��of the 1 3th century. This ingenious and in- teresting composition (which is printed in fac- simile in ChappelTs * Popular Music' and in score in Hawkins) is preserved in the Harleian MSS. (978) in the British Museum. It is (as the late Dr. Rimbault has pointed out) founded on the old ecclesiastical litany chant 'Pater de ccelis Deus,' and is written for six voices, four of which sing the round proper or ' rota ' (as it is termed in the Latin directions for singing it), whilst the other two sing an accompanying ground or ' pes.' Amongst early writers on music, the terms 'round' and 'catch' were synonymous, but at the present day the latter is generally under- stood to be what Hawkins (vol. ii) defines as that species of round ' wherein, to humour some conceit in the words, the melody is broken, and the sense interrupted in one part, and caught again or supplied by another,' a form of humour which easily adapted itself to the coarse tastes of the Restoration, at which period rounds and catches reached their highest popu- larity. That catches were immensely popular with the lower classes is proved by the numerous allusions to 'alehouse catches' and the like in the dramas of the i6th and I7th centuries. Ac- cording to Drayton (' Legend of Thomas Crom- well,' Stanza 29) they were introduced into Italy by the Earl of Essex in 1510.
The first printed collection of rounds was that edited by Thomas Ravenscroft, and published in 1609 under the title of 'Pammelia. Musicks Miscellanie : or Mixed Varietie of pleasant Round elayes and delightfull Catches, of 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Parts in one.' This interesting
��ROUND, CATCH, AND CANON CLUB.
collection contains many English, French, and Latin rounds, etc., some of which are still po- pular. Amongst them there is also a curious 'Round of three Country Dances in one' for four voices, which is in reality a Quodlibet on the country-dance tunes ' Robin Hood,' ' Now foot it,' and 'The Crampe is in my purse.' 'Pammelia' was followed by two other collec- tions brought out by Ravenscroft, 'Deutero- melia' in 1609, and 'Melismata' in 1611, and the numerous publications of the Play fords, the most celebrated of which is 'Catch that catch can, or the Musical Companion' (1667), which passed through many editions. The most com- plete collection of rounds and catches is that published by Warren in 32 monthly and yearly numbers, from 1763 to 1794, which contains over 800 compositions, including many admir- able specimens by Purcell, Blow, and other masters of the English school. It is to be re- gretted that they are too often disfigured by an obscenity of so gross a nature as to make them now utterly unfit for performance. The Round has never been much cultivated by foreign com- posers. One or two examples are however well known, amongst them may be mentioned Cheru- bini's 'PerfidaClori.'
The quartet in Fidelio, 'Mir ist so wunderbar,' as well as Curschmann's trios, 'Ti prego' and ' L' Addio, ' though having many of the charac- teristics of rounds, are not in true round form, inasmuch as they are not infinite, but end in codas. They are canons, not rounds. A good specimen of the round proper is Dr. William Hayes's ' Wind, gentle evergreen.'
��Wind, gentle e - ver-green to form a shade A - round the tomb where So - phocles is laid.
��Sweet 1 - vy. bend thy boughs and In - ter twine" With blush - ing ros - es and the clustering vine.
��Thus will thy last - Ing leaves with beauties hung. Prove grate - ful em
��blems of the lays he rang.
��IT. Any dance in which the dancers stood in a circle was formerly called a round or roundel. 1 The first edition of the Dancing Master ' (1651) has thirteen rounds, for six, eight, or 'as many j as will.' Subsequent editions of the same book | have also a dance called ' Cheshire Rounds,' and Part II. of Walsh's ' Compleat Country Dancing Master' (1719) has Irish and Shropshire rounds. These latter dances are however not danced in a ring, but 'longways,' i. e. like 'Sir Roger de Coverley.' In Jeremiah Clarke's ' Choice Lessons for the Harpsichord or Spinett' (1711), and similar contemporary pub- lications, the word rondo is curiously corrupted into ' Round 0.' [W.B.S.]
i 'Come now a roundel and a fairy song.'
Midsummer Night's Dream, act. 11. sc. 2.
��ROUND, CATCH, AND CANON CLUB.
A society founded in 1843, by the late Enoch Hawkins, for the purpose of singing the new compositions of the professional members and others written in the form of Round, Catch, and Canon ; hence the title of the Club. Among the original members were Messrs. Enoch Hawkins, Hobbs, Bradbury, Handel Gear, Henry Phillips, Addison, D'Almaine, and F. W. Collard. The meetings were originally held at the Crown and Anchor Tavern, whence the Club removed to- Freemasons' Tavern, thence to the Thatched House, again to Freemasons' Tavern, and lastly to St. James's Hall, where it still assembles every fortnight from the first Saturday in No- vember until the end of March, ten meetings being held in each season. In the earlier years of