Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 4.djvu/811

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SONG.

paniment throughout. On p. 608 a, among the English songs, Hatton's ' To Anthea ' should be mentioned as one of the very best of its kind. Its omission was accidental. P. 6086, 1. 34, for Gattie read Gatty. P. 611, add to list of col- lections of national songs.

Finnish :

' Valituita Suomalaisia Kansan-Lauluja,' harmonized by B. Logi, and published at Helsingfors.

P. 6140;, line 3 from bottom, add Worthy of mention, likewise, are the songs of J. Brzowski, Ig. F. Dobrzynski, J. Eisner, E. Jenike, E. Kania, V. Kazynski, Ig. Komorowski, M. Madeyski, F. Mireqki, J. Nowakowski, W. Prohazka, A. Sowinski, J. Stefani and K. Wy- aocki.

In 1818 the poet Niemcewicz published his great work Spiewny historyczne z muzykon (His- torical songs with music), and at his invitation the most popular composers of the day wrote or adapted melodies to them. From these songs, cherished as household words by all classes of the people, Polish patriotism has drawn both in- spiration on the battle-field and consolation under misfortune and oppression. The collection includes some of the oldest national hymns, ar- ranged in modern notation ; among them, for instance, St. Adalbert's hymn to the Virgin (Boga-Rodziqa) , a hymn of the loth century which is engraved in plain-chant on its writer's tomb in the Cathedral of Gnesa, and still sung there as well as at Dombrowa on the Warka every Sunday. The characteristics of the old Polish historic chants, such as the Hymn of the Virgin of Czenstochowska and the Hymn of St. Casimir, are their simplicity and dignity.

P. 6146, after last line in small print, add

'Pastoralki i Kolendy z melody ami,' by Abbd M. Mioduszewski. (The Kolendas or Noels are peculiar to the Polish people ; they are mostly quaint old popular airs of the 13th century, and are sung at Christmas in every house and street. Numerous collections of them exist.)

' Polish National Melodies,' by Jules Fpntana.

'Chants du peuple de Gallicie,' by C. Lipinski.

'Chants polonais nationaux et populaires,' by S. Sowinski.

4 Piesni ludu polskiejo,' by 0. Kolberg. (This is a very valuable collection.)

' Dainos oder Lithauische Volkslieder mit Musik,' by L. J. Kh6sa.

'Pqlnische Liedergeschichte ' ; Eph. Oloff.

' Histoire de la musique en Pologne ' ; A. Jarzemski.

' Cent illustres Polonais ' ; S. Starowolski.

' Janociana ' ; D. JanQcki (treating of old Polish com- posers).

' La litte'rature musicale polonaise' ; Ig. Pqtocki.

'Lea Musiciens polonais et slaves' : A. Sowinski.

See also the writings of Sikorski, Chodzko, Golem- biowski, Grabowski ? "Woronicz and Eisner, for further information on Polish music.

P. 618 a, 1. n, before second musical example, for lesser read looser. P. 620 a, note 3, for Olt read Ott. [A.H.W.]

SONTAG, HENRIETTE. Line 2 of article, correct date of birth to Jan. 3, 1806.

SOUNDS AND SIGNALS. P. 647 6, 1. 7, for such read much ; and add at end of article, that Messrs. Potter & Co. have recently pub- lished a ' Drum, Flute, and Bugle Duty tutor.'

SPINET. After title add Fr. Epinette, Clavi- corde ; Ital. Spinetta, Clavicordo ; Spanish

��SPINET.

��795

��Clavicordio. English Spinet, Virginal. P. 6510, footnote, add: and the upright spinet from the Correr collection, belonging to Mr. George Donaldson, which had also plectra of brass. It is therefore possible that the use of the quill superseded that of brass. P. 6516, 1. 36, Con- siderable light has been thrown upon the hitherto

��Vander Straeten, in 'La Musique auxPaysBas/ vol. vii. (Les musiciens neerlandais en Espagne, i re partie), Brussels, 1885. He quotes, p. 246, from a testamentary inventory of musical instru- ments which had belonged to Queen Isabella, at the Alcazar of Segovia, dated 1 503. ' Dos Clavi- cinbanos viejos ' that is to say, two old clavecins (spinets). One of her chamberlains, Sancho de Paredes (p. 248) owned in 1500 'Dos Clabior- ganos ' two claviorgans or organized clavecins. In a previous inventory, dated 1480 (and earlier), the same chamberlain appears to have possessed a manicorde or clavichord with tangents. But Mr. Vander Straeten is enabled to give a posi- tive date, 1387 (p. 40, et seq.), when John the First, King of Aragoii, had heard and desired to possess an instrument called ' exaquir,' which was certainly a keyboard stringed-instrument. He describes it later on as resembling an organ but sounding with strings. The name 'exaquir' may be identified with ' 1'eschuaqueil d'Angle- terre,' which occurs in a poem entitled ' La Prise d'Alexandrie,' written by Guillaume de Ma- chault, in the I4th century. Mr. Vander Straeten enquires if this appellation can be resolved by ' dchiquier ' (chequers) from the black and white arrangement of the keys ? The name echiquier occurs in the romance 'Chevalier du cygne' and in the ' Chanson sur la journe'e de Guinegate,' a 1 5th century poem, in which the poet asks to be sounded

Orgius, harpes, naquaires, challemelles, Eons echiquiers, guisternes, doucemelles.

The enquirer is referred to the continuance of Mr. Vander Straeten's notes on this interesting question, in the work above mentioned. It is here sufficient to be enabled to prove that a kind of organ sounding with strings was existing in 1387 and that clavecins were catalogued in 1503, that could be regarded as old; also that these dates synchronize with Ambros's earliest mention of the clavicymbalum, in a MS. of 1404. P. 65205, 1. 8, add-. In the Bologna Exhibition, 1888, Historical Section, was shown a spinet bearing the inscription 'Alessandro Pasi Modenese,' and a date, 1490. It was exhibited by Count L. Manzoni. It is a true Italian spinet in a bad state of repair. The date, which has been verified, does not in- validate the evidence adduced from Scaliger and Banchieri concerning the introduction of the spinet, but it places it farther back and before Scaliger, who was born in 1484, could have observed it. This Bologna Loan Collection contained, as well as the earliest dated spinet, the latest dated harpsichord (1802, dementi)

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