other things, by a jury composed of M. Berlioz and other musicians (6th ed. 1856).
[ R. B. L. ]
CHIAVETTE (i.e. Little Keys, or Clefs). Under this name, the acute Clefs were used, by the Polyphonists, for certain Modes of high range, such as Modes VII, and XIV; while those of more moderate pitch were used for Modes I, III, or VIII, and others of like extent; and the graver forms for the lowest Modes in use such as Mode XIV transposed. The Clefs of moderate pitch were called the Chiavi or Chiavi naturali, and both the acute and the grave forms, the Chiavi trasportati; but the term Chiavette was generally reserved for the acute form only.
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It has been suggested, that the system of Chiavi and Chiavette may serve to assist in the determination of the Mode, especially with regard to its Authentic or Plagal character: but this is not true. Palestrina's 'Missa Papæ Marcelli,' in Mode XIV (Plagal), and his 'Missa Dies sanctificatus,' in Mode VII (Authentic), are both written in the Chiavette. Asola's 'Missa pro Defunctis,' in Mode XIV transposed, is written in the Chiavi trasportati. Palestrina's 'Missa brevis,' Mode XIII transposed, is written in the Chiavi naturali. [See also vol. ii. p. 474 a.]
[ W. S. R. ]
CHILCOT, Thomas. Add that he died at Bath, Nov. 1766.
CHILD, William. Line 6 of article, for 1632 read 1630, and add that he was appointed conjointly with Nathaniel Giles. Line 9, add that in 1643, when the whole establishment was expelled, Child is said to have retired to a small farm and to have devoted himself to composition, the anthem 'O Lord, grant the King a long life' dating from this time. At the Restoration he was present at Charles II's coronation, Apr. 23, 1661. On July 4 in the same year he was appointed Composer to the King, in place of the Ferraboscos deceased. The story of the pavement at Windsor, told in lines 9–17 from end of article, is correctly as follows (from a document in the chapter records):—' Dr. Child having been organist for some years to the king's chapel in K. Ch. 2nds time had great arrears of his salary due to him, to the value of about £500, which he and some of our canons discoursing of, Dr. C. slited (sic), and said he would be glad if anybody would give him £5 and some bottles of wine for; which the canons accepted of, and accordingly had articles made with hand and seal. After this King James 2 coming to the crown, paid off his Brs. arrears; wch. much affecting Dr. Child, and he repining at, the canons generously released his bargain, on condition of his paving the body of the choir wth. marble, wch. was accordingly done, as is comemorated on his gravestone.' (Dict, of Nat. Biog.)
CHIMES. Certain beats on one or more bells used to give notice of the commencement of religious services or of the time of day. It is not difficult to trace the origin of chimes in our own land, or in other European Christian countries, whether applied to sacred or secular purposes.
The famous manuscript of St. Blaise, said to be of the 9th century, shows that there was an attempt made in early times to produce a set of chimes with small suspended bells which were tapped with a hammer or wooden mallet by a cleric or lay performer. The later illustrations from the illuminated manuscript of the Benedictional of S. Æthelwold, which was executed at Hyde Abbey about the year 980, would show that chime bells in early times were mounted in campaniles without the appendages for ringing or swinging according with the present custom.
There are examples of the introduction of the half swinging chimes in the 15th century which have been carefully recorded, and which show a more convenient arrangement in 'the dead rope pull' than the earlier arrangements of levers; and also of 'full pull swing' or ringing the bells mouth upwards, in distinction to chiming them, where if swung at all half the distance is sufficient. In most cases, however, for the purposes of chiming, the bells hang dead and are struck with the clapper or with an outside or distinct hammer, or are only swung a short distance on centres, which facilitates the work on large or Bourdon bells. As soon as S. Paulinus had determined to erect the new churches in Northumbria, and as soon as S. Dunstan had with his usual energy devoted himself to the elevation of the Christian Church among the Saxons, an impetus was given to chime ringing, in the one case by the importation and in the other by the manufacture at home of the necessary bells for chiming and of the wooden structures with which they were associated and which would not have carried large sets of chimes. This system of application has been repeated down to modern times in the large stone fabrics, and is employed in the cases of the famous christened bells, such as Tom of Oxford, Tom of Lincoln, Big Ben, and Great Paul.
In King's 'Rites and Ceremonies of the Greek Church in Russia,' it has been said that 'Bells are now always used in Russia, and the chiming them is looked upon as essential to the service, the length of the time signifies to the public the degree of sanctity in the day; every church, therefore, is furnished with them, they are fastened immovably to the beam that supports them, and are rung by a rope tied to the clapper, which is perhaps a mark of their antiquity in that country, our method of ringing being more artificial.'
It is interesting to note the weight of metal and the dimensions of prominent bells in our own and other countries. The following list, for