��year 1878-79, the classes in music included 45 pupils, under the charge of Max Piutti. The Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York, for both sexes, was established in 1871 ; the musical department was formed in 1877. William Schultze is in charge of this department. The pupils numbered 127 in 1879, about five-sixths of whom were girls. The degree of Bachelor of Music is conferred on deserving graduates. Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio, has a Conserva- tory of Music. The College was established in 1834, the Conservatory was opened in 1865. Fenelon B. Bice is its musical director. The Conservatory is modelled, as nearly as practicable, on that at Leipzig. The average number of students at the College during the decade 1871- 80, has been 1 20, some two-thirds of whom have entered the Conservatory, about 30 per cent of the latter being boys.
VI. As already intimated, it is not possible to name all of the reputable institutions, public or private, in the United States, where music is taught by trained and competent instructors. Neither has it been possible to do more than suggest the ful- ness of the means which, in each instance cited, are at the command of students, such as libraries, lectures and concerts. In addition to the collec- tions of treatises and scores which are found at each of the institutions named, there exist seve- ral large and carefully made up libraries, which, being generally of a public or quasi-public cha- racter, present another means of education. At Boston there is the Public Library, open to every inhabitant of the city, without distinction, in which is a collection of rare text-books and scores. The library of the Harvard Musical Association is also of great value. At the li- brary of Harvard University, and at the Astor Library, New York, collections of musical litera- ture and works have been begun. The private library of Joseph W. Drexel, of New York, noted as the richest in the Union in old and rare musical works, will eventually form a part of the Lenox Library of that city.
A feature peculiar to the United States should also be noted ' Normal Musical Institutes,' held in the summer, at some seaside or mountain watering-place, by leading professors, for the purpose of giving advanced instruction to stu- dents who intend to fit themselves % for teaching. Once a year, also in the summer, there is held at a place previously agreed upon, a meeting of music teachers from all parts of the Union, under the name ' The National Music Teachers' Asso- ciation,' whereat matters of interest to the pro- fession are discussed, and lectures delivered. From this has sprung (1884) an institution, The American College of Musicians, the purpose of which is to examine musicians who desire to be- come teachers, and to grant graded certificates of ability. The hope of the projectors is that by this means the standard of capacity among music teachers will be raised and maintained. [F.H.J.]
UNIVERSITY MUSICAL SOCIETIES. Of these there are four in the British Isles re- quiring notice.
I. CAMBRIDGE. The Cambridge University Musical Society (C.U.M.S.) was founded as the 'Peterhouse Musical Society,' in Peterhouse (now modernised into 'St. Peter's College ') by a little body of amateurs in Michaelmas Term 1843. The earliest record which it possesses is the programme of a concert given at the Red Lion in Petty Cury on Friday, Dec. 8 :
Symphony . . . No. 1 Haydn.
Glee . . ' Ye breezes softly blowing ' . . Mozart. Solo Fluto Portuguese air with Variations. Nicholson. Song . . 'In native worth' (Creation). . Haydn. Overture . . . Masauiello. . . . Auber.
Overture . . . Semiramide. . . . Rossini. Ballad ' As down in the sunless retreats.' . Dikes. Walzer . . . Elisabethen. . . . Strauss. Song ' Fra poco a me.' . Donizetti.
Quadrille . . . Boyal Irish. . . . Jullien.
In its early days the Society was mainly de- voted to the practice of instrumental music, the few glees and songs introduced being of secondary interest. The Peterhouse Society had been in existence for about eighteen months, and had held eleven 'Public Performance Meetings,' when the name was changed to that of the Cambridge Uni- versity Musical Society. The first concert given by the newly -named Society was held on May I, 1844 ; it included Haydn's ' Surprise ' Symphony, and ' Mr. Dykes of St. Catharine's College' sang John Parry's ' Nice young man' and (for an en- core) the same composer's ' Berlin wool.' The Mr. Dykes who thus distinguished himself was after- wards well known as the Rev. J. B. Dykes, the composer of some of the best of modern hymn- tunes. There is not much variation in the pro- grammes during the early years of the Society's existence. Two or three overtures, an occasional symphony or PF. trio, with songs and glees, formed the staple, but very little attention was given to choral works. The conductors were usually the Presidents of the Society. In 1846 Dr. Walmisley's name frequently appears, as in his charming trio for three trebles, 'The Mer- maids/ and a duet concertante for piano and oboe. In 1850 the Dublin University Musical Society, having passed a resolution admitting the mem- bers of the C.U.M.S. as honorary members, the compliment was returned in a similar way, and the Cambridge Society subsequently entered into negotiations with the Oxford and Edinburgh University Musical Societies, by which the mem- bers of the different bodies received mutual re- cognition. In Dec. 1852 professional conductors began to be engaged. One of the earliest of these (Mr. Amps) turned his attention to the practice of choral works. The result was shown in the performance of a short selection from Men- delssohn's 'Elijah' (on March 15, 1853), 'An- tigone' music (May 28, 1855), and 'CEdipus' (May 26, 1857), when Dr. Donaldson read his translation of the play. On the election of Sterndale Bennett to the professorial chair of Music, he undertook whenever time would allow to conduct one concert a year. In fulfilment of this promise, on Nov. 17, 1856, he conducted a concert and played his own Quintet for piano
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