Page:A simplified grammar of the Danish language.djvu/70
his coat on the tree;' Kjolen hang på Træet, 'The coat was hanging on the tree.'
Many intransitive verbs acquire a transitive character by a mere "umlaut," or change of the vowel; as,
|at falde,||to fall;||at fælle,||to fell.|
|... fare,||... drive;||... före,||... lead.|
|... knage,||... creak;||... knikke,||... crack.|
|... ligge,||... lie;||... lægge,||... lay.|
|... ryge,||... smoke;||... röge,||... to cure by smoking|
|... sidde,||... sit;||... sætte,||... set.|
|... springe,||... spring;||... sprænge,||... burst.|
|... våge,||... watch;||... vække,||... awaken, be awake.|
Deponent verbs are declined in all their simple tenses like passives, viz., by adding s or es to the corresponding tenses of the active form. In their compound tenses they employ the active auxiliary at have. Their supine is formed by the addition of t or ts; but, for the sake of euphony, this rule is frequently disregarded, and des or edes is employed for the older and more correct form; as, instead of writing Det har lykkets mig, 'I have succeeded,' we find Det er lykket mig, or Det lykkedes mig.
Verbs having a reciprocative sense assume the passive form when used simply with the subject-noun, or pronoun; as, de ses, 'they see each other;' Hans og Jens slås, 'Hans (John) and Jens are fighting.' De slå hinanden, and de slås, convey different meanings; the former signifying 'they are beating each other,' while the latter implies the more forcible act of fighting.