writers. Its derivation is unknown; the word may come from the French haie, a hedge, the dancers standing in two rows being compared to hedges. Its first occurrence is Thoinot Arbeau's description of the passages at arms in the Bouffons, or Matassins [see vol. ii. p. 236b], one of which is the Passage de la haye. This was only danced by four men, in imitation of a combat. Mr. Chappell ('Popular Music,' p. 629) remarks that 'dancing a reel is but one of the ways of dancing the hay.… In the "Dancing Master" the hey is one of the figures of most frequent occurrence. In one country-dance "the women stand still, the men going the hey between them." This is evidently winding in and out. In another, two men and one woman dance the hey, like a reel. In a third, three men dance this hey, and three women at the same time, like a double reel.' There is no special tune for the hey, but in Playford's 'Musicks Hand-maid' (1678) the following air, entitled 'The Canaries or the Hay,' occurs:—
[ W. B. S. ]
HILDEBRAND, Zacharie (1680–1743), and his son Johann Gottfried, were eminent organbuilders in Germany. The latter, who was the principal workman of the Dresden Silbermann, built the noble organ of St. Michael's, Hamburg, in 1762, which cost more than £4000.
[ V. de P. ]
HILES, Henry, born Dec. 3, 1826, at Shrewsbury, received instruction from his brother John; he was organist successively at Shrewsbury, as his brother's deputy; at Bury in '46; at Bishopwearmouth in '47; St. Michael's, Wood Street, in '59; at the Blind Asylum, Manchester, in '60; at Bowdon in '61; at St. Paul's, Manchester, 1864–67. In 1852–9 he travelled round the world on account of ill-health. He received the degrees of Mus.B. Oxon, '62, and Mus.D. '67. In the latter year he resigned his post of organist; in '80 he became lecturer on harmony and composition at Owens College, and at the Victoria University; he was one of the promoters of the National Society of Professional Musicians in 1882. He has been conductor of several musical societies, and is now editor and proprietor of the 'Quarterly Musical Review,' a modern namesake, established 1885, of the well-known magazine of that name. His compositions include 'The Patriarchs,' oratorio, '72; 'War in the Household,' operetta, '85, from the German of Castelli ('Häusliche Krieg'), originally composed by Schubert; 'Fayre Pastorel' and 'The Crusaders,' cantatas; settings of Psalms xlvi. and xcvi; several anthems, services and part-songs; Prelude and Fugue in A; Do. in D minor, a Sonata in G minor, 6 Impromptus, 2 Sets, 'Festival March,' etc. for organ; pianoforte pieces and songs. He has written books on music, 'Grammar of Music,' 2 vols., Forsyth Bros. 1879; 'Harmony of Sounds,' 3 editions, '71, '72, '79; First Lessons in Singing, Hime & Addison, Manchester, '81; 'Part Writing or Modern Counterpoint,' Novello '84.
His elder brother, John, born 1810, at Shrewsbury, was also an organist at Shrewsbury, Portsmouth, Brighton, and London. He wrote pianoforte pieces, songs, and musical works, 'A Catechism for the Pianoforte Student,' 'Catechism for the Organ,' 1878, 'Catechism for Harmony and Thorough Bass,' 'Catechism for Part Singing,' 'Dictionary of 12,500 Musical Terms,' '71, etc. He died in London, Feb. 4, '82.
[ A. C. ]
HILL. See London Violin Makers, vol. ii.
HILLER, Ferdinand. P. 737b, l. 11 from bottom, for 1871 read 1870. Add that he conducted the Philharmonic Concerts in 1852, and that he died May 10, 1885.
HISTORIES OF MUSIC. It will be necessary in this article to confine our attention almost exclusively to Histories proper, except in cases where there are none of the subject under treatment; so that only occasional mention will be made of Musical Biographies, Dictionaries, Manuscripts, and Periodicals, or works on the Theory of Music. Most of the works enumerated, unless marked with an asterisk, will be found in the library of the British Museum. The dates of the first and latest editions are usually given. For convenience we shall have to adopt four principal headings, namely:—General Histories of Music, Histories of separate Countries, of Musical Instruments, and of a few other special subjects arranged alphabetically; and most of these will have to undergo further subdivision.
I. General Histories of Music.
(a) Ancient Music. The earliest writings bearing at all upon the history of music are the Ἁρμονικῆς ἐγχειρίδιον of Nicomachus (see Meibom), and the περί μουσικῆς of Plutarch, edited by Richard Volkmann in 1856, and by Rudolf Westphal in 1865. Pausanias' 'Græciæ Descriptio Accurata' also contains frequent allusions to music and musicians. Other early works relating partially to music are the 'Deipno-sophistæ' of Athenæus and the 'Stromata' of Titus Flavius Clemens (Clement of Alexandria), the latter dated a.d. 194. From that period down to the Renaissance musical writers appear to have been too deeply engrossed in the development of the music of their own time to bestow much thought upon that of the past; and it is only by the chronological juxtaposition and study of the works of such authors as St. Augustine, Boethius, St. Isidore of Seville, Bede, Hucbald, Guido d'Arezzo, Philip de Vitry, Odington, Dunstable, Gafori, Glarean, etc., that we can obtain an adequate history of music in the early and middle ages. Johannes Tinctor wrote a treatise 'De Origine Musicæ' in the 15th century; Rud. Schlickius' '*Exercitatio de musicæ origine,' published at Spiers in 1588 was thought highly of in its day; the 'De Musica' of F. Salinas, 1592, is chiefly theoretic. In 1652 appeared M. Meibom's excellent work 'Antiquæ musicæ Auctores Septem,' in 2 vols. which was not surpassed till the publication in 1784 of Abbé Martin Gerbert's 'Scriptores Ecclesiastici de Musica,' in 3 vols.