Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 2.djvu/581

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ORCHESTRATION.
569
 

invention. In the following passage, from the Adagio of the Fourth Symphony (in B♭), this richness is secured by the perfect proportion established between the tone of the Stringed and Wind Instruments, which afford each other the exact amount of support needed for the completion of the general effect—

<< \new Staff { \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \time 3/4 \key ees \major \tempo \markup { \italic Adagio. } << \new Voice \relative e''' { \stemUp ees4^"Fl." d c | bes4. aes8 g aes16. f32 | ees4 d8 ees f <g g,>16 <a a,> | <a ees>4^( <bes d,>) }
\new Voice \relative b' { \stemDown s2. s r8 bes_"Oboi" } 
\new Voice \relative g' { \stemDown <g ees'>4_"2 Clar." <bes d> <aes c> | <bes d,>4. <f aes>8 <ees g> <f aes>16. <f c>32 | <ees bes>4 <bes' aes d aes>8 <bes g ees g,> <bes f bes,> <ees ees,> | <ees a c>4 <d bes'> } >> }
\new Staff { \clef bass \key ees \major << \new Voice \relative e { \stemDown <ees g>4^\p_"2 Fag." <g bes> <aes c> | <f aes>4. q8 <ees g> aes, | bes2 ~ bes8 bes | bes2 }
\new Voice \relative c' { \stemUp s2. s2 s8 c16. aes32 | g4 f8 ees d c16 f | f4( bes) } >> }
\new Staff { \key ees \major \relative e' { <ees ees'>16\p^"Violini"[ r32 <g bes> <bes ees>16 q] r r32 <g bes> <bes d>16 q r r32 <aes ees> <aes c>16 q | r r32 <f d> <f bes>16 q r r32 <f bes,> <f a>16 q r r32 <g bes,> <c, aes>16 <c f> | r r32 <bes g> <bes ees>16 q r r32 <bes aes> <g ees'>16 q r r32 <bes f'> <ees g>16 <ees a> | r r32 <ees c> <ees a>16 q r r32 <bes d> <d bes'>16 q } }
\new Staff { \clef bass \key ees \major << \new Voice \relative e { \stemUp <ees ees'>2.^"2 Corni" <ees bes'>2 ~ q8 <ees ees'> <bes bes'>2 ~ q8 q | q2 }
\new Voice \relative e { \stemDown <ees ees,>8_"Viole e Bassi" r q^\markup { \italic "pizz." } q q q | q q q q q <aes aes, aes,> | <bes bes, bes,> q q q q q | q[ q q q] } >> } >>


The fulness of the next example, from Mendelssohn's Hebrides Overture, is chiefly due to the sustained notes played by the Horns, on the cessation of which the weak point which would otherwise have marred the effect of the passage is guarded by the entrance of the Violins and Double-basses—

<< \new Staff { \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \time 4/4 \key b \minor \tempo \markup { \italic { \concat { All \super o } \concat { Mod \super to. } } } << \new Voice \relative f'' { \stemUp <fis dis>4^\p^"2 Clar. in A" <e cis>8 <dis b> <cis ais>4. q8 | <fis dis>4 <e cis>8 <dis b> <cis aes>4. q8 | <fis dis>4 <e cis>8 <dis b> <gis b>4 <fis ais>8 <e gis> | <fis dis>4 <dis b> <cis gis>_"dim." fis, }
\new Voice \relative f { \stemDown <fis fis'>2\pp_"2 Corni in D" ~ q8 q q q | q2 ~ q8 q q q | q4 r r2 | r1 } >> }
\new Staff { \key b \minor \relative b' { R1*2 r2 << { b2^"Violini" ~ b aes } \\ { gis\pp fis1 } >> } }
\new Staff { \clef bass \key b \minor << \new Voice \relative b { \stemUp <b dis>2^\pp^"2 Viole" <cis ais> <b dis> <cis ais> <b dis> cis | <b dis> e4 cis }
\new Voice \relative d { \stemDown dis2_"Celli" e dis e dis s s cis' }
\new Voice \relative e { \stemDown R1*2 r2 <e e,>\pp_"Contrabassi" | <fis fis,>2. <e e,>4 } >> } >>


Other composers have attained similar results in innumerable different ways: but it will generally be found that the most satisfactory passages are those which exhibit a judicious disposition of the harmony, a just balance between the Stringed and Wind Instruments, and a perfect adaptation of the parts to the Instruments for which they are written.

III. Boldness of contrast is produced by so grouping together the various instruments employed as to take the greatest possible advantage of their difference of timbre. We have already shown, in the preceding article, that the Instrumental Band, as now constituted, naturally divides itself into certain sections, as distinct from each other as the Manuals of an Organ. Concerning the first and most important of these—the 'Stringed Band'—enough has already been said. The second sometimes called the 'Wood Wind'—is led by the Flutes, and completed by Reed Instruments, such as the Oboe, the Clarinet, and the Bassoon. The third—the 'Brass Band'—is subdivided into two distinct families; one formed by the Horns and Trumpets, to which latter the drums supply the natural bass; the other comprising the three Trombones, and, in the noisy Orchestras of the present day, the Ophicleide and Euphonium. The principle of subdivision is, indeed, frequently extended to all the great sections of the Orchestra. For instance, the Flutes and Oboes are constantly formed into a little independent Band, and contrasted with the Clarinets and Bassoons. Handel even divides the Stringed Band, and produces fine effects of contrast by so doing. In a large proportion of his best and most celebrated Songs, the Voice is accompanied by a 'Thoroughbass' alone: that is to say, by a part for the Violoncello and Double Bass, with figures placed below the notes