della Incoronatella, who, towards the year 1584 [App. p.727 "in the year 1583"] made their house an asylum both for the homeless orphans of Naples, and also for children whose parents were unable to support them. At first the children were only taught to read and write, and were clad in long blue garments ('color turchino'), hence the name of 'Pietà de' Turchini,' which was adopted by the institution instead of that of the 'Incoronatella.' It was not till a century later that musical instruction was given to the pupils. In 1600 it was placed under the protection of Philip III of Spain, and in 1670 Francesco Provenzale and Gennaro Ursino were appointed to be its Professors of Music, Provenzale having preceded Scarlatti as Maestro of the Palatine Chapel at Naples. It produced many famous composers, such as Feo, Fago, Carapella, Leo, Cafaro and Sala. In 1806, on the abolition of the Conservatorio of Sta. Maria di Loreto, the pupils were received into the Pietà de' Turchini. In 1808 this, the last of the Conservatories, was also suppressed on the representation of Monsignore Capecelatro, Archbishop of Taranto, 'that the Neapolitan Conservatorios had fallen from their ancient glory on account of bad administration and lack of discipline, and that the only remedy was to re-organize them in one great college established on a broader basis.' Thus the 'Reale Collegio Di Musica' came into existence, first with the title of San Sebastiano, and afterwards with that of S. Pietro a Maiella, which it still retains.
Tritta, Paisiello, and Feneroli were the first directors and general administrators of the new Royal College of Music. They were succeeded in 1813 by Zingarelli. In 1817 'external' preparatory schools of music were added; and the pupils who passed creditable examinations there were admitted into the Royal College. In the revolution of 1820 half the building of San Sebastiano was seized for the use of the government, the other half was made over to the Jesuits, and the monastery of San Pietro a Maiella was assigned to the Royal College of Music. In 1837 Zingarelli was followed by Donizetti, and he again in 1840 by Mercadante, who made great reforms in the discipline and efficiency of the college. In 1861, on account of his blindness, Carlo Conti was appointed his coadjutor. Conti died in 1868, and was succeeded by Paolo Serrao Mercadante, who retained his post as President till his death in 1870. Since that date the College appears to have lost ground, and a fatal economy seems to have beset its management. In 1874 the scholarships were reduced from 100 to 50, and 25 of these were thrown open to women, with allowance for lodging; but in 1879 this allowance was abolished. The post of Director is now vacant, and the College is governed by a board of professors and amateurs. Manfroce, Bellini, Luigi Ricci, and Michael Costa are the most distinguished names on the roll of the Neapolitan School of Music since the establishment of the Reale Collegio di Napoli. [App. p.727 "See also Musical Libraries, vol. ii. p. 425b."]
[ C. M. P. ]
NARDINI, Pietro, an eminent violinist and composer, was born at Fibiana, a village in Tuscany, in 1722. He received his first musical instruction at Leghorn, and afterwards studied for several years under Tartini at Padua. We know nothing further of his early career. About the year 1753 he was appointed Solo-violinist at the Ducal court at Stuttgardt, where he remained for fifteen years. In 1767 he returned to Italy, settled at Leghorn, and stayed with his old master Tartini during his last illness. In 1770 he accepted an appointment as director of the music at the court of the Duke of Tuscany, and died in 1793 [App. p.728 "May 7"] at Florence.
Nardini was the most eminent of Tartini's disciples. Leopold Mozart, the best possible judge in matters of violin-playing, writes of him: 'the beauty, purity, and equality of his tone, and the tastefulness of his cantabile-playing, cannot be surpassed; but he does not execute great difficulties.' The well-known poet-musician Schubart relates in his flowery style: 'his playing brings tears into the eyes of stony-hearted courtiers nay, his own tears run down on his violin!'
That Nardini was not a mere executant, but a thorough musician, is evident from the character of his compositions for the violin. Vivacity, grace, a sweet sentimentality, are the main characteristics of his style, which is altogether more modern in form and feeling than Tartini's. His Allegros are often largely developed, and already display the full sonata-form, while his slow movements are not unlike Viotti's. If nevertheless the greater part of his works appear to us old-fashioned and antiquated compared with those of Tartini, the reason is, that he has neither the depth of feeling, the grand pathos, nor the concentrated energy of his great master.
His published compositions (according to Fétis) are: 6 Concertos, op. 1 (Amsterdam); 6 Sonatas pour violon et bassi, op. 2 (Berlin, 1765; a new edition published by Cartier, Paris); 6 Trios pour flute (London); 6 Solos pour violon, op. 5 (London); 6 Quartets (Florence, 1782); 6 Duos pour deux violons (Paris).
Some of his sonatas have latterly been re-edited by Alard and F. David.
[ P. D. ]
NARES, James, Mus. Doc., born at Stanwell, Middlesex, in 1715 [App. p.728 "he was born shortly before April 19, 1715, on which day he was baptized"], was a chorister in the Chapel Royal under Bernard Gates, and afterwards a pupil of Dr. Pepusch. He acted for some time as deputy for Pigott, organist of St. George's Chapel, Windsor, and in 1734 was appointed, on the resignation of Salisbury, organist of York Minster. On Jan. 13, 1756, he was appointed to succeed Dr. Greene as organist and composer to the Chapel Royal, and in the same year graduated as Mus. Doc. at Cambridge. In Oct. 1757 he was appointed Master of the Children of the Chapel Royal, vice Gates, his old master. In 1770 he gained a prize from the Catch Club for his glee, 'To all lovers of harmony.' He resigned the mastership of the Chapel boys July 1, 1780, died Feb. 10, 1783, and was buried in St. Margaret's, Westminster. Dr. Nares published 'Eight Sets of Harpsichord Lessons,' 1748;