d) Military Music has been treated of by very few authors; we need only instance J. G. Kastner's 'Les Chants de l'Armée française, avec un Essai historique sur les Chants Militaires des Français ' 1855, Albert Perrin's 'Military Studies, Military Bands,' etc. 1863.
(e) National Music.—Works on this subject have been mentioned under the countries to which they specially relate; other general works are: C. Engel's 'Introduction to the Study of National Music,' 1866, and 'Literature of National Music,' 1879; H. F. Chorley's 'National Music of the World,' published in 1880–2 after the author's death.
(f) Notation.—A. J. H. Vincent's 'De la Notation Musicale attributée à Boëce,' etc. 1855; Hucbald's 'Enchiridion Musicæ' (see Gerbert's 'Scriptores,' vol. i.); G. Jacobsthal's 'Die Mensuralnotenschrift des XII und XIII Jahrhunderts,' 1871; J. Bellermann's 'Die Mensuralnoten und Taktzeichen des XV and XVI Jahrhunderts,' 1858: Pere L. Lambillotte's 'L'Unité dans les Chants Liturgiques,' 1851; Abbé F. Raillard's 'Explication des Neumes.' 1855(?); A. Baumgartner's 'Geschichte der Musikalischen Notation,' 1856; Hugo Riemann's 'Studien zur Geschichte der Notenschrift,' 1878, and 'Die Entwickelung unserer Notenschrift,' 1879, etc.; E. David and M. Lussy's 'Histoire de la Notation Musicale,' 1882; Abbé Tardife's *'Plain Chant,' Angers, 1883.
(g) Opera and Musical Drama.—Among the numerous writings on this branch of music we select the following:—G. B. Doni's 'Trattato della Musica Scenica' (see the 1768 edition of his works); Claude F. Menestrier's 'Des Représentations en Musique anciennes et modernes,' 1682; J. Mattheson's 'Die Neueste Untersuchune der Singspiele,' 1744; Gabriel Gilbert's 'Histoire de l'Opéra,' in 2 parts, 1757; *'Lyric Music revived in Europe, a critical display of Opera in all its Revolutions,' London, 1768; Ant. Planelli's 'Dell' Opera in Musica,' 1772; A. B. Marx's 'Gluck und die Oper,' 1862; G. W. Fink's 'Wesen und Geschichte der Oper.' 1838; Geo. Hogarth's 'Memoirs of the Musical Drama,' 2 vols. 1838. and 'Memoirs of the Opera' (in French, German, and English), 1851; H. Sutherland Edwards' s 'History of the Opera,' 2 vols. 1862; F. Clément and P. Larousse's 'Dictionnaire Lyrique, ou Histoire des Opéras,' 1869–80; E. Schurés 'Le Drame Musical,' 2 vols. 1875; A. Reissmann's 'Die Oper,' 1885; H. Sutherland Edwards's 'Lyrical Drama … Essays on Modern Opera,' 1881; L. Nohl's 'Das Moderne Musikdrama,' 1884; Hugo Kiemann's 'Opern-Handbuch,' 1887.
(h) Oratorio.—Very few works on the Oratorio have appeared. The following may be recommended: C. H. Bitter's 'Beiträge zur Geschichte des Oratoriums,' 1872; Otto Wangemann's 'Geschichte des Oratoriums,' 1882.
(i) Part Music.—P. Mortimer's 'Der Choral-Gesang zur Zeit der Reformation,' 1821; Thomas Oliphant's 'La Musa Madrigalesca' (A Short Account of Madrigals), 1836; E. F. Rimbault's 'Bibliotheca Madrigaliana,' 1847; H. Bellermann's 'Ueber die Entwicklung der Mehrstimmigen Musik,' 1867.
(j) Song.—F. C. Diez's 'Leben und Werke der Troubadours,' 1829: A. B. Marx's 'Die Kunst des Gesanges,' 1826; B. G. Kiesewetter's 'Schicksal … des weltlichen Gesanges,' 1841; H. F. Mannstein's 'Geschichte … des Gesanges,' 1845; K. E. Scheider's 'Das musikalische Lied,' 3 vols. 1865; G. Fantoni's 'Storia universale del Canto,' 2 vols. 1873; T. Lemaire and H. Lavoix's 'Le Chant, ses Principes, et son Histoire,' 1881.
For further information see the articles on Dictionaries, Opera, Oratorio, Song, Violin, etc. in this work, and similar articles in Mendel and Reissmann's Musical Lexicon. J. N. Forkel's 'Allgemeine Literatur der Musik' may also be consulted with advantage for early works on the history of music.
[ A.H.-H. ]
HOBBS, J. W. Add that 'Phillis is my only joy' is by him.
HOCHSCHULE (Berlin). See Musik, königliche Hochschule für, vol. ii. p. 437.
HODGES, Edward, Mus. D. The following additions are to be made to the existing article:—At the age of 15 he developed remarkable inventive faculties, and some of his projects have since been adopted in different branches of mechanical science. Connected with music were improvements in organ bellows, etc., and, more important than all, the introduction of the C compass into England is claimed for him. His appointments to the churches of St. James and St. Nicholas, Bristol, took place in 1819 and 1821 respectively. The new organ in the former church, remodelled under his direction, and opened 1824, contained the first CC manual, and CCC pedal made in England. In 1838 he was appointed organist of the cathedral of Toronto, and in the following year became director of the music of Trinity Parish, New York, taking the duty at St. John's while the new Trinity Church was being built. Illness obliged him to give up duty in 1859, and in 1863 he returned to England. Besides the contributions to musical literature mentioned in the article, he wrote many pamphlets, etc. on musical and other subjects. He was an excellent contrapuntist, and possessed a remarkable gift of improvisation, and especially of extempore fugue-playing. His church compositions are numerous and elaborate. They comprise a Morning and Evening Service in C, with two anthems, a full service in F, and another in E, Psalm cxxii, etc. (all published by Novello), besides many MS. compositions, and occasional anthems for various royal funerals, etc.
[ M. ]
HOFMANN, Heinrich Karl Johann, born Jan. 13, 1842, in Berlin, was a chorister in the Domchor at nine years old, and at fifteen entered Kullak's academy, studying the piano with that master, and composition under Dehn and Wuerst. For some years after leaving this institution he played in public and gave lessons. His earliest compositions were pianoforte pieces, but he first came before the public as a composer with his comic opera, 'Cartouche,' op. 7, produced 1869, and performed successfully in several places. In 1873 the production of his 'Hungarian Suite,' op. 16, for orchestra, obtained such renown that he determined to devote himself thenceforth to composition alone. In the next year his 'Frithiof' symphony, op. 22, was brought out with extraordinary success at one of Bilse's concerts in Berlin, and rapidly became known all over Germany; in 1875 his cantata, 'Die schöne Melusine' op. 30, gained a similar success, and since then he has held a position equalled, in respect of immediate popularity, by scarcely any living composer. Whether his fame will ultimately prove enduring, is not to be predicted; but it is certain that most of his productions have in them a superficiality of style which makes their duration exceedingly problematical. In 1882 he was made a member of the Berlin Academy. Beside the works we have mentioned, the following are the most important of his productions:—'Nornengesang,' for solos, female chorus, and orchestra, op. 21; two orchestral suites, op. 16 and 68; string sextet, op. 25; violoncello concerto, op. 31; trio, op. 18; quartet, for piano and strings; and lastly, the operas 'Armin' (produced at Dresden 1877), 'Aennchen von Tharau,' 'Wilhelm von Oranien,'
- See also under separate countries.