Page:American Journal of Sociology Volume 9.djvu/571
INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY 553
prognathic, excepting the Malayan, which is especially brachy- cephalic like the yellow race.
5. The negro variety, comprising the Ethiopian, Hottentot, Bushnan and Kaffir races. It is dolichocephalic, with very pro- nounced prognathism, with the exception of the negroes of short stature and the brachycephalic types of Africa, and Negrillos (Hamy) and Negritos.
6. The Melanesian or Oceanic negro variety, in general brachycephalic, and prognathic in some races, as the New Caledonians and the people of the Friendly Islands.
7. The Australian variety, dolichocephalic and prognathic. These anatomical varieties have evidently some connection,
on the one hand, with the physical environments, and, on the other, with the adaptation itself of these human varieties to the several environments, and consequently also some connection with the more or less elevated degree of their social organiza- tion ; and it will certainly be necessary to take account of this when we attempt to characterize the several social types, not only present, but historic.
One important observation, in the supposition really verified, would be that all of the craniums of the newly born, in what- ever race the latter belong, present a pronounced occipital dolichocephalic, the differentiation accentuating itself only toward the age of puberty. That would tend to confirm the unity of origin of the human species. The anatomic variations of the cranium, conformably to the other analogous facts, as embryology shows us, would be only derived forms.
The ability of each race to acclimatize is certainly connected with the birth-rate and mortality of the races, although it might be difficult to disengage entirely the other causes.
According to Bertillon, 1 the following are the principal natural and existing limits of this acclimatization : the English acclimatize in the United States, at St. Helena, at the Cape of Good Hope, and in Australia. They become stranded in the Antilles and in India. Their domination in the latter countries ought to be considered, from this point of view, as precarious,
^Encyclopedic des sciences medicates.