Page:A dictionary of the Sunda language of Java.djvu/14

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IX
PREFACE.

which followed it in the crude form of the word, as luhur high gives laluhur, when speaking of several. Gunung luhur a high mountain, gunung laluhur, high mountains. Rowas, startled gives rarowas; Rikĕs, rarikĕs; rugi, rarugi. Thus as if only the consonant letter was duplicated, which has always the vowel a inherent in it. This duplication of the first syllable is of very frequent occurence, and does not always denote a plural , but indicates a modification of the original word so as to express a shade of idea. In duplicating the first syllable the inherent a is short, and is often heard as ĕ, and will be so found in the dictionnary, thus badak is a rhinoceros, bĕbadak, a funnel shaped bambu basket loaded with stones in making dams in rivers, as if it resembled a badak or Rhinoceros. tabĕuh to beat a musical instrument, a drum. Tatabĕuhan, frequently heard as tĕtabĕuhan, musical instruments which are struck, as gongs, drums, and the like.

The short ĕ suffixed to the initial consonant appears often to be made use of, to the exclusion of the vowel suffixed to the initial consonant itself of the crude word, thus we have chēcho-élan, derived of cho-él; tĕto-élan from to-él; chĕcho-oan, from cho-o, and not cho-cho-elan, toto-élan, chocho-oan.

When the vowel attached to the initial consonant is u: that vowel also occurs in the duplicated word, as guru, a teacher, guguru, to get instruction from a teacher. Gunter, a flood, gugunter, to wash away with a stream of water. Turub, a cover, to cover, luturub, any temporary Shelter.

The original word of the Sanscrit from which such initial duplicated words are taken, does not always exist in Sunda, or even in the cognate Polynesian languages, but is nevertheless a Sanscrit word. Thus we have sĕsawi, the mustard plant, from sawi, C. 720, strength, force, with out the latter word sawi being known in Sunda. So also sĕsĕmon, longing for, but ashamed to ask, abashed, from samu, c. 710, leave, permission. Bĕbĕndu and bĕbĕndon, disgrace, loss of favour, dishonour, from bandhu, C. 459 what is bound bandhura, D. 459 injurions, mischievous. The simple words sawi, samu, and bandhu not being found in the Sunda language, though evidently the etymons from which sĕsawi, sĕsĕmon and sĕbĕdon have been derived. This is remarkable and would seem to indicate a greater {know ledge originally of the Sanscrit, than we should at first sight be justified in believing.

Another modification of meaning to an original word is indicated by the syllable um inserted in the middle of the word, in the same way as in the plurals, by inserting Ra, as above described. Thus we have from turun, tumurun, to come down by degrees. Tua, old, and agung, chief become tumagung or tumunggung, one of the titles of Javanese nobility. Tumorék, a deuse young jungle, which a man can hardly make his way through from torék, deaf. Many more examples will be found in going through the dictionary. Vide um in voce.

A comparative and superlative degree are formed by the words anan for the comparative, and pang for the superlative see both words in voce. Manan appears to be derived from Mana, where, and may be rendered by where of as Jyo hadé manan itu, this is better than that—as (these two) where of this is good. The word lĕuwih is also used