Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 2.djvu/522

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510
OPERA.
 

great variety of treatment. As a general rule, it was less pathetic than the Aria Cantabile, and less dignified than the Aria di portamento, but capable of expressing greater depths of passion than either. Its pace was generally, though not necessarily, Andante; the second part being sung a little faster than the first, with a return to the original time at the Da Capo. Its Accompaniment was rich and varied, including at least the full Stringed Band, with the frequent introduction of Oboes and other Wind Instruments. Some of Handel's most celebrated Songs belong to this class, the style of which is well exemplified in the subjoined Air from 'Teseo,' sung in 1713 by Margherita de l'Epine.

<< \new Staff { \key bes \major \time 6/8 \relative f' { \autoBeamOff f8[ bes] a bes16.[ c32 d8] c | a4 bes8 c16.[ d32 ees8] d8 | bes4 c8 d16.[ ees32 f8] ees | d[ c] bes a4. | \repeat unfold 2 { \teeny <bes d>16.[^"Tutti" <c ees>32 <d f>8 <c a>] \normalsize d16.[ ees32 f8] c | } s_"etc." } }
\addlyrics { Vie -- ni tor -- na_I -- do -- lo mi -- o. Ques -- to cor a con -- so -- lar _ Vie -- ni, _ tor -- na, }
\new Staff { \clef bass \key bes \major \relative b, { bes4 c8 d4 ees8 | f4 g8 a f bes | g4 a8 bes16. c32 d8 c | bes d, ees f4. << { \teeny <bes d>16[ <c ees>32 <d f>8 <a c>] } \\ { f4.^\f ~ f^\p ~ f ~ f } >> s8 } }
\figures { < _ >4 <6>8 <6>4 <6>8 < _ >4. <6> <6>4 <6 5> <6>8 <6> < _ >2. \repeat unfold 4 { <6 4>4 <5 3>8 } } >>


4. The Aria parlante was of a more declamatory character, and therefore better adapted for the expression of deep passion, or violent emotion of any kind. Its Accompaniments were sometimes very elaborate, and exhibited great variety of Instrumentation, which the best Masters carefully accommodated to the sense of the Verses they desired to illustrate. Different forms of the Air were sometimes distinguished by special names: for instance, quiet Melodies, in which one note was accorded to each several syllable, were called Arie di nota e parola; while the terms Aria agitata, Aria di strepito, and even Aria infuriata, were applied to Movements exhibiting a greater or less amount of dramatic power. The following example, from Handel's 'Sosarme,' was sung in 1732 by Signora Bagnolesi, to an obbligato Violin Accompaniment played by Castrucci.

<< \new Staff { \key a \major \time 4/4 \override Score.Rest #'style = #'classical << \new Voice = "Solo" \relative f' { \autoBeamOff r4 fis8. fis16 cis'4 cis, | r8 b' b8. cis16 a2 | gis2 r r4 cis8. b16 ais[ gis] fis8 r4 | r fis8. e16 d[ cis] b8 r4 | r b'8. a16 gis[ fis] e8 r4 }
\new Voice \relative c'' { \stemUp s1 s | r4 r8 cis^"Violino solo." \teeny fis16( eis fis) cis cis( b cis) gis'-. | gis( fis gis) cis,-. cis b cis cis' cis b cis e, e dis e ais | ais gis ais cis cis b cis fis, fis e fis dis' dis cis dis b | b ais b fis fis e fis d d cis d gis gis fis gis b_"etc." } >> }
\new Lyrics \lyricsto "Solo" { Cuor di ma -- dre E cuor di mog -- lie Chi t'in -- vo -- la chi ti to -- glie chi t'in -- vo -- la }
\new Staff { \clef bass \key a \major << \new Voice \relative c' { \stemUp \teeny <cis a>4 s <cis gis> s <eis cis gis> s <fis cis a>2 <eis cis gis>4 s <fis cis> s | <gis cis, gis> s <fis cis ais> s | <cis ais fis>8 s <cis fis, cis> s <b fis d> s s4 | <b fis> s cis }
\new Voice \relative f { \stemDown fis4 r eis r cis r fis fis, | cis' r a' r | eis r fis r | fis,8 r ais r b4 r | d r e d } >> }
\figures { < _ >2 <6> <_+>1 <_+>2 <6> <6> <_+> <_+>4 <6>2. <6>2 <7> } >>


5. The Aria di bravura, or d'agilità, was generally an Allegro, filled with brilliant 'divisions' or passages of rapid fioritura calculated to display the utmost powers of the Singer for whom the Movement was intended. Some of the passages written for Elizabetta Pilotti Schiavonetti, Cuzzoni, Faustina, Nicolini, Farinelli, and other great Singers of the period, were so amazingly difficult, that few Artists of the present day would care to attack them without a considerable amount of preparatory study, though it is certain that the Vocalists for whom they were originally composed overcame them with ease. Among such volate we may class the following, sung in 'Ricardo Primo,' by the celebrated Sopranist, Senesino.

<< \new Staff { \key c \major \time 4/4 \override Score.Rest #'style = #'classical \tempo "Allegro" << \new Voice = "Solo" \relative g' { \autoBeamOff \stemUp r4 g8 c b16[a] g[ f] e[ d] c[ b] | c[ b c c'] c[ b c c,] c[ b c c'] c[ b c c,] | c[ b c g'] g[ f g e] a[ f g e] f[ a g f] | \stemDown e[ d] c8 r4 r2 | r4 \stemUp e8 d16[ c] g'8 g g c | b16[ a] g8 }
\new Voice \relative b' { \stemUp \teeny s1 s s r16^"Violini" b c g e' c g' c, a' c, g' c, f c b g' | e d c8 s2. | s4 r16^"Violini" e d c g'8 g, r16 c,16 b a | g4 }
\new Voice \relative b' { \stemDown \teeny s1 s s s s s2 <b g d>4 } >> }
\new Lyrics \lyricsto "Solo" { All' or -- ror del -- le pro -- cel -- _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ le, al ri -- gor d'a -- ver -- se stel -- le }
\new Staff { \clef bass \key c \major << \new Voice \relative c' { \tiny \stemUp s1 s4 c8 c c c <c e> q | q q q q c <c g> <c f,> <b g> | <c g>4 g'8 <g c,> <f c> <g c,> a g | g c, }
\new Voice \relative c { \stemDown c16 g a b c d e f g8 g, g g | a a e' e f f g g | a a e e f e d g, | c c, c'' e, f e d g | c, c, r16 c'' b a g f e d c c b a | g4 r16 c' b a g f e d c c b a | g4 } >> }
\figures { < _ >1 < _ >4 <6>2. < _ > <7>8 <7> < _ >2 < _ >8 <6> <7> <7> } >>