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��with the old handle : or some acuter person, in order to enhance the value of a better instrument which has suffered this loss, has deprived the cheap Stradivari of its head to grace an instru- ment to which it communicates a greater value. The loss of the head does not affect the tone of the fiddle, but it detracts greatly from its appearance and commercial value. But this loss of the head is not the only cause of cheapness in Stradivaris. It will often be found that they are too thin in the wood, or have been so damaged in the belly or back that the most skilful repairer cannot revive their tone, though he may restore their solidity and appearance. It should be remem- bered that although lateral fractures (in the direction of the grain) do not greatly diminish the tone and value of the instrument, transverse fractures (across the grain) in the belly damage it incurably. Respectable dealers are always cognisant of the condition of the instruments which they sell, and the best advice that can be given to an intending purchaser is (i) to purchase of no one but a dealer of high reputation, and (2) not to purchase a cheap instrument. 1 [E.J.P.]
STRAKOSCH, MAURICE and MAX, brothers well known in the United States for a quarter of a century as entrepreneurs of operatic and concert ventures. Operatic enterprises in America have generally been undertaken by managers who have carried their troupes through the country, making sojourns in the leading cities of from one to four weeks, occasionally longer, ac- cordingly as the patronage warranted.
Maurice Strakosch, the elder of the twain, organised, in 185-;, a concert-troupe, including Mme. Teresa Parodi, Signers Tiberini and Marini, vocalists, and M. Paul Jullien, violinist, with himself as musical director. The vocalists of the troupe afterwards appeared in opera at the Academy of Music, New York. Subsequent enterprises in which Maurice was interested were as follows :
1856, concert-troupe Sigismund Thalberg, Mmes. Parodi, Amalia Strakosch (wife of Mau- rice, nle Patti), Edward Mollenhauer, violinist. Bernhard Ullmann, Thalberg's business manager, was a partner in this enterprise, as well as in that of
1857, Italian opera Mmes. de la Grange, d'Orme, Strakosch, d'Angri, Vestvali, Frezzolini, Sigs. Labocetta, Macaferri, Gassier, Carl Formes. Maurice the.n took Frezzolini to Havana and New Orleans, on an operatic tournte.
1858, Italian opera Mmes. Paradi, di Wil- horst, Strakosch; Sigs. Brignoli, Squires, A modio, Barili being the other members of the company, and Jacob Grau a business partner.
1859, Italian opera Mmes. Colson, Gazza- nigsa, Albertini, Strakosch, Adelina Patti (her first appearance), Natali, Sigs. Brignoli, Bou- varde, Stigelli, Amodio, Ferri, Barili, Junca, Susini. Ullmann was again a partner. Patti's ex- traordinary success saved the season, and she was
i The writer desires to acknowledge the assistance he has derived In preparing the above article, from the members of the firm of W. B. Hill & Sous, aud from Mr. George Hart, both of Wardour Street.
taken to Havana in the following year, and sub- sequently to Europe, by Maurice.
On Maurice's departure for Europe, Max, who had, during the previous seasons, acted as busi- ness agent for his brother, became manager. His enterprises and principal artists have been as hereafter set forth, Italian opera being under- stood in each instance, except as otherwise in- dicated namely,
1861 Mmes.Hinkley, d'Angri, Sigs. Brignoli, Susini, Mancusi. Jacob Grau was a partner in this venture.
1862-1863, concerts Gottschalk, pianist ; Car- lotta Patti, Mile. Cordier, Sig. Brignoli, vocalists ; Carlo Patti, violinist. Carlotta and Carlo were sister and brother, respectively, of Adelina.
In 1864 Max went to Europe with Sig. Brig- noli (for whom, with Maurice's assistance, an engagement was procured at Les Italiens, Paris), and returned with Wehli, pianist, and Mile, de Kattow, violoncellist.
1865 Mmes. Ghioni, Cannissa, Strakosch; Sigs. Errani, Macaferri, Mancusi, Morra, Susini, Graff. Sig. Franceso Rosa, director.
1866 Mme. Parepa, Sig. Brignoli.
1867 Mme. de la Grange, Sig. Brignoli.
1868, Italian opera and concerts, in conjunc- tion with Max Maretzek; Miss Clara Louise Kellogg, whom Strakosch had brought back from Europe, being in the troupe.
1869, concerts Carlotta Patti being the lead- ing attraction, and during the season making a brilliant triumph as the Queen of Night in ' The Magic Flute.'
1870, concerts Mile. Christine Nilsson (first appearance in the United States), Miss Annie Louise Gary, Sigs. Brignoli, Verger, M. Vieux- temps, the distinguished violinist.
1871 Miles. Nilsson, Duval, Miss Gary, Sigs. Brignoli, Barre, Capoul, Jamet ; Max Maretzek, director. Thomas's ' Mignon ' was produced with Nilsson in the title-role.
1872, concerts Carlotta Patti, Sig. Mario.
1873 Mile. Nilsson, Torriani, Maresi; Miss Gary ; Sigs. Campanini, Capoul, Maurel, del Puente, Nannetti, Scolara. Sig. Muzio, conductor. The troupe was subsequently strengthened by the addition of Miles. Pauline Lucca and di Murska. Verdi's 'A'ida' was a leading feature in the season's business.
1874 Miles. Albani, Heilbron, Donadio, Ma- resi, Potentini; Miss Cary; Sigs. Carpi, Ben- fratelli, de Bassini, del Puente, Tagliapietra, Fiorini. Sig. Muzio, conductor. Wagner's Lo- hengrin,' Marchetti's ' Ruy Bias,' and Verdi's ' Requiem Mass ' were brought out. The com- pany was strong and the repertory was carefully selected, but the venture entailed heavy losses on the management.
1875, opera and concert Mme.Tietjens.Mme. Arabella Goddard, Miles. Beaumont, Carreno (whose reputation as a pianist was already great, and who now made her debut as a vocalist) ; Sigs. Brignoli, Reina, Orlandini, Tagliapietra, Gott- schalk (brother of the pianist), Mr. Tom Karl. Max Maretzek, Gotthold Carlberg, conductors.