Vienna, enjoying a considerable reputation as a teacher and composer. The sinecure post of doorkeeper to the Emperor was conferred upon him, and in 1818 he succeeded Kozeluch as Court Capellmeister and Composer, in which capacity he accompanied the Emperor Francis to France and Italy. He died suddenly Jan. 8, 1831, while composing a pastoral mass. As a composer he was remarkable for productiveness, and for a clear and agreeable style, most observable perhaps in his string-quartets and quintets, published at Vienna, Offenbach, and Paris. This made him a great favourite in Vienna at the close of the century. Schubert however, who as a boy of eleven had to play his Symphonies in the band of the 'Convict,' used to laugh at them, and preferred those of Kozeluch. Both are alike forgotten. Krommer also composed a number of quartets and quintets for flutes, besides the pieces for wind-instruments already mentioned. The only one of his church works printed is a mass in 4 parts with orchestra and organ (André, Offenbach). Had he not been the contemporary of Haydn and Mozart he might have enjoyed more enduring popularity.
[ F. G. ]
KRUMMHORN (i.e. crooked-horn), Cromorne, Cremona, Clarionet, Corno-di-Bassetto. The various names given to an Organ Reed Stop of 8 feet size of tone. Modern English specimens, which are found under all the foregoing names except the first, are estimated in proportion as their sound resembles that of the orchestral Clarinet. The Cremonas in the organs built by Father Smith (1660) for the 'Whitehall Banqueting House,' etc., and those by Harris in his instruments at St. Sepulchre's, Snow Hill (1670), etc., were doubtless 'voiced' to imitate the first-named and now obsolete crooked-horn. They were never intended to represent the violin, into the name of which its own had nevertheless been corrupted. The pipes are of metal, cylindrical in shape, short, and of narrow measure, the CC pipe being only about 4 ft. 6 in. in length, and 1¾in. in diameter.
[ E. J. H. ]
KRUMPHOLZ, Johann Baptist, celebrated harpist and composer, born about 1745 at Zlonitz near Prague; son of a bandmaster in a French regiment, lived in Paris from his childhood, learning music from his father. The first public mention of him is in the 'Wiener Diarium' for 1772; he had played at a concert in the Burgtheater, and advertised for pupils on the pedal-harp. From Oct. 1773 to March 1776 he was a member of Prince Esterhazy's chapel at Esterhaz, taking lessons from Haydn in composition, and already seeking after improvements in his instrument. He next started on a concert-tour, playing at Leipzig on an 'organisirten Harfe.' He then settled in Paris, where he was highly esteemed as a teacher and virtuoso. Nadermann built a harp from his specifications, to which attention was drawn by an article in the 'Journal de Paris' (Feb. 8, 1786), and which Krumpholz described in a preface to his sonata, op. 14. His wife played some pieces on it before the Académie, Krumpholz accompanying her on the violin, and on the 'Pianoforte contrebasse' or 'Clavichord à marteau,' another instrument made by Erard from his specifications. The Académie expressed their approval of the new harp in a letter to Krumpholz (Nov. 21, 1787). He drowned himself in the Seine in 1790 from grief at the infidelity and ingratitude of his wife.
Gerber gives a list of his compositions, which are still of value. They comprise 6 grand concertos, 32 sonatas with violin accompaniment, preludes, variations, duets for 2 harps, a quartet for harp and strings, and symphonies for harp and small orchestra, published in Paris and London.
His wife, née Meyer, from Metz, eloped with a young man to London. She was even a finer player than her husband, making the instrument sound almost like an Eolian harp. In London she gave her first concert at Hanover Square Rooms, June 2, 1788, and for many years appeared with great success at her own and Salomon's concerts, at the oratorios in Drury Lane, and at Haydn's benefit. She frequently played Dussek's duos concertantes for harp and pianoforte with the composer. She is mentioned in 1802, but after that appears to have retired into private life.
Wenzel Krumpholz, brother of the former, born in 1750, became one of the first violins at the court-opera in Vienna in 1796. His name is immortalised by his intimacy with Beethoven, who was very fond of him, though he used to call him in joke 'mein Narr,' my fool. According to Ries he gave Beethoven some instruction on the violin in Vienna. Krumpholz was one of the first to recognise Beethoven's genius, and he inspired others with his own enthusiasm. Czerny mentions this in his Autobiography, and also that he introduced him to Beethoven, who offered of his own accord to give him lessons. Krumpholz also played the mandoline, and Beethoven seems to have intended writing a sonata for P.F. and mandoline for him [App. p.693 "wrote a sonata in one movement, given under Mandoline, vol. ii. p. 205"]. He died May 2, 1817, aged 67, and Beethoven must have felt his death deeply, since he composed on the following day the 'Gesang der Mönche' (from Schiller's 'Wilhelm Tell'), for 3 men's voices, 'in commemoration of the sudden and unexpected death of our Krumpholz.' Only two of his compositions have been printed—an 'Abendunterhaltung' for a single violin (dances, variations, a short andante, etc.; Vienna and Pesth, Kunst & Tndustrie-Comptoir); and 'Ein Viertelstunde für eine Violine,' dedicated to Schuppanzigh (Joh. Traeg).
[ C. F. P. ]
KÜCKEN, Friedrich Wilhelm, born at Bleckede, Hanover, Nov. 16, 1810. His father, a country gentleman, was averse to the musical proclivities of his son, and the boy had to thank his brother-in-law, Lürss, music-director and or-
- Or Liége, according to Gerber and Reichardt.
- Not 1790, as commonly stated.
- 'Biographische Notizen.' p. 119.
- He calls Krumpholz 'an old man.' He was then about 60.
- 'Autographische Skizze,' by Artaroa. On Wenzel Krumpholz see also Thayer's 'Beethoven,' vol. ii. p. 48; the confusion between the two brothers is rectified vol. iii. p. 510.
- Compare Nottebohm's Thematic Catalogue, p. 161.
- Czerny took No. 1, a contredanse, as the theme of his XX concert variations for P.F. and violin. This, his op. 1 (Steiner. 2nd edit.), is dedicated to Krumpholz—fine trait of gratitude.