Kuhlau.—Three grand Trios for three Flutes, op. 13; Do. do., op. 86; One do., op. 90; Three Quintets for Flute and String Quartet in D, E, A, op. 51; Grand Quartet for four Flutes in E, op. 103; Six sets of three Duets for two Flutes, ops. 10, 39, 80, 81, 87; Solos, with Pianoforte, op. 57; Three Fantasies, Do. do., op. 95.
Reicha. Quartet for four Flutes in D, op. 12; 24 Quintets for wind instruments.Schubert. Introduction and Variations on 'Trockne Blumen,' for Flute and Piano, op. 160.
[ W. H. S. ]
[ W. H. S. ]
FLUTE-WORK. Under this head are grouped all the flue-stops, of whatever kind, shape, or tone, that are not classed as Principal-work, or Gedact-work, and it also includes various modifications of these two classes of stops. [Flue-work.] Thus when the 'scale' of the pipes of a cylindrical stop is reduced below the proportion essential to secure the broad and full Diapason tone, and the sound becomes delicate as in a Dulciana, or crisp as in a Gamba; or when it is increased beyond the Diapason scale, and the tone becomes thick or less resonant as in the Block-flöte, the stop becomes a member of the 'flute-work.' Also, if the covers of the pipes of a closed metal-stop be punctured, and a narrow tube—in Germany called a reed, in France a chimney—be inserted, the stop then becomes a member of the flute-work under the name Rohr-flöte, Flûte à cheminée, or 'Metal stopped-Diapason (or Flute) with chimneys.' A unison cylindrical stop will be occasionally met with labelled as a member of the flute-work. All stops the pipes of which taper upwards, as the Spitz-flöte and Gemshorn; all three- or four-sided open wood pipes, as the Hohl-flöte, Clarabella, Wald-flute, Oboe-flute, and Suabe-flute; and most string-toned stops, as Salicional and Viol d'Amore,—are members of the Flute-work.The invention of the conical, the string-toned, and the other stops classified as flute-work, dates back no farther than the commencement of the 16th century.
[ E. J. H. ]
[ J. M. ]
[ P. D. ]
FODOR-MAINVIELLE, Josephine, celebrated singer, born 1793 in Paris, where her father, Joseph Fodor the violinist, had settled in 1787. In 1794 her parents removed to St. Petersburg, where she played both pianoforte and harp when only eleven. Three years after she became known as a singer, and in 1810 made her first appearance at the Court Theatre in Fioravanti's 'Cantatrici villanelle,' which was repeated 60 times, so successful was her performance. In 1812 she married the actor Mainvielle, and travelled with him to Stockholm, Copenhagen, returning to Paris, where she was engaged for the Opéra Comique. Her first appearance, Aug. 9, 1814, was a comparative failure; it was evident that French opera was not her province, and she was transferred in November of the same year to the Théâtre Italien, then under Mme. Catalani's management. Here she remained till the beginning of 1816, when she left for London. In London she sang for three seasons as prima donna, listened to with respect, though never a warm favourite. 'Don Giovanni' was brought out at the King's Theatre in 1817, and Zerlina was her best character. In July 1818 she went to Italy, returning to Paris early in the following year, after Catalani had given up the opera. Rossini's 'Barbiere' was then given for the first time in Paris (Oct. 26, 1819) and she played Rosina, as well as Ninetta, Agnese, and other first-rate parts. In 1822, suffering severely from dyspepsia, she was advised to try the milder climate of Naples, which so completely restored her that she appeared at San Carlo as Desdemona, Semiramide, and Zelmira, creating in all 20 new parts. In the following year she sang for a whole season in Vienna, but returned to Naples and remained there till 1825, when she again went to Paris. On Dec. 9 she appeared in Semiramide, but her voice failed and she was compelled to leave the stage. This misfortune was followed by a hoarseness which prevented her singing again in Paris. The management having declined to fulfil their contract, she brought a succession of actions against them, and finally accepted a compromise in 1828. After her return to Naples her voice so far improved that she sang again at San Carlo, but its peculiar charm was gone though her style was as fine as ever, and served as a model for no less a singer than Henrietta Sontag. Mendelssohn saw a great deal of her at Naples in 1831, and his very favourable impression may be learned from his letters (April 27, 1831). Her last appearance was at Bordeaux in 1833, after which she retired into private life.