serving to divide the phrases of a Melody, precisely after the manner of the Bar, or Double-Bar, of modern Music, of which it is the evidenit homologue.
It is interesting to observe—though we believe no one has hitherto called attention to the fact—that the system of Notation here described is precisely that employed in the Reading Rota, 'Sumer is icumen in,' in which the Melody, in Mode XIII. transposed, is phrased in Franco's Fifth Mood, each Breve being Perfect when followed by another Breve, and Imperfect when followed by a Semibreve; and each phrase of the Melody being separated from that which follows it by a Finis Punctorum. Moreover, the Reading Rota is written upon a Stave precisely similar in principle to that employed by Franco, who always uses the exact number of lines and spaces needed to include the entire range of his vocal parts.
The 'Compendium de Discantu,' second only in interest to the 'Ars Cantus Mensurabilis,' describes a form of Discant immeasurably superior to the Diaphonia taught, less than half a century earlier, by Guido d'Arezzo, in his Micrologus. Unhappily, in the Oxford MS.—first described by Burney—the examples are lamentably incomplete; the Staves, in many cases, being duly prepared for their reception, while the notes themselves are wanting. Dr. Burney, after long and patient study of the text, was able to restore the following passage, in a form which he believed to be 'nearly' complete.
Making every allowance for the jaunty modern air communicated to this little composition by Dr. Burney's employment of ordinary 18th century Notation, it must be admitted, that, with the sole exception of the Unison on the eighth note, and the Hidden Octaves between the last Crotchet in the Tenor and the last note but two in the Bass, as indicated by the asterisks, the rules of Strict Counterpoint, as practised in the 16th century, are observed in the disposition of every note, even to the formation of the Clausula vera at the end. The apparently gross Consecutive Octaves between the two last phrases offer no exception to the rule; since the interposition of the Finis Punctorum between them invests the first note of the concluding phrase with the importance of a new beginning. If, therefore, the learned historian's penetration should ever be justified by the discovery of a more perfect copy of the MS., we shall be furnished with a clear proof that Magister Franco was on the high road towards the discovery of Strict Counterpoint, in its present form. It is, however, only fair to say that Kiesewetter disputes both the correctness of Burney's example, and the existence of the rules upon which he bases it.
[ W. S. R. ]
FRASCHINI, Gaetano. Add that he died at Naples, May 24, 1887.
FREISCHÜTZ, DER. Line 5 from end of article, for July 22 read July 23, and add that it was given at Astley's Theatre, with a new libretto by Oxenford, April 2, 1866.
FRESCOBALDI. We may supplement the notice of this artist in vol. i. p. 563 by giving the results of more recent enquiries with regard to his life. An article by F. X. Haberl in Kirchenmusikalisches Jahrbuch für das Jahr 1887 (Regensburg) produces documentary evidence which shows that Frescobaldi was born in 1583 (register of his baptism in cathedral of Ferrara, Sept. 9, 1583), and that he died March 2, 1644. Not Alessandro Milleville, as stated in vol. i. (who died 1580), but Luzzasco Luzzaschi (1545–1607) organist of Ferrara Cathedral, was Frescobaldi's teacher. Already in 1608 he was appointed organist of St. Peter's, Rome, where he remained in the first instance till 1628. In that year, dissatisfied apparently with his scanty pay at Rome, he sought leave of absence, and accepted an invitation to Florence from Ferdinand II, Grand Duke of Tuscany, who named him his organist. Social and political troubles in Tuscany obliged him to leave Florence in 1633; and returning to Rome, he was re-installed in his former post as organist of St. Peter's, which he continued to hold till 1643. Haberl's article contains a careful bibliography of all the known works of Frescobaldi, and invites subscriptions towards a new edition of them. It may also be added that within the last year Messrs. Breitkopf & Härtel, Leipzig, have published in their 'Alte Meister,' edited by Ernst Pauer (Nos. 61–66) 12 Toccatas of Frescobaldi, presumably those of 1614, but it would be well if modern reprints always stated the source whence they are derived.
[ J. R. M. ]
FRETS. P. 563b, l. 18, for Balaika read Balalaïka. Line 26 from bottom, add that although the third of a tone is almost a chromatic semitone, it does not appear that either Persian or Arab lutenists have used equal thirds of a tone. The Arabic (and Egyptian) division has been proved to be a succession of three intervals, smaller than an equal semitone, which are known as 'limmas, or 'commas.' Line 10 from bottom, for half-tones read quarter-tones, and in the line below, for diatonic read chromatic.
[ A. J. H. ]
FREZZOLINI, Erminia. Add that she died in Paris, Nov. 5, 1884.
FRICKENHAUS, Fanny, was born June 7, 1849, at Cheltenham. Her maiden name of Evans was abandoned on her marriage with Mr. Augustus Frickenhaus. She received instruction in music from Mr. George Mount, after-
- See the facsimile in vol. iii. p.269.
- See Guido d'Arezzo, App. vol. iv. p.659.