Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 2.djvu/193

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LYCEUM THEATRE.
181
LYRE.

Theatre having been burnt down, Feb. 24, 1809, the company performed at the Lyceum from April II following during the rebuilding of their own house. Arnold opened the theatre June 26, under the title of 'The English Opera House,' for the performance of operas, melodramas and musical farces. In 1815, having obtained a 99 years' lease of the ground, he employed Samuel Beazley to rebuild the theatre on the same site, behind the houses on the north side of the Strand, a narrow avenue from which formed the approach to the box entrance, the pit and gallery doors being in Exeter Court to the westward. On April 2, 1818, the elder Charles Mathews gave here his 'Mail Coach Adventures,' the first of that remarkable series of entertainments known as his 'At Home.' The most noticeable operatic event in the history of the house was the production on the English stage of Weber's 'Der Freischütz,' July 22 [App. p.706 "July 23"], 1824. The house being burnt down, Feb. 16, 1830, the present theatre (also designed by Beazley) was erected. It does not occupy the exact site of its predecessor, advantage having been taken of the opportunity to form the continuation of Wellington Street on the north side of the Strand, by building the stage of the new house at the west instead of the east end. During the rebuilding the company performed at the Adelphi and Olympic Theatres. The new house opened July 14, 1834, the first new opera performed in it being Loder's 'Nourjahad,' and Barnett's 'Mountain Sylph,' produced later in the year, achieving a great success. Early in 1839 'Promenade Concerts à la Musard' (the first of the kind given in England) took place here under the conductorship of Signor Negri. In 1841 the management passed into the hands of Balfe, who produced his opera 'Keolanthe,' but his career was brief. The house then ceased to be an English opera-house and became, under its old name of 'Lyceum,' a theatre for the performance of the general drama, Keeley, Madame Vestris, Madame Celeste, Falconer, and others by turns holding the reins of management. The present manager (1879) is Henry Irving. For three seasons, 1837, 38, and 71 [App. p.706 "41"], Italian opera buffa was given here in the winter, and the house has frequently been occupied by French comedians. During the rebuilding of Covent Garden Theatre after the fire in 1856 the performances of the Royal Italian Opera were given at the Lyceum, and in the same year the Pyne and Harrison English Opera Company performed there. It was last occupied for the performance of operas in English by the Carl Rosa Company in 1876 and 1877.

[ W. H. H. ]

LYDIAN MODE. (Lat. Modus Lydius, Modus V, Tonus V.) The Fifth of the Ecclesiastical Modes; called, by mediæval writers, Modus lætus, (The Joyful Mode,) from its generally jubilant character.

The Final of the Lydian Mode is F: and its compass, in the Authentic form, lies between that note, and the octave above. Its semitones fall between the fourth and fifth, and seventh and eighth degrees. Its Dominant is C; its Mediant, A; and its Participant G. Its Conceded Modulations are, B, D, and E; and its Absolute Initials, F, A, and C.

Mode V.

{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \cadenzaOn \clef bass f1^"Fin." g^"Part." a^"Med." b( c')^"Dom." d' e'( f') \bar "||" }

In the Plagal, or Hypolydian form, (Mode VI,) its compass lies between the C below the Final, and the C above it: and its semitones fall between the third and fourth, and seventh and eighth degrees. The Final of the Hypolydian Mode is F; its Dominant is A; its Mediant is D; its Participant, the lower C. Its Conceded Modulations are B (the 7th), B (the inverted 7th), and G: the two B's being frequently made flat, to avoid the Tritonus. [See Modes.] Its Absolute Initials are C, D, and F.

Mode VI.

{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \cadenzaOn \relative c' { c1^"Part." d^"Med." e( f)^"Fin." g a^"Dom." b( c) \bar "||" } }

The Fifth Mass in Palestrina's Tenth Book—Missa Quinti Toni—is written, as its name implies, in the Lydian Mode. A beautiful example of the use of the Hypolydian, and one which fully justifies the epithet antiently applied to it—Modus devotus (The Devout Mode)—is to be found in the first movement of the Plain Chaunt Missa pro Defunctis, printed, at length, in the article, Kyrie.

The Lydian Mode of the Middle Ages has nothing, but its name, in common with the older Greek scale, which is said, on the authority of Apuleius, and other antient authors, to have been characterised by a tone of soft complaint—a peculiarity which modern poets have not forgotten, in their allusions to it.

[ W. S. R. ]

LYRE (λυρα), an ancient musical instrument, in use among the Greeks, and undoubtedly derived by them from Asia. It consisted of a hollow body or sound-chest, from which were raised two arms, sometimes also hollow, which were curved both outward and forward. These arms were connected near the top by a crossbar or yoke. Another crossbar was on the soundchest, and formed a bridge to convey the vibrations of the strings to it. The strings—at different times four, seven, or ten in number—were made of gut, and were stretched between the yoke and the bridge, or carried on to a tail-piece below the bridge. The lyre differs from the harp in having fewer strings, and from the lute or guitar in having no fingerboard. It was played by being struck with the plectrum, which was held in the right hand, but the fingers of the left hand were also used to touch the strings. The larger lyres (Cithara) were supported by a ribbon slung across the player's shoulders, or held as shewn in the illustration, but the treble lyre (or Chelys) was held by the left arm or between the knees. The illustration is taken from 'a drawing upon an amphora (B.C. 440–330) in