���21. HAVDN, Sonata in G minor.
���When the order of the notes of a turn is re- versed, so as to begin with the lower note instead of the upper, the turn is said to be inverted, and its sign is either placed on end thus, J, or drawn down in the contrary direction to the ordinary sign, thus, * (Ex. 22). The earlier writers generally employed the latter form, but Hum- mel and others prefer the vertical sign. The inverted turn is however more frequently written in small notes than indicated by a sign (Ex. 23).
��C. P. R BACH, Sonata in lib, Largo.
���MOZART, Hondo in A minor.
�� ��In certain cases, particularly at the commence- ment of a phrase, the effect of the ordinary turn beginning with the upper note is unsatisfactory and deficient in accent. The perception of this fact led to the invention of a particular form of turn (called by Emmanuel Bach the Geschnellte Doppelschlag}, in which the four notes of the ordinary turn were preceded by a short principal note, written as a small grace-note (Ex. 24). This kind of turn, consisting of five equal notes, is better adapted to modern music and to modern taste than the simple turn of four notes, and it is therefore frequently introduced in older music, even when not specially indicated. The cases in which it is most suitable are precisely those in .which Emmanuel Bach allowed the use of the ' geschnellte Doppelschlag,' namely, after a stac- cato note (Ex. 25), or a rest (Ex. 26), or when preceded by a note one degree lower (Ex. 27).
��C. P. R BACH, Sonata.
��TURN. 25. HAYDN, Trio in Eb, Andante.
��MOZART, Sonata in F.
���A similar turn of five notes (instead of four), also frequently met with, is indicated by the compound sign ZZ, and called the Prallende Doppelschlag. The difference of name is unim- portant, since it merely means the same orna- ment introduced under different circumstances; but the sign has remained longer in use than the older mode of writing shown in Ex. 24, and is still occasionally met with. (Ex. 28.)
BEETHOVBN, Violin Sonata, Op. 12, No. i.
��When a note bearing a turn of either four or five notes is preceded by an appoggiatura (Ex. 29), or by a slurred note one degree higher than itself (Ex. 30), the entrance of the turn is slightly delayed, the preceding note being pro- longed, precisely as the commencement of the 'bound trill ' is delayed. [See SHAKE, vol. iii. p. 48 1, Ex. ii.]
W. F. BACH, Sonata In D.
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