Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 3.djvu/600

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The popular taste in music at any period can best be ascertained from the class of compositions

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��Another example, and further information, will be found in the article on MONODIA.

Caccini also prepared the way for the Cantata, which subsequently reached its highest perfec- tion under Carissimi, Stradella, Scarlatti, and others. [See CANTATA.] The composers of the transition period, which witnessed the growth of the Cantata, were Radesca da Foggia, who pub- lished five books of ' Monodie' in 1616 ; Brunelli, who published in the same year two books of 'Scherzi, Arie, Canzonette e Madrigali'; F. Ca- pello, whose most remarkable work was a set of ' Madrigali a voce sola ' ; Fornacci, celebrated for his 'Amorosi respiri musicali' which appeared in 1617 ; Luigi Rossi, 1 and Salvator Rosa. 2

If Corteccio's madrigal be compared with the following example from Capello's 'Madrigali a voce sola,' it will be seen how great a change and advance had been made in solo- singing during less than a century. And a striking resemblance may be observed between Capello and his suc- cessor Stradella.

Madrigale a voce sola.

GIOVANNI FRANCESCO CAPELLO.

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� � � � � � ��i For the existing collections of Rossi's ' Monodie ' see the article on Eossi.

  • Salvator Rosa certainly was Carissimi's contemporary, but the

examples Buruey gives in his History show that he wrote much like the abovementioned composers.

��which publishers then found to be most in de- mand. Thus Petrucci, at the beginning of the 1 6th century, was issuing Frottole, VUlanelle, etc., but a hundred years later the Venetian publisher Vincento supplied the public with little pieces like those above-mentioned by Fog- gia, Capello, etc. The Madrigal and the Can- tata were both important, at least as regards chamber-music, during the i6th and I7th cen- turies ; but they were soon doomed to insignifi- cance by the rise of a great and overshadowing rival, namely the Opera. For an account of the origin of the Opera and its marvellous popularity the reader must turn to the article on OPERA. It need only be said here, that all other kinds of secular vocal music had to yield precedence in Italy to it and its offshoots, the Scena, the Cavatina, the Aria, etc. Ambros says that the Arie of early Operas were simply monodic Villa- nelle, Villotte, or Canzoni allaNapoletana; but he also tells us that favourite 'couplets' from Operas, which at first had nothing in common with Cantipopolari beyond beingmelodies easily caught by the ear, acquired by degrees a place similar to that held by the VolJcslied in Germany. Nevertheless, it is clear that Italian musicians held the popular songs of other countries in higher estimation than their own. The best songs in Petrucci's ' Canti Cento -cinquanta,' published in 1503, belong to France, Germany, and the Netherlands. And Italian masters pre- ferred French or Gallo-Belgian themes for their masses. 3 Traces, no doubt, of Canti popolari may be found in Italian compositions of the ifjth and 1 6th centuries as, for instance, in Adrian Willaert's 'Canzon di Ruzante' but very few of them have come down to us in their complete or native form. Canzoni alia Francese* (as they

��8 ' L'Homme arme ' 5s a well-known example.

  • The Canzoni alia Francete were mostly written in four parU;

nany of them were canons.

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