Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 4.djvu/331

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VITTORIA.

still be lying hid. Vittoria's first publication was (according to Haberl) in the year 1572, and consisted of a book of motets for 4 to 8 voices (Venice, Ant. Gardane). This is not often re- ferred to, because its contents were afterwards reprinted with additions in 1583. Fetis does not mention it, but mentions instead a publication of 1576 to which I can find no other reference. The title as given by him is 'Liber primus, qui Missas, Psalmos, Magnificat, ad Virginem Dei Salutationes, aliaque complectitur 4, 5, 6, 8 voc. Venetiis, apud Angelum Gardanum 1576.' One would be inclined to think there is some con- fusion here, as two other books of Masses which appeared later, are entitled Liber Primus and Liber Secundus. It is possible that this publica- tion may contain works afterwards republished in separate collections. Albert von Thimus, in making a score of Vittoria's 8 -part motet *Ave Regina,' for Schlesinger's 'Musica Sacra,' states that he could not find a copy of this publication in any German or French library.

To keep to chronological order, we should mention that in 1575 Vittoria was appointed choir-master of St. Apollinaris. According to Haberl however this was no new appointment (as represented in Proske and Ambros) ; the church being given for the use of the Col- legium Germanicum. This post Vittoria ap- pears to have held till 1589, during which time he published the following works : (i) A set of Magnificats with Antiphons B. V. M., Rome 1581 ; original title, ' Cantica B. V. vulgo Magnificat 4 voc. cum 4 Antiphones B. V. per annum 5 and 8 voc.' (2) A book of hymns for 4 voices to which is appended four Psalms for 8 voices, Rome 1581 ; original title, 'Hymni totius anni secundum S. Rom. Eccl. consuetudinem qui quatuor concinuntur vocibus, una cum qnatuor Psalmis pro praecipuis festi- vitatibus, qui octo vocibus modulantur.' This was dedicated to Gregory XIII, and would appear to have been the first comprehensive work of the kind, preceding by several years Palestrina's book of Hymns, which was published in 1589. Proske gives five of these Hymns in the third volume of Musica Divina. If anything distinguishes Vittoria's Hymns from Palestrina's, it is a peculiar tenderness of expression with less elaboration. Perhaps Palestrina was stimulated to the composition of his Hymns by the example of Vittoria ; the task must have been congenial to Vittoria, requiring strict subordination to the liturgical melody, with sufficient opportunity for free subjective expression. (3) A book of Motets for 4, 5, 6, 8 and 12 voices, Rome 1583. The original title would seem to show that this book contains all that was in the early publication of 1572 with much else, ('quae quidem nunc vero melius excussa, et alia quamplurima adjuncta noviter sunt impressa ') . This book was reprinted several times. (4) Another book of Motets for all the feasts of the year was published at Rome in 1588. Editions of both appeared later as 'Cantiones Sacrse' at Dillinger and Frankfort. The second volume of Proske's Musica Divina

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��contains fourteen of these Motets, with the addi- tion of one which had remained in MS. Ambros remarks on the striking .similarity ('doppelgan- gerische Aehnlichkeit ') of many of Vittoria's Motets to those of Palestrina on the same texts, and yet with an essential difference. . He notes in them, as Proske does, a certain passionate- ness of feeling, kept in check by devotion and humility. This passion is not always marked, as in the instance referred to by Ambros, by the almost immediate entrance of a counter- subject at the beginning of the piece, but its influence may be traced generally in the less strict adherence to exact imitation of parts, and a looser texture generally of part-writing. On the other hand there are none of those semi- dramatic traits and outward illustrations of words or ideas which are to be found in Palestrina. Vittoria is too much concerned with the expression of inward feeling, to care about the outward illustration of words or ideas. It may be said generally that in Vittoria there is a more complete subordination to purely liturgical considerations, while Palestrina has in view more general religious and artistic con- siderations, and hence in Vittoria there is no- thing corresponding to Palestrina's Motets from the Song of Songs, or to that more animated style ('genus alacrior') which Palestrina pro- fessed to employ in these and other works.

To return to the enumeration of Vittoria's works: we have, (5) A First Book of Masses, published at Rome, 1583, dedicated to Philip II. of Spain, and containing nine masses five a 4, two a 5, and two a 6. Of these, two four-part masses have been published by Proske, viz. ' quam gloriosum ' and ' Simile est regnum'; and one by Eslava, 'Ave Maris stella.' (6) 'Officium Hebdomadse Sanctse,' Rome 1585, containing settings of the Impro- peria, the Lamentations, and the ' Turbse ' of the Passion. From this book are taken the eighteen Selectissimse Modulationes published in vol. 4 of the 'Musica Divina.' The works above mentioned were published during Vittoria's stay in Rome. Until recently it was not known for certain that he had ever left Rome or given up his appoint- ment there. Fdtis indeed conjectured, on the ground of his last work being published in Ma- drid, that he had actually returned there. 1 But it has since been ascertained from the Archives of the Royal Chapel at Madrid that in 1589 Vittoria was appointed Vice-Master of the Chapel (just established by Philip II.), under the Fleming Philip Rogier. Perhaps before leaving Italy, Vittoria had prepared for publication his second book of Masses, which appeared in 1592. It was dedicated to Cardinal Albert, son of the Empress Maria, and in the dedication the com- poser expresses his gratitude for the post of Chaplain to the Imperial Court. This book con- tains two masses a 4 with a 4-part ' Asperges ' and ' Vidi Aquam/ two Masses a 5, one a 6, one a 8, and one Requiem Mass a 4. Of these, the

i Ambros attached no value to this conjecture (see note at foot of p. 72. Band IV).

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