Dream.' In the masques performed at court, temp. James I and Charles I, a nearer approach was made to the opera—poetry, music, scenery, machinery, and characteristic dresses and decorations being combined in them. Alfonso Ferrabosco junior, Laniere, Coperario, Robert Johnson, Campion, Simon Ives, and William and Henry Lawes, were the principal composers employed. The first approaches towards the revival of dramatic entertainments, which had been suspended by the closing of the theatres during the Civil War, were made during the interregnum through the medium of musical pieces. On March 26, 1653, Shirley's masque, 'Cupid and Death,' with music by Matthew Lock [App. p.628 "in collaboration with Christopher Gibbons"], was performed before the Portuguese ambassador. Three years later Sir William Davenant gave, in a semi-public manner, 'The First Day's Entertainment at Rutland House by Declamations and Musick,' with music by Colman, Cook, H. Lawes, and Hudson. In the prologue it is designated an opera, though not one in any respect. In the following year Davenant produced 'The Siege of Rhodes,' the dialogue of which was given in recitative, which Davenant describes as 'unpractised here, though of great reputation amongst other nations.' This piece, to which a second part was subsequently added, maintained its position for some years, but the music has not, so far as is known, been preserved. 'The Siege of Rhodes' was followed by the production by Davenant in 1658 of 'The Cruelty of the Spaniards in Peru, expressed by instrumental and vocal music, and the art of perspective in scenes,' a performance said to have been not only connived at, but secretly encouraged by Cromwell, who was then supposed to be meditating some designs against the Spaniards. During the four