��Loewe has left a graphic account of its horrors in his ' Selbstbiographie ' (edited by Bitter, Berlin 1870). Turk died in 1814, and the flight of King Jerome (Oct. 26, 1813) deprived Loewe of his income, but by the aid of Niemeyer he entered the university of Halle as a theo- logical student under Michaelis. Naue, Turk's successor, founded a - Singakademie like that of Zelter at Berlin. Loewe joined this, and thus became acquainted with his future wife, Julie von Jacob, a very gifted person, whom he married Sept. 7, 1821. In 1818 he composed his first ballads, ' Edward,' and the Erl-king,' followed in 1824 (after his wife's death) by 1 Der Wirthin Tochterlein,' which, by Marx's assistance, were printed. In 1819 and 20 he paid visits to Dresden, Weimar, and Jena, making the acquaintance of Weber, Hummel, and Goethe. In 1820 he was invited to Stettin, and having passed with credit through various tests, such as a musical exercise submitted to Zelter, and a trial sermon, was duly installed professor at the Gymnasium and Seminary, and Cantor. In 1821 he became Musikdirector to the municipality, and organist of St. Jacobus. He made a considerable mark both as a con- ductor and professor ' in Stettin and throughout Pomerania. In 1837 he was elected member of the Akademie of Berlin. He was a favourite with both Frederic William III. aud IV., the latter being especially fond of his ballads. He travelled much, and was present at the Musical Festivals of Diisseldorf (1837) and Mayence (the Guttenberg Commemoration), visiting Hamburg, Liibeck, and Bremen on the way. In 1844 he went to Vienna, and in 1847 to London. The Duchess of Coburg had specially recommended him to the Prince Consort and Queen Adelaide ; he sang and played at Court, the Prince turning over his music ; and here he heard Jenny Land for the first time ; but he left not the least trace of his presence behind him. In 1851 he went to Sweden and Norway, and in 5 7 to France. In 1864 he had a singular illness a trance of six weeks' duration, and in 1866 the authorities of Stettin asked him to resign. After this mortifi- cation somewhat atoned for by the King's opportune bestowal of a higher grade of the Order of the Red Eagle than he had before enjoyed he left Stettin for Kiel, where he quietly expired April 20, 1869, after another trance. His heart was buried near his organ in St. Jacobus at Stettin.
Carl Loewe was an industrious composer, as will be seen from the list of his music : 5 operas, of which one only was performed ' Die drei Wiinsche' (Theatre Royal, Berlin, 1834). Man- tius was the tenor; Spontini took unusual pains; the opera was a great success, and the Crown Prince presented the composer with a gold medal. Oratorios 'Die Festzeiten'; 'Die Zerstorung Jerusalems' (1829); 'Die sieben Schlafer'"
1 Some experiments In acoustics, conducted with his colleague Grassmann, produced results of real value.
J Scores of these three are in the Library of the Sacred Harmonic Society.
(1833); 'Die eherne Schlange' (1834); 'Die Apostel von Philippi (1835, for voices only): 'Guttenberg' (1836) ; 'Palestrina'(i84i); 'Huss' (1842); 'Hiob,' 'Der Meister von Avis,' 'Das Siihnopfer des neuen Bundes,' ' Das hohe Lied Salomonis,' and 'Polus Atella ' (all between 1848 and 60) ; 'DieHeilung des Blindgebornen' (1861); ' Johannes der Taufer ' (62); and 'Die Auferweckung des Lazarus' (63). The three last, like 'Die Apostel von Philippi,' were for voices only, without accompaniment, a species of composition peculiar to himself. His second wife and pupil, Auguste Lange of Konigsberg, sang in his oratorios with himself. He published 145 works with opus-numbers symphonies, con- certos, duets, and other pieces for P.F., but above all, ballads, in which he specially excelled, and in which he may be considered as the successor of Zumsteeg. His poetic feeling and power of musical expression give him a high rank among composers, although his music, like Reichardt's, has gone by for ever. He was the author of a ' Gesanglehre ' (Stettin, 1826; 3rd ed., 1834), and of ' Musikalischer Gottesdienst, Anweisung zum Kirchengesang und Orgelspiel' (1851, 4 editions). The University of Greifswald con- ferred on him a Doctor's degree. Two of his songs are included in the ist volume of 'The Musical Library.' [F-G-]
LOEWE, JOHANNA SOPHIE, dramatic singer, granddaughter of Friedrich August Leopold Loewe (who died 1816 as director of the Liibeck theatre) and daughter of Ferdinand Loewe, an actor, was born at Oldenburg in 1815, and ac- companied her father to Mannheim, Frankfort, and Vienna, where he was engaged at the Burg Theater, through the influence of his sister, Julie Loewe, a celebrated actress. Here Sophie studied singing under Ciccimara and other good masters. Her de'but as a concert-singer was so successful that she was at once engaged for the court opera, and first appeared on the stage in 1833 in a German version of Donizetti's Otto mese in due ore.' A contemporary report speaks of ' her voice as not powerful, but cultivated and sym- pathetic, her personal appearance prepossessing, and her acting as evincing dramatic ability much above the common.' Towards the close of 1836 she went to Berlin, where she created a furore as Isabella in ' Robert le Diable,' and was at once engaged at a high salary, appearing as Amina in the 'Sonnambula' on April 28, 1837. In 1838 she was appointed chamber- singer to the king, but soon resigned, and tra- velled to London, Paris, and Italy. In London she appeared at Covent Garden, May 13, 1841, in Bellini's ' Straniera,' but her success was only temporary. According to Chorley she had been puffed as a new Grisi, there being an idea that Grisi had lost her voice, and he says that the public were grievously disappointed ; but he allows that she was the best Elvira he had ever seen, and that her manner was sprightly, graceful, and intelligent, her 'demeanour unim- peachable, and her costume superb ' as the Do- garessain 'Marino Falieri' (Mod. German Music,