Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 1.djvu/721

From Wikisource
Jump to: navigation, search
This page has been validated.
HAYDN.
709
 

compositions, among others 'Ariadne,' a cantata for a single voice (composed in 1782). An anecdote of Bland's visit is often told. When he was admitted, Haydn was in the act of shaving, and grumbling over the bluntness of his razor. Bland caught the exclamation, 'I would give my best quartet for a good razor,' and, rushing off to his lodging, fetched his own pair, which he presented to Haydn, and received in exchange his newest quartet, which is often called the 'Rasirmesser' (razor) quartet (Trautwein, No. 2).

On Sept. 28, 1790, Prince Nicolaus died—a great loss for Haydn, who really loved him. He left his Capellmeister, on condition of his retaining the title, an annual pension of 1000 florins, as a mark of esteem and affection. To this sum his successor, Prince Anton, added another 400 florins, but deprived Haydn of his occupation by dismissing the whole chapel, except the few members necessary to keep up the services in church. Haydn now fixed his abode in Vienna, but had hardly done so before Salomon appeared on the scene. He had heard of the Prince's death at Cologne, on his way to England, and immediately returned, hoping, now that Haydn was free, to persuade him to visit London. Haydn could no longer plead the old excuse of unwillingness to leave his master, so he gave way, and began to make preparations for the journey. While thus occupied he was informed that Ferdinand IV, King of Naples, then in Vienna for the marriage of his two daughters, wished to see him. Haydn had thought of visiting Naples in 1787, and the King was well acquainted with his music. He had even commissioned him to compose several concerted pieces for his favourite instrument, the lyre. Nevertheless the audience was put off several times, and when it did take place, and Haydn presented his compositions, the King said: 'The day after to-morrow we will try them.' Haydn replied that he was to start for England on that day. 'What!' exclaimed the King, 'and you promised to come to Naples!' He then indignantly left the room, but returned in an hour, and, having recovered his temper, made Haydn promise to visit Naples on his return from London, gave him a letter of recommendation to his ambassador, Prince Castelcicala, and sent after him a valuable tabatière. And thus Haydn got over a great turning-point in his life. Among those of whom he took leave was his old and dear friend Madame Genzinger. [See Karajan.] His last hours in Vienna were enlivened by the company of Mozart, who had come to see him off. He too had been invited to London in 1786, and had only declined in deference to his father's wishes. His father was now dead, and Salomon promised him a speedy opportunity of making up for lost time. Too late again—in less than a year Mozart's eyes were closed in death.

To the compositions of the period 1767–90, already mentioned, must be added the following:—

Instrumental music:—about 80 symphonies, including 'Il Distratto' (for a play), 'La Chasse,' 'The Schoolmaster,' 'Laudon,' the Toy-symphony, and [1]the 'Oxford'; 'Feld-partien' for wind instruments; minuets and allemands for full orchestra, and for 2 violins and bass; string-quartets, 6 composed 1769; 6 ditto comp. 1771; 6 ditto comp. 1774; 6 ditto comp. 1781, dedicated to the Grand Duke of Russia; 6 ditto comp. 1786, dedicated to the King of Prussia; 6 ditto comp. 1789, and 6 ditto comp. 1790, ded. to Mr. Tost (Nos. 19–42; 44–49; 57–68, in Heckel's score-edition and in Peter's Edition of the Parts; string-trios of various kinds, adapted from the baryton pieces: 6 duets for violin and [2]viola; pieces for flute, harp, and lute; 175 compositions for the baryton. viz. 6 duets for 2 barytons, 12 sonatas for baryton and cello, 12 divertimenti for 2 barytons and bass, 125 divertimenti for baryton, viola, and bass, 17 cassations, and 3 concertos for baryton, 2 violins, and bass; concertos for strings and wind instruments, viz. violin 9, cello 6,[3] double bass 1, lyre 5, flute 2, horn 4.

Clavier music in chronological sequence, edition Breitkopf & Härtel:—trios with violin and cello, Nos. 25, 26 (really by Michael Haydn), 27, 28, 23, 21, 22, 9, 17, 8, 10, 11, 24, 29, 30, 31, the three last for flute and cello; sonatas Nos. 11, 12, 19, 29, 30, 31, 23–28, 20, 2, 32, 5–8, 18, 13–15, 4, 9, 10, 17, 3, 16; duets for clavier and violin, Nos. 2–5 being original, the rest arrangements; smaller pieces: variations Nos. 5, 4, Capriccio, No. 3; Fantasia, No. 2; 'Differentes petites piéces' (Artaria, op. 46); 'Il Maestro e lo Scolare,' variations for 4 hands, his only composition of the kind, except some early attempts. Of his many clavier-concertos and divertimenti 4 only are included in Haydn's own catalogue, the best, in D (Artaria 1782), not being among the number.[4]

Vocal composition—12 Lieder, 12 ditto (Artaria), several single Lieder: airs for various operas; operas 'La Canterina,' opera buffa (1766); 'Lo Speziale.' dramma giocosa (1768); 'Le Pescatrici,' ditto (1770); 'L'Infedelta delusa,' burletta (1773); 'L'Incontro improviso,' dramma giocosa (1775); 'Il Monda della luna,' ditto (1777); 'La vera Costanza,' ditto (comp. 1777, perf. 1779); 'L'Isola disabitata,' arione teatrale (1779); 'La Fedeltà premiata,' dramma giocosa (1780): 'L'Infedeltà fedele' (1780?); 'Orlando Paladino,' dramma eroicomica (1782); 'Armida,' dramma eroica (1784); Incidental music to the following plays, 'Der Zerstreute,' 'Die Feuersbrunst,' 'Hamlet,' 'Götz von Berlichingen.' 'König Lear,' 'Das ahgebrannte Haus.' Lastly, marionette operas—'Der Götterrath' (prelude to 'Philemon und Baucis'), 'Der Hexenschabbas,' 'Genoverfa,' part 4, Dido, etc.

Leaving Vienna on Wednesday, Dec. 15, 1790, Haydn and Salomon travelled by Munich, Bonn, and Brussels to Calais, crossed the Channel in nine hours on New Year's Day, 1791, and from Dover proceeded straight to London. Haydn first put up at the house of Bland, the music-seller, 45 Holborn, but soon removed to rooms prepared for him at Salomon's, 18 Great Pulteney Street. Here he found himself the object of every species of attention; ambassadors and noblemen called on him, invitations poured in from all quarters, and he was surrounded by a circle of the most distinguished artists, conspicuous among whom were his young countryman Gyrowetz, and Dr. Burney, who had been for some time in correspondence with him, and now welcomed him with a poetical effusion[5]. The Anacreontic Society, the Ladies' Concerts, the New Musical Fund, the Professional Concerts, and all the other musical societies eagerly desired his presence at their meetings. His quartets and symphonies were performed, Pacchierotti sang his cantata 'Ariadne a Naxos,' and he was enthusiastically noticed in all the newspapers. Before leaving Vienna Salomon had announced his subscription concerts in the Morning Chronicle, for which Haydn was engaged to compose six symphonies, and conduct them at the pianoforte. The first of the series took place on March 11, 1791, in the Hanover Square Rooms. The orchestra, led by Salomon, consisted of 35 or 40 performers, and was placed at the end opposite to that which

  1. In G; known in the Library of the Philharmonic Society as 'Letter Q,' recently published in score and parts by Rieter-Biedermann.
  2. First circulated in MS. in 1776, afterwards printed by Artaria, now reprinted by André.
  3. André has lately republished a fine one in D, 1781.
  4. It has been reprinted by André for solo, and with orchestra, and recently arranged for 4 hands by Rieter-Biedermann.
  5. 'Verses on the arrival of the Great Musician Haydn in England.'