Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 10.djvu/170

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MEDICINE

MEDICINE vestigators: Jean Baptistc Bouilhuul (1796-1881) and James Johnson (,1777-IS4r)), who investigated affec- tions of the lieart and rlieuniatisni of tlie joints. August Francois Chonicl (,17SS- l,s.')">; pericarditis and rheumatism). James Hope (ISdl- 11; valvular itisuffi- ciencv). Hermann Leberl (ISILJ- 7M), Johann Oppolzer (lSOS-91), Felix Xiemcyer (1820-71), Ludwig Traube (1S1S-7G). Heinrieh von Bamberger (1822-SS), and Adalbert Duchek (1S24-S2). Among therapeutical aiils the introduction of digi- talis purpurea by Traube deserves special mention. M. J. Oertel (d. 1897). tried to cure certain affections (fatty degeneration of the heart, obesitj') by means of dietetic mechanical treatment (Tcnainkiir); and the brothers August and Theotlor Schott estalilished the so-called Nanheim method (carbonic acid baths and gj-mnastics). Great credit in connexion with the diagnosis of lung disease is due to M. Anton Wintrich (1812-82; pleuritis), Karl August Wunderlich (1815- 78; range of temperature in pneumonia), Leon Jean Baptiste Cruveilhier (1791-1875; pneumonia in chil- dren), Theodor Jurgensen (infectious nature of pneu- monia), Robert Bree (1807; bronchial asthma), Bier- mer (1870), Leyden (1875; crystals of asthma), and Curschmann (1883; spirals). The subject of pulrao- narj' tuberculosis was profoundly treated by Gaspard Laurent Bayle (1774-1816; 1810 discovery of miliary tuberculosis, tuberculosis a general disease) ; Virchow defined the anatomic character of tuberculosis; ViUe- min in 1865-8 proved its contagiousness, and his ex- periments were re-examined and confirmed among others by Lebert (1866) Klebs (1868), Baumgarten (1880), teppeiner (1877), and Weichselbaum (1882). With the discovery of the tubercle bacillus by R. Koch in 1882, the path to the suppression of tubercu- losis was indicated. Cornet in 1888 showed the dan- ger of the sputum, which resulted in prohibition of spitting and the placing of cuspidors with disinfecting solutions. In 1890 Koch appeared with his remedy tuberculin, which he improved in 1897 and 1901. In 1902 Behring began his experiments on cows to secure immunity. Of late the treatment of tuberculosis is chiefly dietetic. Diagnosis and therapeutics of the diseases of the larynx were greatly advanced by the invention of the laryngoscope in 1860 (Ludwig Tiirck 1810-68, Vienna; and Johann Nepomuk Czermak, 1828-73). The taking of temperature, which was diligently cultivated by de Haen and later by James Currie (1733-1819), was systematically done for the first time by Friedrich Wilhelm Felix von Biiren- sprung (1822-64), Traube, and Wunderlich. In the treatment of metabolic diseases we must mention the noteworthy zeal of Friedrich Theodor von Frerichs (1819-85). Diagnosis and therapeutics of diseases of the stomach were advanced by the introduction of the stomach pump invented by the English surgeon Bush in 1822, an instrument recommended and used since 1869 by Adolf Kussmaul (d. 1902), in enlargement of the stomach, and for the examination of the stomach with a specu- lum. Faradization was employed by Karl Friedrich Canstatt in 1846, Duchenne, and later by Kussmaul (1877), the stomach catheter was used for diagnos- tic purposes by Wilhelm Leube in 1871. The subject of typhlitis and perityphlitis was investigated among others by Puchelt (1829), Bume, Smith, Bamberger, and Oppolzer; diseases of the kidneys by Richard Bright (1827), Pierre Francjois Oliver Rayer (1793- 1867), Johnson (1852), JuUus Vogel (1814-80), and Hermann Senator (1896); diseases of the bladder by Josef Griinfeld (1872), Trouv^ (1878), Max Nitze (1879; endoscopy), Rovsing (1890, 1898), Krogius (1890, 1894), Guyon, Leube, and Robert Ultzmann (inflammation of the bladder, formation of stone). The development of modern diagnosis and the thera- peutics of nervous diseases are connected with the names of eminent physiologists and cUnical physicians. Of the latter we may mention Moriz Heinrieh Rom- berg (1795-1873), Wilhelm (iriesinger (1817-68), Duchenne, and the universal Jean Martin Charcot (d. 1893). Faradization (,1831), asa therafieutieal means especiall.y agai:ist lameness, was intrciduced by Duch- enne in 1847. Among special studies of individual dis- eases were: on tabes dorsalis by Rombeig, Duchenne, Armand Trousseau (1801-66), Nikolaus Friedreich (d. 1882), Leyden (d. 1910), Karl Friedrich Westphal (b. 1833), Charcot, and Alfred Fournier, who in 1876 pointed out the connexion between tabes and lues; on myelitis by Brown-S^quard, Oppolzer, Friedreich, Westjjhal, Charcot. A jjeculiar complex of symptoms was described for the first time by Robert James Graves (d. 1853), later (1840) by Karl von Basedow (Basedow's Disease). The picture of neurasthenia was given for the first time in detail in 1869 by Georg Beard ; Weir-Mitchell together with Playfair proposed for it the so-called fattening cure. As to progress in psycliiatry, there is now a more humane conception of the care for the insane com- pared with that obtaining in former times. This movement originated principally in England (Thomas Arnold, d. 1816; William Perfect, b. 1740; Alexander Crichton, 1763-1856), and France (Phihppe Pinel, 1755-1826; Jean Etienne Dominique Esquirol, 1772- 1840), and found in Italy in Vincenzo Chiarugi (d. 1822) and in Germany in Johann Christian Reil (1759- 1813), zealous supporters. With this movement came a general and profounder study of the subject stimulated by the results of pathological anatomy, more judicious therapeutics conscious of its aim, proper physical occupation of the insane, and the dis- continuance of the isolation system. Special atten- tion is paid to the etiology and therapeutics of dis- eases occurring most frequently, cretinism, hysteria, progressive paralysis, as well as to psychosis of in- toxication, alcoholism, morphinism, etc. Hj-dro- therapeutics, which is especially effective in the case of neurosis and psj'chosis, was much cultivated by Anton Frohlich (1760-1846) and the two laymen, Eucharius Ferdinand Oertel and the Silesian, Vincenz Priessnitz (1790-1851). It was treated scientifically by Wilhelm Winternitz, who wisely reduced within due bounds a great deal of the harshness in the lay- men's hydrotherapy. Modern Dermatolog.y begins with the endeavours of Johann Jakob Plenk (1738-1807) at Vienna to estab- lish a classification of skin diseases on a basis of exter- nal cHnical appearance. Work of a similar nature was done by Anne Charles Lorry (1777), Robert Wil- lan (1798), Thomas Bateman (1815), all of whom introduced simplifications into Plenk's system, Lau- rent Beilt (1781-1840), and Camille Melchior Gibert (1797-1866). Jean Louis Alibert (1766-1837) made a classification according to pathological principles, while Pierre Francois Oliver Rayer used anatomy and physiology as a basis. The pathological-anatomical method, introduced by Juhus Rosenbaum (1807-74), was established by Ferdinand Hebra in Vienna (1816- 80). Its chief merits consist in creating a classifica- tion of twelve groups, vaUd in its substantial form even to-day, in a definition of the general course of the disease, and in simplifying therapeutics. His chief special studies are concerned with itch, lepra, and eczema. With him we must mention Friedrich Wil- helm Felix von Barensprung (1822-64; eczema mar- ginatum, erythrasma caused by fungus, and herpes zoster) and his successor, Georg Lewin (1820-96; scleroderma). Pierre Antoine Ernest Nazin (1807- 78) worked along the same lines as Hebra (parasitical and constitutional skin-diseases, erythema indura- tum). Hebra's most important pupils are Heinrieh Auspitz (1835-86; venous stagnation, soap thera- peutics), Moriz Kaposi (1837-1902 ; pigment sarcoma, sarcoid swellings), and Ernst Ludwig Schwimmer (1837-98; neuropathic dermatosis). For a number