Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 3.djvu/279

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�SCHOOLS OF COMPOSITION.

advantage. Hasler was born, at Nuremberg, in 1564; but learned his Art in Venice, under Andrea Gabrieli, whose nephew, Giovanni, was his fellow pupil, and most intimate friend. So thoroughly did he imbibe the principles and man- ner of the School in which he studied, that the Venetians themselves considered him as one of their own fraternity, Italianising his name into Gianleone. His works possess all the rich Har- mony for which Gabrieli himself is so justly famous, and all the Southern softness which the Venetian Composers so sedulously cultivated ; and are, moreover, filled with evidences of consum- mate contrapuntal skill, as are also those of his countrymen, Jakob Handl ( = Jacobus Gallus), Adam Gumpeltzheimer, Gregor Aichinger, and many others, who, catching the style from him, spread it abroad throughout the whole of Ger- many. 1 Of its immediate effect upon the native Schools, we can scarcely speak in more glowing terms than those used by the German historians themselves. Of its influence upon the future we shall have more to say hereafter.

XIV. The history of THE EARLY FRENCH SCHOOL is so closely bound up with that of its Flemish sister, that it is no easy task to separate the two. Indeed, it is sometimes impossible to ascertain whether a Composer, with a French- sounding name, was a true Frenchman, a true Netherlander, or a native of French Flanders. Not only is this the case with the numerous writers whose works are included in the collec- tions published by Pierre Attaignant, Adrian le Roy, and Ballard :- but there is a doubt even about the birth of Jean Mouton, who is de- scribed by Glareanus as a Frenchman, and by other writers as a Fleming. The doubt, how- ever, involves no critical confusion, since th* styles of the two Schools were precisely the same. Both Josquin des Pro's and Mouton spent some of the most valuable years of their lives in Paris ; and taught their Art to French- men and Netherlanders without distinction. Pierre Carton, Clement Jan nequin, Noe Faignient, Eustache du Caurroy, and other Masters of the l6th century, struck out no new line for them- selves : while Elziario Genet (II Carpentrasso), the greatest of all, might easily pass for a born Netherlander. A certain amount of originality was, however, shown by a few clever Composers who attached themselves to the party of the Huguenots, and set the Psalms of Clement Marot and Beza to Music, for the use of the Calvinists, as Walther and his followers had already set Hymns for the Lutherans. The number of these writers was so small, that they cannot lay claim to be classed as a national School ; but, few though they were, they carried out their work in a thoroughly artistic spirit. The Psalms of Claudin Lejeune of which an example will be found in vol. i. p. 762 are no trifles, carelessly thrown off, to serve the purpose of the moment ; but finished works of Art, betraying the hand of

> A comprehensive selection of works of this School will be found In Bodenschatz's 'Florileaium Portense,' and a few fine examples In Troske's ' Musica Divina.' [See vol. 1. 253 ; vol. 11. 411.]

��SCHOOLS OF COMPOSITION. 267

the Master in every note. Some of the same Psalms were also set by Claude Goudimel, but in a very different style. The Calvinists do- lighted in singing their Metrical Psalmody to the simplest Melodies they could find ; yet these are veritable Motets, exhibiting so little sym- pathy with Huguenot custom, that, if it be true, as tradition asserts, that their author perished, at Lyons, on S. Bartholomew's Day, 1572, one is driven to the conclusion that he must have been killed, like many a zealous Catholic, by mis- adventure. He was one of the greatest Composers the French School ever produced, and excelled by very few in the rest of Europe. Scarcely inferior, in technical skill, to Okenheim and Jos- quin, he was infinitely their superior in fervour of expression, and depth of feeling. His claim to the honour of having instructed Palestrina has already been discussed elsewhere. Considered in connection with that claim, the following speci- men of his style, printed, at Antwerp, by Tylmau Susato, in 1554, is especially interesting. [See vol. i. p. 612 ; vol. ii. p. 635.]

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���XV. The Roman origin of THE SPANISH SCHOOL is so clearly manifest, that it is un- necessary to say more on the subject than has been already said at page 263. After the re- turn of the Papal Court from Avignon, in 1377, Spanish Singers with good Voices were always sure of a warm welcome in Rome ; learned Counterpoint, in the Eternal City, first, from the Flemings there domiciled, and afterwards, from the Romans themselves ; practised their Art with honour in the Sistine Chapel ; and, I not unfrequently, carried it back with them to

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