of engagements in the provinces, in Italy, Belgium, and elsewhere. Among the operas in which she has appeared may be named:—March 24, 1864, 'Lara' (Maillart); Dec. 29, 1864, 'Capitaine Henriot' (Gevaert); Feb. 5, Massé's 'Fior d'Aliza,' and Nov. 17, 1866, 'Mignon'; Nov. 23, 1867, 'Robinson Crusoé,' and Jan. 18, 1872, 'Fantasio' (Offenbach); April 24, 1872, Paladilhe's 'Passant,' at Chollet's farewell benefit; Nov. 30, 1872, Massenet's 'Don César'; March 3, 1875, 'Carmen'; April 11, 1876, Guiraud's 'Piccolino'; Oct. 31, 1877, Poise's 'Surprise de l'Amour,' etc., and in revivals of Hérold's 'Marie,' Grisar's 'Les Porcherons,' Mireille,' singing the parts of Taven and Andrelun, and as the heroine Rose Friquet in Maillart's 'Dragons de Villars.' As Mignon and Carmen she has earned for herself world-wide celebrity. In 1886 she played with a French company for a few nights at Her Majesty's Theatre as Carmen, in which she made her début Nov. 8, and as the Gipsy in 'Rigoletto.' She was well received, but would doubtless have appeared to greater advantage with the support of a better company.
'Mme. Galli-Marié should take rank with those numerous artists who, although endowed only with no great voice, have for a century past rendered to this theatre services made remarkable by their talent for acting and their incontestable worth from a dramatic point of view. ... Equally capable of exciting laughter or of provoking tears, endowed with an artistic temperament of great originality ... which has permitted of her making out of parts confided to her distinct types ... in which she has represented personages whose nature and characteristics are essentially opposed one to the other' (Pougin).
[ A. C. ]
GALUPPI. Correct date of birth to Oct. 6, and that of death to Jan. 3, 1784.
GANZ. Correct date of birth of Moritz Ganz to Sept 13, 1806, and add date of death, Jan. 22, 1868. Correct date of birth of Leopold Ganz to Nov. 28, 1810. At end of article add that William (more correctly Wilhelm) Ganz was conductor of the New Philharmonic Concerts during their last season of 1879, after which they were carried on till June 17, 1882, as 'Ganz's Orchestral Concerts.'
GARCIN, Jules Auguste(real name Salomon), violinist and conductor, born at Bourges, July 11, 1830. He came of a family of artists, and was cousin to the famous actress Rose Chéri, their maternal grandfather, Joseph Garcin, being director of a travelling company which performed opéra comique in the central and southern provinces of France for nearly twenty years with great success. At the age of thirteen Garcin entered the Paris Conservatoire, where he studied the violin under Clavel and Alard; he gained the first prize in 1853, and in 1856 became a member of the opera orchestra, and after a competitive examination was appointed (1871) first solo violin and third conductor. In 1878 he was also appointed second conductor at the concerts of the Universal Exhibition. Since 1860 he has been a member of the orchestra of the Concerts du Conservatoire, first as solo violin, and then as second conductor in place of Altès (1881), who had become first conductor at the opera at the end of 1879. At that time the first conductor of the Société des Concerts was Deldevez, who had replaced Hainl in 1872, not after his death in 1873. [See Hainl, Deldevez, Concert Spirituel, in vol. i. and Altès, vol. iv. p.521b.] In 1885, Deldevez having retired on account of his health, Garcin was elected conductor of the Socété des Concerts with a majority of 26 votes over Guiraud.
Garcin, who was a pupil of Bazin for harmony, and of Adam and Ambroise Thomas for composition, has written a number of works for violin and orchestra or piano, the most prominent of which is a concerto played by himself at the Conservatoire, and at the Concerts Populaires in 1868, and by Maurin at the Concerts Populaires in 1878. M. Garcin is an experienced and conscientious artist, without the exaggerated gestures and manner which too often deceive the public.
[ A. J. ]
GARDONI, Italo. Add date of death, March 30, 1882.
GARLANDIA, Johannes de. The works on music which appeared under this name were formerly ascribed to a Gerlandus who, owing to some confusion of dates, was said to have flourished in 1041, but who was afterwards identified with the mathematician Gerlandus, canon of the abbey of St. Paul at Besançon in the middle of the 12th century. It appears, however, more probable that the writer on music, Johannes de Garlandia, was identical with the grammarian and poet of that name who flourished nearly a century later. Of the life of this latter we gather several particulars from his great work 'De triumphis Ecclesiæ' (finished in 1252), of which the British Museum possesses an almost contemporary copy (Claudius A. X.), which has been printed by Mr. Thomas Wright. Born in England late in the 12th century, Johannes de Garlandia studied first at Oxford, and afterwards at Paris. Here he opened a school in the Clos de Garlande, since known as the Rue Gallande, from which he is supposed to have derived his name de Garlandia, or, as one early writer spells it, de Gallandia. It was probably about this time that he wrote his treatise on music. In 1218 we find him present at the siege of Toulouse, apparently himself taking part in the crusade against the Albigenses. It was to this place also that he was invited in 1229 to assist in the formation of the newly-founded University; and here he remained till 1232, when he and his colleagues were forced to leave owing to the persecution to which they were subjected at the hands of the Dominicans and others. They escaped after many dangers to Paris, where John de Garlandia was still residing in 1245. Here no doubt were written most of his poems on historical and theological subjects, and his grammatical treatises. The titles of his musical works