Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 1.djvu/771
Pierre and Jean Lou vet, Paris, about 1750 ; Lambert, of Nancy, 1770-805 Delaunay, Paris; and Berge, Toulouse.
The Hurdy Gurdy is an instrument the sound of which is produced by the friction of stretched strings, and the different tones by the help of keys. It has thus analogies to both bowed and clavier instruments. It is sometimes in the shape of the old Viola d'Amore (a viol with very high ribs), of the Guitar, or, as in the woodcut, of the Lute. Four to six tuning-pegs in the head bear as many strings of catgut or sometimes wire, two of which only are carried direct to the tailpiece, and tuned in unison, and one or both are 'stopped* by a simple apparatus of keys with tangents, which directed by the fingers of the player's left hand, shortens the vibrating length to make the melody. The chanterelle has two octaves from the tenor G upwards ; the drones are tuned in C or G ; G being the lowest string in either key.
In the cut showing the wheel and tangents one string only is used as a melody string. The ebony keys are the natural notes, the ivory the sharps. From the position in which the Hurdy Gurdy is held the keys return by their own weight. The longer strings, deflected and carried round the ribs or over the belly and raised upon pro- jecting studs, are tuned as drones or bourdon strings. All these strings are set in vibration by the wooden wheel, which, being rosin- ed, has the function of a violin bow, and i.s inserted crosswise in an opening of the belly just above the tailpiece, the motor being a handle at the tail-end turned by the player's right hand. There are two sound- holes iu the belly near the wheel. The Hurdy Gurdy here represented is a modern French instru- ment (' Vielle en forme de luth '), 37 inches in length without the handle. Two of the drones are spun strings, and one, the so- called ' trumpet,' is of cop- per, and is brought upon the wheel at pleasure by turning an ivory peg in the tail-piece. There are also four sympathetic wire strings tuned in the fifth and octave. Like lutes and other mediaeval instruments, the Hurdy Gurdy wast often much and well adorned, as may be seen in South Kensington Museum ; fancy woods, carving, in- laying and painting being lavishly employed. The Hurdy Gurdy has been sometimes called Rota (from its wheel), but the Rote of Chaucer had no wheel, and was a kind of half fiddle, half lyre, with an opening (as in the CKWTH) for the
���hand of the player to touch the strings from the back. The old Latin name for a Hurdy Gurdy was OBGANISTRDM, and this large form of the instrument it took two persons to play, as it was so long as to lie across the knees of both. The artist touched the keys ; the handle-turner was no more important than an organ bellows blower. The summit of the arch of the Gate of Glory of Santiago da Compostella, a cast of which is at South Kensington, is occupied by two figures playing an Organistrum. The date of this great Spanish work is 1188. There are other early representations, especially one in the museum at Rouen, but the earliest, dating in the gth century, was copied by Gerbert from a MS. in the monastery of St. Blaise in the Black Forest, and published by him (De Cantu et MusicA Sacra) in 1774. Mr. Engel has reproduced this drawing in the work already referred to (p. 103). The instrument had eight keys acting on three strings, tuned either in unison or concord. The ' Symphonia" or Chifonie' was the Hurdy Ourdy in the i3th century. As for the name Hurdy Gurdy it was probably made merely for euphony, like ' hocus pocus,' ' harum scarum,' but it may have been suggested by the peculiar tone. The Hurdy Gurdy was the prototype of the PIANO VIOLIN, and all similar sostcnente instrument*, and we may perhaps see in its simple action the origin of the CLAVICHORD.
Donizetti's ' Linda di Chamouni* (1842) con- tains two Savoyard songs with accompaniment for the Hurdy Gurdy. In recent performances violins and violas, and even the concertina, have been substituted for the original instrument, which however remains in the score. [A. J.H.]
HUTCHINSON, FRANCIS, an amateur com- poser, who, under the pseudonym of Francis Ire- land, produced in the Utter half of the iSth century many vocal compositions of considerable merit. The Catch Club awarded him three prizes, viz. in 1771 for his catch 'As Colin one evening*; in 1772 for his cheerful glee 'Jolly Bacchus'; and in 1773 for his serious glee ' Where weeping yews.' 1 1 glees and 8 catches by him are printed in Warren's collections. His beautiful madrigal, 'Return, return, my lovely maid,' is universally admired. He is sometimes styled ' Dr.* Hutchmson, but he does not appear to have graduated in any faculty. He may pos- sibly have been a medical practitioner, to whom the term Dr.' was popularly applied. [W. H. H.]
HUTCHINSON, JOHN, was organist of Dur- ham Cathedral in the earlier part of the I7th century, and had, probably, previously held some appointment at Southwell Minster. He com- posed some anthems, one of which is preserved in the Tudway collection (Harl. MS. 1740), and, with two others, at Ely. [W. H.H.I
HYMN (Gr. C/*xoi ; Lat. ffymnut; Ital. 7no; Germ. Kirehenlied, Kirchenguany). The first Hymn mentioned in the annals of Christianity is that sung by our Lord, and His Apostles, immediately after the institution of the H-.'.v Eucharist. There is some ground for believing