Page:A simplified grammar of the Danish language.djvu/70

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danish grammar.

his coat on the tree;' Kjolen hang på Træet, 'The coat was hanging on the tree.'

Many intransitive verbs acquire a transitive character by a mere "umlaut," or change of the vowel; as,

at falde, to fall; at fælle, to fell.
... fare, ... drive; ... före, ... lead.
... knage, ... creak; ... knikke, ... crack.
... ligge, ... lie; ... lægge, ... lay.
... ryge, ... smoke; ... röge, ... to cure by smoking
... sidde, ... sit; ... sætte, ... set.
... springe, ... spring; ... sprænge, ... burst.
... våge, ... watch; ... vække, ... awaken, be awake.

Deponent verbs are declined in all their simple tenses like passives, viz., by adding s or es to the corresponding tenses of the active form. In their compound tenses they employ the active auxiliary at have. Their supine is formed by the addition of t or ts; but, for the sake of euphony, this rule is frequently disregarded, and des or edes is employed for the older and more correct form; as, instead of writing Det har lykkets mig, 'I have succeeded,' we find Det er lykket mig, or Det lykkedes mig.

Verbs having a reciprocative sense assume the passive form when used simply with the subject-noun, or pronoun; as, de ses, 'they see each other;' Hans og Jens slås, 'Hans (John) and Jens are fighting.' De slå hinanden, and de slås, convey different meanings; the former signifying 'they are beating each other,' while the latter implies the more forcible act of fighting.